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  author = {{Yano}, J.-I. and {Mulet}, S. and {Bonazzola}, M.},
  title = {{Tropical large-scale circulations: asymptotically non-divergent?}},
  journal = {Tellus Series A},
  year = 2009,
  month = may,
  volume = 61,
  pages = {417-427},
  abstract = {{Although the large-scale tropical atmospheric circulations are often
considered as primarily divergent, a simple scale analysis, originally
presented by Charney (1963), suggests otherwise-a dominance of vorticity
over divergence. The present paper quantitatively documents the
asymptotic non-divergence of the large-scale tropical atmosphere, in
association with Madden-Julian oscillations, with use of the Tropical
Ocean Global Atmosphere-Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment,
Large-Scale Array (TOGA-COARE LSA) data set.

The vorticity is larger than the divergence at the majority (70\%-80\%) of
points at any instant for the levels between 850 and 250 hPa, and the
vorticity is more than 10 times stronger than the divergence both at 850
and 500 hPa more than half of the time. The root mean square (rms) ratio
between the transient components of divergence and vorticity, which is
defined as the deviation from the mean for the whole data period,
decreases substantially with increasing horizontal scales from 100 to
2000 km, over an intraseasonal timescale (20-100 d). The analysis
suggests that the Madden-Julian oscillations are dominated more by
vorticity than divergence and more so than at the smaller scales.

The analysis as a whole suggests the feasibility of constructing an
asymptotically non-divergent theory for large-scale tropical
circulations. A brief sketch of the formulation is presented.
  doi = {10.1111/j.1600-0870.2009.00397.x},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009TellA..61..417Y},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Yano}, J.-I. and {Bonazzola}, M.},
  title = {{Scale Analysis for Large-Scale Tropical Atmospheric Dynamics}},
  journal = {Journal of Atmospheric Sciences},
  year = 2009,
  volume = 66,
  pages = {159},
  doi = {10.1175/2008JAS2687.1},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JAtS...66..159Y},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}