lmd_EMC31992.bib

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@article{1992JGR....9718319H,
  author = {{Hourdin}, F.},
  title = {{A new representation of the absorption by the CO2 15-microns band for a Martian general circulation model}},
  journal = {\jgr},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition, Atmospheric General Circulation Models, Carbon Dioxide Concentration, Doppler Effect, Mars Atmosphere, Spectral Bands, Digital Simulation, Numerical Weather Forecasting, Radiative Transfer},
  year = 1992,
  month = nov,
  volume = 97,
  pages = {18},
  abstract = {{A model for absorption by the CO2 15-microns band has been adapted from
the Morcrette et al. (1986) terrestrial wide-band model for use in a
general circulation model of the Martian atmosphere. The absorption
model is validated by comparison with exact line-by-line integrations
for a set of atmospheric profiles characteristic of Martian conditions.
The Doppler effect is included in a simple way with no significant
increase of the computational cost. The model gives accurate results up
to 80 km. The Doppler effect, in fact, is shown to be significant only
above 50 km for mean Martian conditions. The transmissivities of the
wide-band model are fitted to the results of a more accurate statistical
narrow-band model. Various formulations of the statistical band model,
including accurate representation of the Doppler effect (Fels, 1979;
Zhu, 1989) are validated by comparison with line-by-line results.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/92JE01985},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992JGR....9718319H},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{1992JGR....9718061B,
  author = {{Bony}, S. and {Le Treut}, H. and {Duvel}, J.-P. and {Kandel}, R.~S.
	},
  title = {{Satellite validation of GCM-simulated annual cycle of the Earth Radiation Budget and cloud forcing}},
  journal = {\jgr},
  keywords = {Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Radiative processes},
  year = 1992,
  month = nov,
  volume = 97,
  pages = {18061-18081},
  abstract = {{Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) data are used to validate
radiative fluxes and cloud radiative forcing (CRF) simulated by the
Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) general
circulation model (GCM). The emphasis of the work is on the development
of new tests to obtain more significant elements of comparison between
model simulations and satellite observations. These tests are applied to
the clear-sky fluxes and the cloud radiative forcing. The validation of
the CRF described by a model requires to test the consistency between
the solar or shortwave (SW: 0.2 to 5 {$\mu$}m) and longwave (LW: 5 to 50
{$\mu$}m) cloud forcing. For this purpose, we compute the mean cloud
perturbation of the planetary albedo as a function of the LW cloud
forcing for both model results and ERBE observations. In the SW spectral
domain, the consideration of total fluxes does not provide very
constraining elements of validation because most of the observed
variations are prescribed (incoming solar radiation, solar zenith
angle). We therefore distinguish the part of the SW seasonal variations
related only to the variation of external parameters (mainly the
insolation) from the part which arises from the combined variation of
internal climate parameters (mainly cloud albedo and snow/ice cover)
with the insolation. Fourier analysis is used to study the seasonal
amplitude and phase of the CRF. The seasonal variation of the cloudiness
is, respectively, out of phase (in phase) with the insolation in
mid-latitudes (in low and high latitudes). We show that this acts to
enhance (to reduce) the seasonal amplitude of the absorbed SW flux in
mid-latitudes (in low and high latitudes). Finally, we show that the
impact of the seasonal variation of the cloudiness on the variation of
the net CRF is less than 10 W m$^{-2}$.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/92JD01631},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992JGR....9718061B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{1992ClDy....7..133L,
  author = {{Li}, Z.-X. and {Le Treut}, H.},
  title = {{Cloud-radiation feedbacks in a general circulation model and their dependence on cloud modelling assumptions}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 1992,
  month = apr,
  volume = 7,
  pages = {133-139},
  abstract = {{The general circulation model (GCM) used in this study includes a
prognostic cloud scheme and a rather detailed radiation scheme. In a
preceding paper, we showed that this model was more sensitive to a
global perturbation of the sea surface temperatures than most other
models with similar physical parametrization. The experiments presented
here show how this feature might depend on some of the cloud modelling
assumptions. We have changed the temperature at which the water clouds
are allowed to become ice clouds and analyzed separately the feedbacks
associated with the variations of cloud cover and cloud radiative
properties. We show that the feedback effect associated with cloud
radiative properties is positive in one case and negative in the other.
This can be explained by the elementary cloud radiative forcing and has
implications concerning the use of the GCMs for climate sensitivity
studies.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/BF00211155},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992ClDy....7..133L},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{1992JGR....97.3711R,
  author = {{Randall}, D.~A. and {Cess}, R.~D. and {Blanchet}, J.~P. and 
	{Boer}, G.~J. and {Dazlich}, D.~A. and {Del Genio}, A.~D. and 
	{Deque}, M. and {Dymnikov}, V. and {Galin}, V. and {Ghan}, S.~J. and 
	{Lacis}, A.~A. and {Le Treut}, H. and {Li}, Z.-X. and {Liang}, X.-Z. and 
	{McAvaney}, B.~J. and {Meleshko}, V.~P. and {Mitchell}, J.~F.~B. and 
	{Morcrette}, J.-J. and {Potter}, G.~L. and {Rikus}, L. and {Roeckner}, E. and 
	{Royer}, J.~F. and {Schlese}, U. and {Sheinin}, D.~A. and {Slingo}, J. and 
	{Sokolov}, A.~P. and {Taylor}, K.~E. and {Washington}, W.~M. and 
	{Wetherald}, R.~T. and {Yagai}, I. and {Zhang}, M.-H.},
  title = {{Intercomparison and Interpretation of Surface Energy Fluxes in Atmospheric General Circulation Models}},
  journal = {\jgr},
  keywords = {Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Climatology, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: General circulation, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Ocean/atmosphere interactions},
  year = 1992,
  month = mar,
  volume = 97,
  pages = {3711-3724},
  abstract = {{We have analyzed responses of the surface energy budgets and hydrologic
cycles of 19 atmospheric general circulation models to an imposed,
globally uniform sea surface temperature perturbation of 4 K. The
responses of the simulated surface energy budgets are extremely diverse
and are closely linked to the responses of the simulated hydrologic
cycles. The response of the net surface energy flux is not controlled by
cloud effects; instead, it is determined primarily by the response of
the latent heat flux. The prescribed warming of the oceans leads to
major increases in the atmospheric water vapor content and the rates of
evaporation and precipitation. The increased water vapor amount
drastically increases the downwelling infrared radiation at the Earth's
surface, but the amount of the change varies dramatically from one model
to another.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/91JD03120},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992JGR....97.3711R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}