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@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c year=1993 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_EMC31993.txt -ob lmd_EMC31993.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/Publis_LMDEMC3.link.bib}}
  author = {{Cess}, R.~D. and {Zhang}, M.-H. and {Potter}, G.~L. and {Barker}, H.~W. and 
	{Colman}, R.~A. and {Dazlich}, D.~A. and {del Genio}, A.~D. and 
	{Esch}, M. and {Fraser}, J.~R. and {Galin}, V. and {Gates}, W.~L. and 
	{Hack}, J.~J. and {Ingram}, W.~J. and {Kiehl}, J.~T. and {Lacis}, A.~A. and 
	{Le Treut}, H. and {Li}, Z.-X. and {Liang}, X.-Z. and {Mahfouf}, J.-F. and 
	{McAvaney}, B.~J. and {Meleshko}, V.~P. and {Morcrette}, J.-J. and 
	{Randall}, D.~A. and {Roeckner}, E. and {Royer}, J.-F. and {Sokolov}, A.~P. and 
	{Sporyshev}, P.~V. and {Taylor}, K.~E. and {Wang}, W.-C. and 
	{Wetherald}, R.~T.},
  title = {{Uncertainties in Carbon Dioxide Radiative Forcing in Atmospheric General Circulation Models}},
  journal = {Science},
  year = 1993,
  month = nov,
  volume = 262,
  pages = {1252-1255},
  abstract = {{Global warming, caused by an increase in the concentrations of
greenhouse gases, is the direct result of greenhouse gas-induced
radiative forcing. When a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide is
considered, this forcing differed substantially among 15 atmospheric
general circulation models. Although there are several potential causes,
the largest contributor was the carbon dioxide radiation
parameterizations of the models.
  doi = {10.1126/science.262.5137.1252},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Sci...262.1252C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Nesme-Ribes}, E. and {Ferreira}, E.~N. and {Sadourny}, R. and 
	{Le Treut}, H. and {Li}, Z.~X.},
  title = {{Solar dynamics and its impact on solar irradiance and the terrestrial climate}},
  journal = {\jgr},
  keywords = {Atmospheric General Circulation Models, Climate, Energy Transfer, Irradiance, Solar Activity, Solar Cycles, Solar Terrestrial Interactions, Astrodynamics, Climate Models, Gravitational Fields, Greenhouse Effect, Kinetic Energy, Magnetic Effects, Solar Flux, Stellar Luminosity, Thermal Energy},
  year = 1993,
  month = nov,
  volume = 98,
  pages = {18},
  abstract = {{Among the various uncertainties present in climate modeling, the
variability of total solar irradiance is not one of the least. For lack
of any direct measure of the solar irradiance in the past, substitutes
are needed. However, the difficulties are twofold: (1) the reliability
of the proxies and (2) the need for some physical mechanism relating
these proxies to the solar luminosity. On the basis of a better
understanding of the solar machinery we can now propose a plausible
scenario connecting the exchanges of energy between the various
reservoirs: magnetic, thermal, gravitational, and kinetic. In the
present paper we discuss the available proxies and suggest a way to
reconstruct total solar irradiance over the past four centuries. The
response of the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique atmospheric
general circulation model to magnetoconvective solar forcing during the
Maunder minimum is discussed. The simulated cooling appears to be
compatible with temperature data from the Little Ice Age; in addition,
it is found that variations of globally homogeneous external forcing
parameters, like incoming solar flux or greenhouse gas loading, yield
climate responses with very similar geographical patterns.
  doi = {10.1029/93JA00305},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JGR....9818923N},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Hourdin}, F. and {Le van}, P. and {Forget}, F. and {Talagrand}, O.
  title = {{Meteorological Variability and the Annual Surface Pressure Cycle on Mars.}},
  journal = {Journal of Atmospheric Sciences},
  year = 1993,
  month = nov,
  volume = 50,
  pages = {3625-3640},
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0469(1993)050<3625:MVATAS>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JAtS...50.3625H},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Korablev}, O.~I. and {Ackerman}, M. and {Krasnopolsky}, V.~A. and 
	{Moroz}, V.~I. and {Muller}, C. and {Rodin}, A.~V. and {Atreya}, S.~K.
  title = {{Tentative identification of formaldehyde in the Martian atmosphere}},
  journal = {\planss},
  keywords = {Formaldehyde, Infrared Spectrometers, Mars Atmosphere, Occultation, Absorption Spectra, Chemical Reactions, Photolysis, Soviet Spacecraft, Spectrum Analysis},
  year = 1993,
  month = jun,
  volume = 41,
  pages = {441-451},
  abstract = {{Solar occultation observations of the Martian atmosphere near the limb
of the planet were performed during the Phobos mission by means of the
Auguste infrared spectrometer in the ranges 2707-2740 and 5392-5272/cm
with a resolving power of approximately = 1300. The spectra exhibit
features at 2710 and 2730/cm which have not been identified previously.
After applying a set of corrections to the data and examining the
spectra of various molecules, we are led to conclude that the best
candidate for the above-mentioned features is formaldehyde (CH2O). It
was observed in eight of the nine successful occultation sequences,
mainly between 8 and 20 km with an average mixing ratio of 0.5 (+0.8, -
0.3) ppm (there are no good data below 8 km). The observations are
performed in equatorial spring conditions. The altitude distribution of
formaldehyde reveals correlation with the permanent haze opacity.
  doi = {10.1016/0032-0633(93)90004-L},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993P%26SS...41..441K},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{De Maziere}, M. and {Muller}, C. and {Lippens}, C. and {Vercheval}, J. and 
	{Fonteyn}, D. and {Armante}, R. and {Camy-Peyret}, C. and {Achard}, V. and 
	{Besson}, J. and {Marcault}, J. and {Henry}, D. and {Papineau}, N. and 
	{Meyer}, J.~P. and {Frimout}, D.},
  title = {{Second flight of the Spacelab Grille Spectrometer during the ATLAS-1 mission}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Middle atmosphere-composition and chemistry, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Evolution of the atmosphere, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Instruments and techniques},
  year = 1993,
  month = mar,
  volume = 20,
  pages = {503-506},
  abstract = {{The SPACELAB grille spectrometer on its second space flight during the
ATLAS-1 mission (March 24 - April 2, 1992) took advantage of the
favorable timeline and of the extra day to perform more than 65
successful solar occultation runs. It succeeded in obtaining spectra
pertinent to its ten target molecules in the full range of altitudes
available to the solar infrared occultation technique. These ten
molecules are H$_{2}$O, CO, CO$_{2}$, CH$_{4}$, NO,
NO$_{2}$, N$_{2}$O, HCl, HF and O$_{3}$. The
preliminary analysis of the sunset observation presented here adds new
information to the available database on HCl vertical profiles, for
assessing long-term trends of this important stratospheric species.
  doi = {10.1029/93GL00082},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993GeoRL..20..503D},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Ducoudré}, N.~I. and {Laval}, K. and {Perrier}, A.},
  title = {{SECHIBA, a New Set of Parameterizations of the Hydrologic Exchanges at the Land-Atmosphere Interface within the LMD Atmospheric General Circulation Model.}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 1993,
  month = feb,
  volume = 6,
  pages = {248-273},
  abstract = {{A simple parameterization of the hydrologic exchanges between the
soil-vegetation system and the atmosphere (SECHIBA) has been developed
for use within atmospheric general circulation models (AGCM).For each
grid box of the model, eight land surface types (bare soil plus seven
vegetation classes) are defined, each of them covering a fractional area
of the grid box and allowed to be found simultaneously. Over each of
these covers the transfers are computed: evaporation from soil,
transpiration from plants through a resistance defined by the concepts
of stomatal resistance and architectural resistance, and interception
loss from the water reservoir over the canopy. These fluxes are then
averaged over the grid box to derive the total amount of water vapor
that is transferred to the first atmospheric level of the AGCM.
Parameterization of soil water allows for the moistening of an upper
layer, of variable depth, during a rainfall event.This new scheme is
quite simple and requires prescription of a restricted number of
parameters: seven for each class of vegetation and four for the soil.
Nevertheless, it is demonstrated that the latent heat fluxes it
simulates are quite comparable to the ones simulated by the
Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme or calculated by Shuttleworth over
the tropical rainforest of the Reserva Ducke (Amazon), with no tuning
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0442(1993)006<0248:SANSOP>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JCli....6..248D},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}