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@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c year=1994 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_EMC31994.txt -ob lmd_EMC31994.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/Publis_LMDEMC3.link.bib}}
  author = {{Le Treut}, H. and {Li}, Z.~X. and {Forichon}, M.},
  title = {{Sensitivity of the LMD General Circulation Model to Greenhouse Forcing Associated with Two Different Cloud Water Parameterizations.}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 1994,
  month = dec,
  volume = 7,
  pages = {1827-1841},
  abstract = {{The atmospheric general circulation model of the Laboratoire de
Météorologic Dynamique is coupled to a slab ocean model
and is used to investigate the climatic impact of a C0$_{2}$
doubling. Two versions of the model are used with two different
representations of the cloud-radiation interaction. Both of them contain
a prognostic equation for the cloud liquid water content, but they
differ in the treatment of the precipitation mechanism. The annual and
global mean of the surface warming is similar in the two experiments in
spite of regional differences. To understand the behavior of the model
versions, the total climate change is split into a direct C0$_{2}$
forcing and different feedback effects (water vapor. cloud, and surface
albedo). The results show that, in the second model version, the cloud
feedback decreases significantly, especially at high latitudes, due to
an increase of low-level clouds in the 2{\times}C0$_{2}$
simulation. The modification of the cloud scheme influences also the
water vapor variation and the associated feedback is reduced, in
particular, over the subtropical regions. The surface albedo feedback is
increased. This is due to the fact that the cloudiness is smaller over
high latitudes and the surface snow is more directly exposed to incoming
radiation. Although the results are qualitatively similar to the results
obtained with other models, the occurrence of such compensations between
different feedback mechanisms leads to a different evaluation of the
overall climate sensitivity.
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0442(1994)007<1827:SOTLGC>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JCli....7.1827L},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Li}, Z.~X. and {Gambis}, D.},
  title = {{Relationship between the astrometric z-term, the Earth rotation and the southern oscillation index.}},
  journal = {\aap},
  year = 1994,
  month = oct,
  volume = 290,
  pages = {1001-1008},
  abstract = {{The z-term series derived from astronomical observations is related to
plumb-line deflection. Its analysis over the interval 1962-1982 reveals
interannual variations with amplitudes of about 0.01``. These variations
appear to be significantly correlated with both the length-of-day
variations and the Southern Oscillation Index characterizing El Nino
events, and this with a time lag of about 12 months. This z-term series
appears to be of great interest in the study of relationships between
Earth rotation and geophysical process like in particular
oceano-atmospheric phenomena.
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994A%26A...290.1001L},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Polcher}, J. and {Laval}, K.},
  title = {{A statistical study of the regional impact of deforestation on climate in the LMD GCM}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 1994,
  month = sep,
  volume = 10,
  pages = {205-219},
  abstract = {{The present study uses the general circulation model of the Laboratoire
de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD-GCM) coupled to the
land-surface, vegetation model SECHIBA. The impact of deforestation on
climate is discussed. Replacing tropical forests by degraded pastures
changes albedo, the roughness length and the hydrological properties of
the surface. The experiment was carried out over eleven years using the
observed sea surface temperature from 1978 to 1988, which includes two
major El Ni{\~n}o events. The discussion of the results in this study
is limited to the regional impact of deforestation. The changes found
for the surface fluxes in Amazonia, Africa and Indonesia are examined in
detail and compared in order to understand the impact on temperature.
Special attention is paid to feedback mechanisms which compensate for
the surface changes and to the statistical significance of these results
within the tropical variability of climate. It is shown that the
relatively small regional impact of deforestation in this study is
statistically significant and largely independent of the El
Ni{\~n}o-Southern Oscillation phenomenon.
  doi = {10.1007/BF00208988},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994ClDy...10..205P},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Bony}, S. and {Duvel}, J.-P.},
  title = {{Influence of the vertical structure of the atmosphere on the seasonal variation of precipitable water and greenhouse effect}},
  journal = {\jgr},
  keywords = {Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Radiative processes, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Climatology},
  year = 1994,
  month = jun,
  volume = 99,
  pages = {12},
  abstract = {{By using satellite observations and European Centre for Medium Range
Weather Forecasts analyses, we study the seasonal variations of the
precipitable water and the greenhouse effect, defined as the normalized
difference between the longwave flux emitted at the surface and that
emergent at the top of the atmosphere. Results show a strong systematic
influence of the vertical structure of the atmosphere on geographical
and seasonal variations of both precipitable water and greenhouse
effect. Over ocean, in middle and high latitudes, the seasonal variation
of the mean temperature lapse rate in the troposphere leads to large
seasonal phase lags between greenhouse effect and precipitable water. By
contrast, the seasonal variation of the clear-sky greenhouse effect over
tropical oceans is mainly driven by the total atmospheric transmittance
and thus by precipitable water variations. Over land, the seasonal
variation of the tropospheric lapse rate acts to amplify the radiative
impact of water vapor changes, giving a strong seasonal variation of the
greenhouse effect. Over tropical land regions, monsoon activity
generates a seasonal phase lag between surface temperature and relative
humidity variations that gives a seasonal lag of about 2 months between
the surface temperature and the clear-sky greenhouse effect. Generally,
the cloudiness amplifies clear-sky tendencies. Finally, as an
illustration, obtained results are used to evaluate the general
circulation model of the Laboratoire de Météorologie
  doi = {10.1029/94JD00482},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JGR....9912963B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Deschamps}, P.-Y. and {Breon}, F.-M. and {Leroy}, M. and {Podaire}, A. and 
	{Bricaud}, A. and {Buriez}, J.-C. and {Seze}, G.},
  title = {{The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives}},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing},
  year = 1994,
  month = may,
  volume = 32,
  pages = {598-615},
  doi = {10.1109/36.297978},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994ITGRS..32..598D},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Chedin}, A. and {Scott}, N.~A. and {Claud}, C. and {Bonnet}, B. and 
	{Escobar}, J. and {Dardaillon}, S. and {Cheruy}, F. and {Husson}, N.
  title = {{Global scale observation of the earth for climate studies}},
  journal = {Advances in Space Research},
  year = 1994,
  month = jan,
  volume = 14,
  pages = {155-159},
  abstract = {{Developed since 1983 at LMD, the 3I (Improved Initialization Inversion)
physical retrieval algorithm has been recently extended to the
processing of NOAA (TIROS-N Operational Vertical Sounder) observations
at global scale. Starting from the version implemented at ECMWF in
Reading, this global scheme has been recently improved and installed on
a CRAY-2. One month of observations (Feb. 1989) of NOAA-10 and 11 has
recently been processed, at a spatial resolution of 100 {\times} 100
km$^{2}$. A two years period should now be processed, in
conjunction with the PathFinder and GEWEX-GVaP programmes. Results
expected are: weekly to monthly averages of quantities like temperature
structure, cloud parameters or the vertical distribution and total
content of water vapor analysed in relationship to pertinent
meteorological or other parameters, especially with respect to
quantifying the fundamental characteristics and origines of water vapor
  doi = {10.1016/0273-1177(94)90364-6},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994AdSpR..14..155C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}