lmd_EMC31997.bib

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@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c year=1997 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_EMC31997.txt -ob lmd_EMC31997.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/Publis_LMDEMC3.link.bib}}
@article{1997JGR...10219413P,
  author = {{Peylin}, P. and {Polcher}, J. and {Bonan}, G. and {Williamson}, D.~L. and 
	{Laval}, K.},
  title = {{Comparison of two complex land surface schemes coupled to the National Center for Atmospheric Research general circulation model}},
  journal = {\jgr},
  keywords = {Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Land/atmosphere interactions, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Climatology},
  year = 1997,
  month = aug,
  volume = 102,
  pages = {19},
  abstract = {{Two climate simulations with the National Center for Atmospheric
Research general circulation model (version CCM2) coupled either to the
Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) or to Sechiba land surface
scheme are compared. Both parameterizations of surface-atmosphere
exchanges may be considered as complex but represent the soil hydrology
and the role of vegetation in very different ways. The global impact of
the change in land surface scheme on the simulated climate appears to be
small. Changes are smaller than those obtained when comparing either one
of these schemes to the fixed hydrology used in the standard CCM2.
Nevertheless, at the regional scale, changing the land-surface scheme
can have a large impact on the local climate. As one example, wre detail
how circulation patterns are modified above the Tibetan plateau during
the monsoon season. Elsewhere, mainly over land, changes can also be
important. In the tropics, during the dry season, Sechiba produces
warmer surface temperatures than does BATS. This warming arises from
differences in the soil hydrology, both storage capacity and the
dynamics of soil water transport. Over the Tundra biotype, the
formulation of the transpiration induces significant differences in the
energy balance.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/97JD00489},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JGR...10219413P},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{1997JCli...10.2055B,
  author = {{Bony}, S. and {Lau}, K.-M. and {Sud}, Y.~C.},
  title = {{Sea Surface Temperature and Large-Scale Circulation Influences on Tropical Greenhouse Effect and Cloud Radiative Forcing.}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 1997,
  month = aug,
  volume = 10,
  pages = {2055-2077},
  abstract = {{Two independent sets of meteorological reanalyses are used to
investigate relationships between the tropical sea surface temperature
(SST) and the large-scale vertical motion of the atmosphere for spatial
and seasonal variations, as well as for El Ni{\~n}o/La Ni{\~n}a
episodes of 1987-88. Supergreenhouse effect (SGE) situations are found
to be linked to the occurrence of enhanced large-scale rising motion
associated with increasing SST. In regions where the large-scale
atmospheric motion is largely decoupled from the local SST due to
internal or remote forcings, the SGE occurrence is weak. On seasonal and
interannual timescales, such regions are found mainly over equatorial
regions of the Indian Ocean and western Pacific, especially for SSTs
exceeding 29.5{\deg}C. In these regions, the activation of feedback
processes that regulate the ocean temperature is thus likely to be more
related to the large-scale remote processes, such as those that govern
the monsoon circulations and the low-frequency variability of the
atmosphere, than to the local SST change.The relationships among SST,
clouds, and cloud radiative forcing inferred from satellite observations
are also investigated. In large-scale subsidence regimes, regardless of
the SST range, the cloudiness, the cloud optical thickness, and the
shortwave cloud forcing decrease with increasing SST. In convective
regions maintained by the large-scale circulation, the strong dependence
of both the longwave (LW) and shortwave (SW) cloud forcing on SST mainly
results from changes in the large-scale vertical motion accompanying the
SST changes. Indeed, for a given large-scale rising motion, the cloud
optical thickness decreases with SST, and the SW cloud forcing remains
essentially unaffected by SST changes. However, the LW cloud forcing
still increases with SST because the detrainment height of deep
convection, and thus the cloud-top altitude, tend to increase with SST.
The dependence of the net cloud radiative forcing on SST may thus
provide a larger positive climate feedback when the ocean warming is
associated with weak large-scale circulation changes than during
seasonal or El Ni{\~n}o variations.
}},
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0442(1997)010<2055:SSTALS>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JCli...10.2055B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{1997JGR...10216593C,
  author = {{Cess}, R.~D. and {Zhang}, M.~H. and {Potter}, G.~L. and {Alekseev}, V. and 
	{Barker}, H.~W. and {Bony}, S. and {Colman}, R.~A. and {Dazlich}, D.~A. and 
	{Del Genio}, A.~D. and {DéQué}, M. and {Dix}, M.~R. and 
	{Dymnikov}, V. and {Esch}, M. and {Fowler}, L.~D. and {Fraser}, J.~R. and 
	{Galin}, V. and {Gates}, W.~L. and {Hack}, J.~J. and {Ingram}, W.~J. and 
	{Kiehl}, J.~T. and {Kim}, Y. and {Le Treut}, H. and {Liang}, X.-Z. and 
	{McAvaney}, B.~J. and {Meleshko}, V.~P. and {Morcrette}, J.~J. and 
	{Randall}, D.~A. and {Roeckner}, E. and {Schlesinger}, M.~E. and 
	{Sporyshev}, P.~V. and {Taylor}, K.~E. and {Timbal}, B. and 
	{Volodin}, E.~M. and {Wang}, W. and {Wang}, W.~C. and {Wetherald}, R.~T.
	},
  title = {{Comparison of the seasonal change in cloud-radiative forcing from atmospheric general circulation models and satellite observations}},
  journal = {\jgr},
  keywords = {Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Climatology, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Numerical modeling and data assimilation, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Radiative processes},
  year = 1997,
  month = jul,
  volume = 102,
  pages = {16},
  abstract = {{We compare seasonal changes in cloud-radiative forcing (CRF) at the top
of the atmosphere from 18 atmospheric general circulation models, and
observations from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). To
enhance the CRF signal and suppress interannual variability, we consider
only zonal mean quantities for which the extreme months (January and
July), as well as the northern and southern hemispheres, have been
differenced. Since seasonal variations of the shortwave component of CRF
are caused by seasonal changes in both cloudiness and solar irradiance,
the latter was removed. In the ERBE data, seasonal changes in CRF are
driven primarily by changes in cloud amount. The same conclusion applies
to the models. The shortwave component of seasonal CRF is a measure of
changes in cloud amount at all altitudes, while the longwave component
is more a measure of upper level clouds. Thus important insights into
seasonal cloud amount variations of the models have been obtained by
comparing both components, as generated by the models, with the
satellite data. For example, in 10 of the 18 models the seasonal
oscillations of zonal cloud patterns extend too far poleward by one
latitudinal grid.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/97JD00927},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JGR...10216593C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{1997JGR...10213731K,
  author = {{Krinner}, G. and {Genthon}, C. and {Li}, Z.-X. and {Le van}, P.
	},
  title = {{Studies of the Antarctic climate with a stretched-grid general circulation model}},
  journal = {\jgr},
  keywords = {Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Polar meteorology, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: General circulation, Hydrology: Glaciology, Hydrology: Snow and ice},
  year = 1997,
  month = jun,
  volume = 102,
  pages = {13},
  abstract = {{A stretched-grid general circulation model (GCM), derived from the
Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) GCM is used
for a multiyear high-resolution simulation of the Antarctic climate. The
resolution in the Antarctic region reaches 100 km. In order to correctly
represent the polar climate, it is necessary to implement several
modifications in the model physics. These modifications mostly concern
the parameterizations of the atmospheric boundary layer. The simulated
Antarctic climate is significantly better in the stretched-grid
simulation than in the regular-grid control run. The katabatic wind
regime is well captured, although the winds may be somewhat too weak.
The annual snow accumulation is generally close to the observed values,
although local discrepancies between the simulated annual accumulation
and observations remain. The simulated continental mean annual
accumulation is 16.2 cm y$^{-1}$. Features like the surface
temperature and the temperature inversion over large parts of the
continent are correctly represented. The model correctly simulates the
atmospheric dynamics of the rest of the globe.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/96JD03356},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JGR...10213731K},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{1997JCli...10.1441B,
  author = {{Bony}, S. and {Sud}, Y. and {Lau}, K.~M. and {Susskind}, J. and 
	{Saha}, S.},
  title = {{Comparison and Satellite Assessment of NASA/DAO and NCEP-NCAR Reanalyses over Tropical Ocean: Atmospheric Hydrology and Radiation.}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 1997,
  month = jun,
  volume = 10,
  pages = {1441-1462},
  abstract = {{This study compares the atmospheric reanalyses that have been produced
independently at the Data Assimilation Office (DAO) of Goddard
Laboratory for Atmospheres and at the National Centers for Environmental
Prediction (NCEP). These reanalyses were produced by using a frozen
state-of-the-art version of the global data assimilation system
developed at these two centers. For the period 1987-88 and for the
tropical oceanic regions of 30{\deg}S-30{\deg}N, surface and atmospheric
fields related to atmospheric hydrology and radiation are compared and
assessed, wherever possible, with satellite data. Some common biases as
well as discrepancies between the two independent reassimilation
products are highlighted.Considering both annual averages and
interannual variability (1987-88), discrepancies between DAO and NCEP
reanalysis in water vapor, precipitation, and clear-sky longwave
radiation at the top of the atmosphere are generally smaller than
discrepancies that exist between corresponding satellite estimates.
Among common biases identified in the reanalyses, the authors note an
underestimation of the total precipitable water and an overestimation of
the shortwave cloud radiative forcing in warm convective regions. Both
lead to an underestimation of the surface radiation budget. The authors
also note an overestimaton of the clear-sky outgoing longwave radiation
in most tropical ocean regions, as well as an overestimation of the
longwave radiative cooling at the ocean surface.Surface latent and
sensible heat fluxes differ by about 20 and 3 W m$^{2}$,
respectively, in the two reanalyses. Differences in the surface
radiation budget are larger than the uncertainties of satellite-based
estimates. Biases in the surface radiation fluxes derived from the
reanalyses are primarily due to incorrect shortwave cloud radiative
forcing and, to a lesser degree, due to a deficit in the total
precipitable water and a cold bias at lower-tropospheric
temperatures.This study suggests that individual features and biases of
each set of reanalyses should be carefully studied, especially when
using analyzed surface fluxes to force other physical or geophysical
models such as ocean circulation models. Over large regions of the
tropical oceans, DAO and NCEP reanalyses produce surface net heat fluxes
that can differ by up to 50 W m$^{2}$ in the average and by a
factor of 2 when considering interannual anomalies. This may lead to
vastly different thermal forcings for driving ocean circulations.
}},
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0442(1997)010<1441:CASAON>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JCli...10.1441B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{1997JCli...10.1194C,
  author = {{Chen}, T.~H. and {Henderson-Sellers}, A. and {Milly}, P.~C.~D. and 
	{Pitman}, A.~J. and {Beljaars}, A.~C.~M. and {Polcher}, J. and 
	{Abramopoulos}, F. and {Boone}, A. and {Chang}, S. and {Chen}, F. and 
	{Dai}, Y. and {Desborough}, C.~E. and {Dickinson}, R.~E. and 
	{D{\"u}menil}, L. and {Ek}, M. and {Garratt}, J.~R. and {Gedney}, N. and 
	{Gusev}, Y.~M. and {{\nbsp}Kim}, J. and {{\nbsp}Koster}, R. and 
	{{\nbsp}Kowalczyk}, E.~A. and {{\nbsp}Laval}, K. and {{\nbsp}Lean}, J. and 
	{{\nbsp}Lettenmaier}, D. and {{\nbsp}Liang}, X. and {{\nbsp}Mahfouf}, J.-F. and 
	{{\nbsp}Mengelkamp}, H.-T. and {{\nbsp}Mitchell}, K. and {{\nbsp}Nasonova}, O.~N. and 
	{{\nbsp}Noilhan}, J. and {{\nbsp}Robock}, A. and {{\nbsp}Rosenzweig}, C. and 
	{{\nbsp}Schaake}, J. and {{\nbsp}Schlosser}, C.~A. and {{\nbsp}Schulz}, J.-P. and 
	{{\nbsp}Shao}, Y. and {{\nbsp}Shmakin}, A.~B. and {{\nbsp}Verseghy}, D.~L. and 
	{{\nbsp}Wetzel}, P. and {{\nbsp}Wood}, E.~F. and {{\nbsp}Xue}, Y. and 
	{{\nbsp}Yang}, Z.-L. and {{\nbsp}Zeng}, Q.},
  title = {{Cabauw Experimental Results from the Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes.}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 1997,
  month = jun,
  volume = 10,
  pages = {1194-1215},
  abstract = {{In the Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization
Schemes phase 2a experiment, meteorological data for the year 1987 from
Cabauw, the Netherlands, were used as inputs to 23 land-surface flux
schemes designed for use in climate and weather models. Schemes were
evaluated by comparing their outputs with long-term measurements of
surface sensible heat fluxes into the atmosphere and the ground, and of
upward longwave radiation and total net radiative fluxes, and also
comparing them with latent heat fluxes derived from a surface energy
balance. Tuning of schemes by use of the observed flux data was not
permitted. On an annual basis, the predicted surface radiative
temperature exhibits a range of 2 K across schemes, consistent with the
range of about 10 W m$^{2}$ in predicted surface net radiation.
Most modeled values of monthly net radiation differ from the
observations by less than the estimated maximum monthly observational
error ({\plusmn}10 W m$^{2}$). However, modeled radiative surface
temperature appears to have a systematic positive bias in most schemes;
this might be explained by an error in assumed emissivity and by models'
neglect of canopy thermal heterogeneity. Annual means of sensible and
latent heat fluxes, into which net radiation is partitioned, have ranges
across schemes of30 W m$^{2}$ and 25 W m$^{2}$,
respectively. Annual totals of evapotranspiration and runoff, into which
the precipitation is partitioned, both have ranges of 315 mm. These
ranges in annual heat and water fluxes were approximately halved upon
exclusion of the three schemes that have no stomatal resistance under
non-water-stressed conditions. Many schemes tend to underestimate latent
heat flux and overestimate sensible heat flux in summer, with a reverse
tendency in winter. For six schemes, root-mean-square deviations of
predictions from monthly observations are less than the estimated upper
bounds on observation errors (5 W m$^{2}$ for sensible heat flux
and 10 W m$^{2}$ for latent heat flux). Actual runoff at the site
is believed to be dominated by vertical drainage to groundwater, but
several schemes produced significant amounts of runoff as overland flow
or interflow. There is a range across schemes of 184 mm (40\% of total
pore volume) in the simulated annual mean root-zone soil moisture.
Unfortunately, no measurements of soil moisture were available for model
evaluation. A theoretical analysis suggested that differences in
boundary conditions used in various schemes are not sufficient to
explain the large variance in soil moisture. However, many of the
extreme values of soil moisture could be explained in terms of the
particulars of experimental setup or excessive evapotranspiration.
}},
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0442(1997)010<1194:CERFTP>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JCli...10.1194C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{1997JApMe..36..664G,
  author = {{Giraud}, V. and {Buriez}, J.~C. and {Fouquart}, Y. and {Parol}, F. and 
	{Seze}, G.},
  title = {{Large-Scale Analysis of Cirrus Clouds from AVHRR Data: Assessment of Both a Microphysical Index and the Cloud-Top Temperature.}},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Meteorology},
  year = 1997,
  month = jun,
  volume = 36,
  pages = {664-675},
  abstract = {{An algorithm that allows an automatic analysis of cirrus properties from
Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) observations is
presented. Further investigations of the information content and
physical meaning of the brightness temperature differences (BTD) between
channels 4 (11 m) and 5 (12 m) of the radiometer have led to the
development of an automatic procedure to provide global estimates both
of the cirrus cloud temperature and of the ratio of the equivalent
absorption coefficients in the two channels, accounting for scattering
effects. The ratio is useful since its variations are related to
differences in microphysical properties. Assuming that cirrus clouds are
composed of ice spheres, the effective diameter of the particle size
distribution can be deduced from this microphysical index.The automatic
procedure includes first, a cloud classification and a selection of the
pixels corresponding to the envelope of the BTD diagram observed at a
scale of typically 100 {\times} 100 pixels. The classification, which
uses dynamic cluster analysis, takes into account spectral and spatial
properties of the AVHRR pixels. The selection is made through a series
of tests, which also guarantees that the BTD diagram contains the
necessary information, such as the presence of both cirrus-free pixels
and pixels totally covered by opaque cirrus in the same area. Finally,
the cloud temperature and the equivalent absorption coefficient ratio
are found by fitting the envelope of the BTD diagram with a theoretical
curve. Note that the method leads to the retrieval of the maximum value
of the equivalent absorption coefficient ratio in the scene under
consideration. This, in turn, corresponds to the minimum value of the
effective diameter of the size distribution of equivalent Mie
particles.The automatic analysis has been applied to a series of 21
AVHRR images acquired during the International Cirrus Experiment
(ICE'89). Although the dataset is obviously much too limited to draw any
conclusion at the global scale, it is large enough to permit derivation
of cirrus properties that are statistically representative of the cirrus
systems contained therein. The authors found that on average, the
maximum equivalent absorption coefficient ratio increases with the
cloud-top temperature with a jump between 235 and 240 K. More precisely,
for cloud temperatures warmer than 235 K, the retrieved equivalent
absorption coefficient ratio sometimes corresponds to very small
equivalent spheres (diameter smaller than 20 m). This is never observed
for lower cloud temperatures. This change in cirrus microphysical
properties points out that ice crystal habits may vary from one
temperature regime toanother. It may be attributed to a modification of
the size and/or shape of the particles.
}},
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0450-36.6.664},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JApMe..36..664G},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{1997AdSpR..19.1213R,
  author = {{Read}, P.~L. and {Collins}, M. and {Forget}, F. and {Fournier}, R. and 
	{Hourdin}, F. and {Lewis}, S.~R. and {Talagrand}, O. and {Taylor}, F.~W. and 
	{Thomas}, N.~P.~J.},
  title = {{A GCM climate database for mars: for mission planning and for scientific studies}},
  journal = {Advances in Space Research},
  year = 1997,
  month = may,
  volume = 19,
  pages = {1213-1222},
  abstract = {{The construction of a new database of statistics on the climate and
environment of the Martian atmosphere is currently under way, with the
support of the European Space Agency. The primary objectives of this
database are to provide information for mission design specialists on
the mean state and variability of the Martian environment in
unprecedented detail, through the execution of a set of carefully
validated simulations of the Martian atmospheric circulation using
comprehensive numerical general circulation models. The formulation of
the models used are outlined herein, noting especially new improvements
in various schemes to parametrize important physical processes, and the
scope of the database to be constructed is described. A novel approach
towards the representation of large-scale variability in the output of
the database using empirical eigenfunctions derived from statistical
analyses of the numerical simulations, is also discussed. It is hoped
that the resulting database will be of value for both scientific and
engineering studies of Mars' atmosphere and near-surface environment.
}},
  doi = {10.1016/S0273-1177(97)00272-X},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997AdSpR..19.1213R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{1997JCli...10..381L,
  author = {{Lau}, K.-M. and {Wu}, H.-T. and {Bony}, S.},
  title = {{The Role of Large-Scale Atmospheric Circulation in the Relationship between Tropical Convection and Sea Surface Temperature.}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 1997,
  month = mar,
  volume = 10,
  pages = {381-392},
  abstract = {{In this paper, the authors study the influence of the large-scale
atmospheric circulation on the relationship between sea surface
temperature (SST) and tropical convection inferred from outgoing
longwave radiation (OLR). They find that under subsidence and clear sky
conditions there is an increase in OLR with respect to SST at a rate of
1.8-2.5 Wm$^{2}$ ({\deg}C)$^{1}$. In regions of large-scale
ascending motions, which is correlated to, but not always collocated
with, regions of warm water, there is a large reduction of OLR with
respect to SST associated with increase in deep convection. The rate of
OLR reduction is found to be a strong function of the large-scale motion
field. The authors find an intrinsic OLR sensitivity to SST of
approximately 4 to 5 Wm$^{2}$ ({\deg}C)$^{1}$ in the SST
range of 27{\deg}-28{\deg}C, under conditions of weak large-scale
circulation. Under the influence of strong ascending motion, the rate
can be increased to 15 to 20 Wm$^{2}$ ({\deg}C)$^{1}$ for the
same SST range. The above OLR-SST relationships are strongly dependent
on geographic locations. On the other hand, deep convection and
large-scale circulation exhibit a nearly linear relationship that is
less dependent on SST and geographic locations.The above results are
supported by regression analyses. In addition, they find that on
interannual timescales, the relationship between OLR and SST is
dominated by the large-scale circulation and SST changes associated with
the El Ni{\~n}o-Southern Oscillation. The relationship between
anomalous convection and local SST is generally weak everywhere except
in the equatorial central Pacific, where large-scale circulation and
local SST appear to work together to produce the observed OLR-SST
sensitivity. Over the equatorial central Pacific, approximately 45\%-55\%
of the OLR variance can be explained by the large-scale circulation and
15\%-20\% by the local SST.Their results also show that there is no
fundamental microphysical or thermodynamical significance to the
so-called SST threshold at approximately 27{\deg}C, except that it
represents a transitional SST between clear-sky/subsiding and
convective/ascending atmospheric conditions. Depending on the ambient
large-scale motion associated with basin-scale SST distribution, this
transitional SST can occur in a range from 25.5{\deg} to 28{\deg}C.
Similarly, there is no magic to the 29.5{\deg}C SST, beyond which
convection appears to decrease with SST. The authors find that under the
influence of strong large-scale rising motion, convection does not
decrease but increases monotonically with SST even at SST higher than
29.5{\deg}C. The reduction in convection is likely to be influenced by
large-scale subsidence forced by nearby or remotely generated deep
convection.
}},
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0442(1997)010<0381:TROLSA>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JCli...10..381L},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{1997GeoRL..24..147R,
  author = {{Roca}, R. and {Picon}, L. and {Desbois}, M. and {Le Treut}, H. and 
	{Morcrette}, J.-J.},
  title = {{Direct comparison of meteosat water vapor channel data and general circulation model results}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Oceanography: Physical: General circulation},
  year = 1997,
  volume = 24,
  pages = {147-150},
  abstract = {{Following a model to satellite approach, this study points out the
ability of the general circulation model (GCM) of the Laboratoire de
Météorologie Dynamique to reproduce the observed
relationship between tropical convection and subtropical moisture in the
upper troposphere. Those parameters are characterized from Meteosat
water vapor equivalent brightness temperatures (WVEBT) over a monthly
scale. The simulated WVEBT field closely resembles to the observed
distribution. The pure water vapor features and the convective areas are
well located and their seasonal variations are captured by the model. A
dry (moist) bias is found over convective (subsiding) areas, whereas the
model globally best acts over Atlantic ocean than over Africa. The
observed and simulated seasonal variations show that an extension of the
ITCZ is correlated to a moistening of the upper troposphere in
subtropical areas. Those results imply a positive large scale
relationship between convective and subsiding areas in both observation
and simulation, and suggest the relevance of our approach for further
climatic studies.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/96GL03923},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997GeoRL..24..147R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{1997ClDy...13..429L,
  author = {{Li}, Z.-X. and {Ide}, K. and {Treut}, H.~L. and {Ghil}, M.},
  title = {{Atmospheric radiative equilibria in a simple column model}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 1997,
  volume = 13,
  pages = {429-440},
  abstract = {{An analytic radiative-equilibrium model is formulated where both short-
and longwave radiation are treated as two-stream (down- and upward)
fluxes. An equilibrium state is defined in the model by the vertical
temperature profile. The sensitivity of any such state to the model
atmosphere's optical properties is formulated analytically. As an
example, this general formulation is applied to a single-column 11-layer
model, and the model's optical parameters are obtained from a detailed
radiative parametrization of a general circulation model. The resulting
simple column model is then used to study changes in the
Earth-atmosphere system's radiative equilibrium and, in particular, to
infer the role of greenhouse trace gases, water vapor and aerosols in
modifying the vertical temperature profile. Multiple equilibria appear
when a positive surface-albedo feedback is introduced, and their
stability is studied. The vertical structure of the radiative fluxes
(both short- and longwave) is substantially modified as the temperature
profile changes from one equilibrium to another. These equilibria and
their stability are compared to those that appear in energy-balance
models, which heretofore have ignored the details of the vertical
temperature and radiation profiles.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s003820050175},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997ClDy...13..429L},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}