lmd_EMC32000.bib

@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.95}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c year=2000 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_EMC32000.txt -ob lmd_EMC32000.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/Publis_LMDEMC3.link.bib}}
@article{2000P&SS...48.1303B,
  author = {{Bertaux}, J.-L. and {Fonteyn}, D. and {Korablev}, O. and {Chassefière}, E. and 
	{Dimarellis}, E. and {Dubois}, J.~P. and {Hauchecorne}, A. and 
	{Cabane}, M. and {Rannou}, P. and {Levasseur-Regourd}, A.~C. and 
	{Cernogora}, G. and {Quemerais}, E. and {Hermans}, C. and {Kockarts}, G. and 
	{Lippens}, C. and {de Maziere}, M. and {Moreau}, D. and {Muller}, C. and 
	{Neefs}, B. and {Simon}, P.~C. and {Forget}, F. and {Hourdin}, F. and 
	{Talagrand}, O. and {Moroz}, V.~I. and {Rodin}, A. and {Sandel}, B. and 
	{Stern}, A.},
  title = {{The study of the martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on mars express}},
  journal = {\planss},
  year = 2000,
  month = oct,
  volume = 48,
  pages = {1303-1320},
  abstract = {{SPICAM Light is a small UV-IR instrument selected for Mars Express to
recover most of the science that was lost with the demise of Mars 96,
where the SPICAM set of sensors was dedicated to the study of the
atmosphere of Mars (Spectroscopy for the investigation of the
characteristics of the atmosphere of mars). The new configuration of
SPICAM Light includes optical sensors and an electronics block. A UV
spectrometer (118-320 nm, resolution 0.8 nm) is dedicated to Nadir
viewing, limb viewing and vertical profiling by stellar occultation (3.8
kg). It addresses key issues about ozone, its coupling with H
$_{2}$O, aerosols, atmospheric vertical temperature structure and
ionospheric studies. An IR spectrometer (1.2- 4.8 {$\mu$}m, resolution
0.4-1 nm) is dedicated to vertical profiling during solar occultation of
H $_{2}$O, CO $_{2}$, CO, aerosols and exploration of carbon
compounds (3.5 kg). A nadir looking sensor for H $_{2}$O
abundances (1.0- 1.7 {$\mu$}m, resolution 0.8 nm) is recently included in
the package (0.8 kg). A simple data processing unit (DPU, 0.9 kg)
provides the interface of these sensors with the spacecraft. In nadir
orientation, SPICAM UV is essentially an ozone detector, measuring the
strongest O $_{3}$ absorption band at 250 nm in the spectrum of
the solar light scattered back from the ground. In the stellar
occultation mode the UV Sensor will measure the vertical profiles of CO
$_{2}$, temperature, O $_{3}$, clouds and aerosols. The
density/temperature profiles obtained with SPICAM Light will constrain
and aid in the development of the meteorological and dynamical
atmospheric models, from the surface to 160 km in the atmosphere. This
is essential for future missions that will rely on aerocapture and
aerobraking. UV observations of the upper atmosphere will allow study of
the ionosphere through the emissions of CO, CO $^{+}$, and CO
$_{2}$$^{+}$, and its direct interaction with the solar
wind. Also, it will allow a better understanding of escape mechanisms
and estimates of their magnitude, crucial for insight into the long-term
evolution of the atmosphere. The SPICAM Light IR sensor is inherited
from the IR solar part of the SPICAM solar occultation instrument of
Mars 96. Its main scientific objective is the global mapping of the
vertical structure of H $_{2}$O, CO $_{2}$, CO, HDO,
aerosols, atmospheric density, and temperature by the solar occultation.
The wide spectral range of the IR spectrometer and its high spectral
resolution allow an exploratory investigation addressing fundamental
question of the possible presence of carbon compounds in the Martian
atmosphere. Because of severe mass constraints this channel is still
optional. An additional nadir near IR channel that employs a pioneering
technology acousto-optical tuneable filter (AOTF) is dedicated to the
measurement of water vapour column abundance in the IR simultaneously
with ozone measured in the UV. It will be done at much lower telemetry
budget compared to the other instrument of the mission, planetary
fourier spectrometer (PFS).
}},
  doi = {10.1016/S0032-0633(00)00111-2},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000P%26SS...48.1303B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2000JAtOT..17.1020C,
  author = {{Cruette}, D. and {Marillier}, A. and {Dufresne}, J.~L. and 
	{Grandpeix}, J.~Y. and {Nacass}, P. and {Bellec}, H.},
  title = {{Fast Temperature and True Airspeed Measurements with the Airborne Ultrasonic Anemometer Thermometer (AUSAT)}},
  journal = {Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology},
  year = 2000,
  volume = 17,
  pages = {1020},
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0426(2000)017<1020:FTATAM>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JAtOT..17.1020C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2000JCli...13.4393D,
  author = {{Ducharne}, A. and {Laval}, K.},
  title = {{Influence of the Realistic Description of Soil Water-Holding Capacity on the Global Water Cycle in a GCM.}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2000,
  month = dec,
  volume = 13,
  pages = {4393-4413},
  abstract = {{The sensitivity of the hydrological cycle to soil water-holding capacity
(WHC) is investigated using the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique
General Circulation Model (LMD GCM) coupled to a land surface model
(LSM). A reference simulation (REF), with WHCs equal to 150 mm globally
(except in deserts where it is set to 30 mm), is compared to two
perturbation simulations using datasets with realistic WHC
distributions:the `available WHC' (AWC) dataset is physically consistent
with the definition of WHC in the LSM and has a global average close to
150 mm; the `total WHC' (TWC) dataset is used as a secondary reference
for a large WHC increase (more than a doubling from 150 mm). The average
impact over land of the increase in WHC (from REF to both AWC and TWC)
is an increase in annual mean evaporation, split between increased
annual precipitation and decreased annual mean moisture convergence. The
regional responses, however, are more complex: precipitation increases
in summer over the midlatitude landmasses through the recycling of
increased evaporation; in the Tropics, moisture convergence and
precipitation decrease in the intertropical convergence zone and
precipitation increases in the surrounding areas, both behaviors being
related to the sensitivity of tropical convection to surface energy
fluxes in the LMD GCM.Two important conclusions arise from these
numerical results: first, the changes in the hydrological cycle are
driven through evaporation by the WHC changes realized in the
hydrologically active regions (continental midlatitude and tropical
rainbelts); second, WHC increase of 10\% to 20\% in the rainbelts induces
changes in the hydrologic cycle with similar patterns and almost the
same amplitude as changes resulting from an increase greater than 100\%.
These results are strongly conditioned to the land-atmosphere feedbacks,
which can only be allowed in a GCM environment.
}},
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<4393:IOTRDO>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JCli...13.4393D},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2000RvGeo..38..513H,
  author = {{Haywood}, J. and {Boucher}, O.},
  title = {{Estimates of the direct and indirect radiative forcing due to tropospheric aerosols: A review}},
  journal = {Reviews of Geophysics},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Transmission and scattering of radiation, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Radiative processes, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Remote sensing},
  year = 2000,
  month = nov,
  volume = 38,
  pages = {513-543},
  abstract = {{This paper reviews the many developments in estimates of the direct and
indirect global annual mean radiative forcing due to present-day
concentrations of anthropogenic tropospheric aerosols since
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [1996]. The range of estimates
of the global mean direct radiative forcing due to six distinct aerosol
types is presented. Additionally, the indirect effect is split into two
components corresponding to the radiative forcing due to modification of
the radiative properties of clouds (cloud albedo effect) and the effects
of anthropogenic aerosols upon the lifetime of clouds (cloud lifetime
effect). The radiative forcing for anthropogenic sulphate aerosol ranges
from -0.26 to -0.82 W m$^{-2}$. For fossil fuel black carbon the
radiative forcing ranges from +0.16 W m$^{-2}$ for an external
mixture to +0.42 W m$^{-2}$ for where the black carbon is modeled
as internally mixed with sulphate aerosol. For fossil fuel organic
carbon the two estimates of the likely weakest limit of the direct
radiative forcing are -0.02 and -0.04 W m$^{-2}$. For
biomass-burning sources of black carbon and organic carbon the combined
radiative forcing ranges from -0.14 to -0.74 W m$^{-2}$. Estimates
of the radiative forcing due to mineral dust vary widely from +0.09 to
-0.46 W m$^{-2}$; even the sign of the radiative forcing is not
well established due to the competing effects of solar and terrestrial
radiative forcings. A single study provides a very tentative estimate of
the radiative forcing of nitrates to be -0.03 W m$^{-2}$.
Estimates of the cloud albedo indirect radiative forcing range from -0.3
to approximately -1.8 W m$^{-2}$. Although the cloud lifetime
effect is identified as a potentially important climate forcing
mechanism, it is difficult to quantify in the context of the present
definition of radiative forcing of climate change and current model
simulations. This is because its estimation by general circulation
models necessarily includes some level of cloud and water vapor
feedbacks, which affect the hydrological cycle and the dynamics of the
atmosphere. Available models predict that the radiative flux
perturbation associated with the cloud lifetime effect is of a magnitude
similar to that of the cloud albedo effect.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/1999RG000078},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000RvGeo..38..513H},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2000GeoRL..27.3505L,
  author = {{Li}, Z.~X.},
  title = {{Influence of tropical Pacific El Ni{\~n}o on the SST of the Southern Ocean Through Atmospheric Bridge}},
  journal = {\grl},
  year = 2000,
  month = nov,
  volume = 27,
  pages = {3505-3508},
  abstract = {{El Ni{\~n}o is a major interannual climate signal resulting from
complex ocean-atmosphere interactions in the Tropical Pacific. Its
impact on the SST (Sea Surface Temperature) of the Southern Ocean
through an atmospheric bridge are investigated with an atmospheric
general circulation model coupled to a slab mixed-layer ocean. Simulated
results suggest that SST changes in the mid- and high-latitude oceans
and the Tropical Indian Ocean can be explained by modifications of
heat-flux exchange at the air-sea interface. For the Tropical Atlantic,
however, the discrepancy is large, indicating that the oceans dynamics
are not negligible.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/1999GL011182},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000GeoRL..27.3505L},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2000AnGeo..18.1467M,
  author = {{Menut}, L. and {Vautard}, R. and {Flamant}, C. and {Abonnel}, C. and 
	{Beekmann}, M. and {Chazette}, P. and {Flamant}, P.~H. and {Gombert}, D. and 
	{Guédalia}, D. and {Kley}, D. and {Lefebvre}, M.~P. and 
	{Lossec}, B. and {Martin}, D. and {Mégie}, G. and {Perros}, P. and 
	{Sicard}, M. and {Toupance}, G.},
  title = {{Measurements and modelling of atmospheric pollution over the Paris area: an overview of the ESQUIF Project}},
  journal = {Annales Geophysicae},
  keywords = {ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE (POLLUTION -, URBAN AND REGIONAL, TROPOSPHERE -, COMPOSITION AND CHEMISTRY) -, METEOROLOGY AND ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS (MESOSCALE METEOROLOGY)},
  year = 2000,
  month = nov,
  volume = 18,
  pages = {1467-1481},
  abstract = {{The  {\'E}tude et Simulation de la QUalité de l'air en Ile de
France  (ESQUIF) project is the first integrated project dedicated to
the study of the processes leading to air pollution events over the
Paris area. The project was carried out over two years (summer 1998 to
winter 2000) to document all types of meteorological conditions
favourable to air quality degradation, and in particular to photo
oxydant formation. The goals of ESQUIF are (1) to improve our
understanding of the relevant chemical and dynamical processes and, in
turn, improve their parametrizations in numerical models, and (2) to
improve and validate existing models dedicated to pollution analysis,
scenarios and/or forecasting, by establishing a comprehensive and
thorough database. We present the rationale of the ESQUIF project and we
describe the experimental set-up. We also report on the first
experiments which took place during the summer of 1998 involving surface
networks, and remote sensing instruments as well as several aircraft.
Focusing on three days of August 1998, the relative contributions of
long-range transported and locally-produced ozone to the elevated ozone
concentrations observed during this period are discussed and
chemistry-transport model preliminary results on this period are
compared to measurements.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00585-000-1467-y},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000AnGeo..18.1467M},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2000JGR...10524563D,
  author = {{Defraigne}, P. and {de Viron}, O. and {Dehant}, V. and {Van Hoolst}, T. and 
	{Hourdin}, F.},
  title = {{Mars rotation variations induced by atmosphere and ice caps}},
  journal = {\jgr},
  keywords = {Planetology: Solid Surface Planets: Interiors, Planetology: Solid Surface Planets: Orbital and rotational dynamics, Planetology: Solar System Objects: Mars},
  year = 2000,
  month = oct,
  volume = 105,
  pages = {24563-24570},
  abstract = {{Because of the conservation of angular momentum, the atmospheric winds
and the mass exchange between the Martian ice caps and atmosphere,
associated with the sublimation/condensation process (mainly
CO$_{2}$), induce seasonal effects on Mars' polar motion,
nutation, and length of day (LOD). These effects are computed using the
output of a global circulation model of the Martian atmosphere,
providing atmospheric pressure fields, ice cap surface pressure fields,
and zonal as well as meridional winds. For the LOD variations, total
amplitudes (CO$_{2}$ and wind effects) of 0.22 ms for the annual
wave and of 0.38 ms for the semiannual wave are obtained. These
amplitudes are more than one order of magnitude larger than the LOD
variations induced by the zonal tides, which are at the level of 10
{$\mu$}s. For the induced polar motion the annual amplitude is \~{}11
milliarcseconds (mas), and the semiannual amplitude is \~{}3 mas. The
effect on the nutations, related to the diurnal forcing, is at the level
of 0.1 mas. The differences between the results for a liquid and for a
solid core are examined and shown to be $\lt$1\% of the total effects.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/1999JE001227},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JGR...10524563D},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2000JApMe..39.1527C,
  author = {{Chevallier}, F. and {Chéruy}, F. and {Armante}, R. and 
	{Stubenrauch}, C.~J. and {Scott}, N.~A.},
  title = {{Retrieving the Clear-Sky Vertical Longwave Radiative Budget from TOVS: Comparison of a Neural Network-Based Retrieval and a Method UsingGeophysical Parameters.}},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Meteorology},
  year = 2000,
  month = sep,
  volume = 39,
  pages = {1527-1543},
  abstract = {{At a time when a new generation of satellite vertical sounders is going
to be launched (including the Infrared Atmospheric Sounder
Interferometer and Advanced Infrared Radiometric Sounder instruments),
this paper assesses the possibilities of retrieving the vertical
profiles of longwave clear-sky fluxes and cooling rates from the
Television and Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) Operational
Vertical Sounder (TOVS) radiometers aboard the polar-orbiting National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellites since 1979. It focuses
on two different methodologies that have been developed at Laboratoire
de Météorologie Dynamique (France). The first one uses a
neural network approach for the parameterization of the links between
the TOVS radiances and the longwave fluxes. The second one combines the
geophysical variables retrieved by the Improved Initialization Inversion
method and a forward radiative transfer model used in atmospheric
general circulation models. The accuracy of these two methods is
evaluated using both theoretical studies and comparisons with global
observations.
}},
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0450(2000)039<1527:RTCSVL>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JApMe..39.1527C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2000JCli...13.2863C,
  author = {{Chéruy}, F. and {Chevallier}, F.},
  title = {{Regional and Seasonal Variations of the Clear Sky Atmospheric Longwave Cooling over Tropical Oceans.}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2000,
  month = aug,
  volume = 13,
  pages = {2863-2875},
  abstract = {{The vertical distribution of the clear sky longwave cooling of the
atmosphere over tropical oceans is inferred from three different
datasets. Two of the datasets refer to the TIROS-N Operational Vertical
Sounder (TOVS) NOAA/NASA Pathfinder project, PathA and PathB, and the
last one refers to the ECMWF reanalysis (ERA-15). Differences are
identified originating from the temperature and water vapor fields. They
affect the geographical distribution of the longwave fields to various
degrees. However, the three datasets lead to similar conclusions
concerning the sensitivity of the clear sky total longwave cooling to
SST variations. For the highest values of the SST (greater than
27{\deg}C), positively correlated to the increased efficiency of the
longwave trapping (super-greenhouse effect), the atmosphere shows a
lesser efficiency to cool radiatively. The atmosphere does reradiate the
longwave radiation toward the surface as efficiently as it traps it.
This is verified on regional as well as on seasonal scales. Such
longwave cooling behavior is due to an increased mid- and
upper-tropospheric humidity resulting from convective transports. The
three datasets agree with the vertical distribution of the radiative
cooling variations from normal to favorable to super-greenhouse effect
conditions, except in the boundary layer, where the coarse resolution of
the TOVS-retrieved data makes them not reliable in it. In `normal'
conditions the cooling uniformly increases over the vertical with the
SST. Over 27{\deg}C, the cooling is intensified above 400 hPa and reduced
between 900 and 400 hPa.
}},
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<2863:RASVOT>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JCli...13.2863C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2000GeoRL..27.2245H,
  author = {{Hourdin}, F. and {Issartel}, J.-P.},
  title = {{Sub-surface nuclear tests monitoring through the CTBT Xenon Network}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Pollution-urban and regional (0305), Mathematical Geophysics: Inverse theory},
  year = 2000,
  month = aug,
  volume = 27,
  pages = {2245-2248},
  abstract = {{ We present the first evaluation of the atmospheric xenon network to be
installed as part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) in the
frame of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). We show that this
network should, by itself, provide a significant contribution to the
total efficiency of the IMS. For this evaluation, we introduce an
inverse approach based upon the time symmetry of the atmospheric
transport of trace species. This approach may find applications in a
variety of environmental problems.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/1999GL010909},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000GeoRL..27.2245H},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2000JGR...10514747G,
  author = {{Goloub}, P. and {Herman}, M. and {Chepfer}, H. and {Riedi}, J. and 
	{Brogniez}, G. and {Couvert}, P. and {SéZe}, G.},
  title = {{Cloud thermodynamical phase classification from the POLDER spaceborne instrument}},
  journal = {\jgr},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Cloud physics and chemistry, Global Change, Global Change: Atmosphere, Global Change: Remote sensing},
  year = 2000,
  month = jun,
  volume = 105,
  pages = {14},
  abstract = {{Cloud phase recognition is important for cloud studies. Ice crystals
correspond to physical process and properties that differ from those of
liquid water drops. The angular polarization signature is a good mean to
discriminate between spherical and nonspherical particles (liquid and
ice phase, respectively). POLDER (Polarization and Directionality of
Earth Reflectances) has been launched on the Japanese ADEOS platform in
August 1996. Because of its multidirectional, multispectral, and
multipolarization capabilities this new radiometer gives useful
information on clouds and their influence on radiation in the shortwave
range. The POLDER bidirectional observation capability provides the
polarization signatures within a large range of scattering angles in
three spectral bands centered on 0.443, 0.670, and 0.865 {$\mu$}m with a
spatial resolution of 6.2 km{\times}6.2 km. These original features allow
to obtain some information both on cloud thermodynamic phase and on
cloud microphysics (size/shape). According to POLDER airborne
observations, liquid cloud droplets exhibit very specific polarization
features of a rainbow for scattering angles near 140{\deg}. Conversely,
theoretical studies of scattering by various crystalline particles and
also airborne measurements show that the rainbow characteristics
disappear as soon as the particles depart from the spherical shape. In
the paper the POLDER algorithm for cloud phase classification is
presented, as well as the physical principle of this algorithm. Results
derived from the POLDER spaceborne version are also presented and
compared with lidar ground-based observations and satellite cloud
classification. This cloud phase classification method is shown to be
reliable. The major limitation appears when thin cirrus clouds overlap
the liquid cloud layer. In this case, if the cirrus optical thickness is
smaller than 2, the liquid phase may be retrieved. Otherwise, the ice
phase is correctly detected as long as cloud detection works.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/1999JD901183},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JGR...10514747G},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2000JCli...13.2028B,
  author = {{Bony}, S. and {Collins}, W.~D. and {Fillmore}, D.~W.},
  title = {{Indian Ocean Low Clouds during the Winter Monsoon.}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2000,
  month = jun,
  volume = 13,
  pages = {2028-2043},
  abstract = {{While low-level clouds over the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans have been
investigated extensively, low clouds over the Indian Ocean are not as
well characterized. This study examines the occurrence of nonoverlapped
low clouds over the Indian Ocean during the northeast monsoon using
several sources of data. Climatologies derived from surface observations
and from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project are
reviewed. Another cloud climatology is developed using infrared and
visible imagery from the Indian geostationary satellite. The new
climatology has better spatial and temporal resolution than in situ
observations. The three datasets are generally consistent and show
several persistent features in the cloud distribution. During
January-April, maxima in the occurrence of low clouds occur at
subtropical latitudes over the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal, the China
Sea, and the southern Indian Ocean. The predominant types of low clouds
differ in the northern and southern areas of the Indian Ocean region and
China Sea. The Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal are covered mostly by
cumulus clouds, while the southern Indian Ocean and the China Sea are
covered mostly by large-scale stratiform clouds such as stratocumulus.
These observations are consistent with atmospheric analyses of
temperature, humidity, and stability over the Indian Ocean.
}},
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<2028:IOLCDT>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JCli...13.2028B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2000MWRv..128.3752S,
  author = {{Sabre}, M. and {Hodges}, K. and {Laval}, K. and {Polcher}, J. and 
	{Désalmand}, F.},
  title = {{Simulation of Monsoon Disturbances in the LMD GCM}},
  journal = {Monthly Weather Review},
  year = 2000,
  month = may,
  volume = 128,
  pages = {3752},
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0493(2001)129<3752:SOMDIT>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000MWRv..128.3752S},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2000QJRMS.126..865B,
  author = {{Bechtold}, P. and {Redelsperger}, J.~L. and {Beau}, I. and 
	{Blackburn}, M. and {Brinkop}, S. and {Grandpeix}, J.~Y. and 
	{Grant}, A. and {Gregory}, D. and {Guichard}, F. and {Hoff}, C. and 
	{Ioannidou}, E.},
  title = {{A GCSS model intercomparison for a tropical squall line observed during TOGA-COARE. II: Intercomparison of single-column models and a cloud-resolving model}},
  journal = {Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society},
  year = 2000,
  month = apr,
  volume = 126,
  pages = {865-888},
  doi = {10.1002/qj.49712656405},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000QJRMS.126..865B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2000GeoRL..27.1103B,
  author = {{Boucher}, O. and {Tanré}, D.},
  title = {{Estimation of the aerosol perturbation to the Earth's Radiative Budget over oceans using POLDER satellite aerosol retrievals}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801), Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325), Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Radiative processes, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Remote sensing},
  year = 2000,
  month = apr,
  volume = 27,
  pages = {1103-1106},
  abstract = {{POLDER satellite retrievals of aerosol properties over oceans are used
to estimate a global-mean clear-sky aerosol shortwave flux perturbation
of order -5 to -6 Wm$^{-2}$. Uncertainties due
to aerosol absorption and POLDER cloud screening algorithm are
quantified. In order to bound the radiative forcing by anthropogenic
aerosols, we attempt to remove the contribution of background aerosols
from these estimates and present all-sky aerosol radiative effects for
three regions and two methods. The results are sensitive to the
thresholds used to define the background conditions.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/1999GL010963},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000GeoRL..27.1103B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2000QJRMS.126..777C,
  author = {{Chevallier}, F. and {Morcrette}, J.-J. and {Chédin}, A. and 
	{Cheruy}, F.},
  title = {{TIGR-like atmospheric-profile databases for accurate radiative-flux computation}},
  journal = {Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society},
  year = 2000,
  month = jan,
  volume = 126,
  pages = {777-785},
  doi = {10.1002/qj.49712656319},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000QJRMS.126..777C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2000QJRMS.126..761C,
  author = {{Chevallier}, F. and {Morcrette}, J.-J. and {Chéruy}, F. and 
	{Scott}, N.~A.},
  title = {{Use of a neural-network-based long-wave radiative-transfer scheme in the ECMWF atmospheric model}},
  journal = {Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society},
  year = 2000,
  month = jan,
  volume = 126,
  pages = {761-776},
  doi = {10.1002/qj.49712656318},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000QJRMS.126..761C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2000MWRv..128.1177C,
  author = {{Codron}, F. and {Vintzileos}, A. and {Sadourny}, R.},
  title = {{An Improved Scheme for Interpolating between an Atmospheric Model and Underlying Surface Grids near Orography and Ocean Boundaries}},
  journal = {Monthly Weather Review},
  year = 2000,
  volume = 128,
  pages = {1177},
  doi = {10.1175/1520-0493(2000)128<1177:AISFIB>2.0.CO;2},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000MWRv..128.1177C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2000ClDy...16..775C,
  author = {{Covey}, C. and {Abe-Ouchi}, A. and {Boer}, G.~J. and {Boville}, B.~A. and 
	{Cubasch}, U. and {Fairhead}, L. and {Flato}, G.~M. and {Gordon}, H. and 
	{Guilyardi}, E. and {Jiang}, X. and {Johns}, T.~C. and {Le Treut}, H. and 
	{Madec}, G. and {Meehl}, G.~A. and {Miller}, R. and {Noda}, A. and 
	{Power}, S.~B. and {Roeckner}, E. and {Russell}, G. and {Schneider}, E.~K. and 
	{Stouffer}, R.~J. and {Terray}, L. and {von Storch}, J.-S.},
  title = {{The seasonal cycle in coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 2000,
  volume = 16,
  pages = {775-787},
  abstract = {{We examine the seasonal cycle of near-surface air temperature simulated
by 17 coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models participating
in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP). Nine of the models
use ad hoc ``flux adjustment'' at the ocean surface to bring model
simulations close to observations of the present-day climate. We group
flux-adjusted and non-flux-adjusted models separately and examine the
behavior of each class. When averaged over all of the flux-adjusted
model simulations, near-surface air temperature falls within 2K of
observed values over the oceans. The corresponding average over
non-flux-adjusted models shows errors up to 6K in extensive ocean areas.
Flux adjustments are not directly applied over land, and near-surface
land temperature errors are substantial in the average over
flux-adjusted models, which systematically underestimates (by 5K)
temperature in areas of elevated terrain. The corresponding average over
non-flux-adjusted models forms a similar error pattern (with somewhat
increased amplitude) over land. We use the temperature difference
between July and January to measure seasonal cycle amplitude. Zonal
means of this quantity from the individual flux-adjusted models form a
fairly tight cluster (all within 30\% of the mean) centered on the
observed values. The non-flux-adjusted models perform nearly as well at
most latitudes. In Southern Ocean mid-latitudes, however, the
non-flux-adjusted models overestimate the magnitude of
January-minus-July temperature differences by 5K due to an overestimate
of summer (January) near-surface temperature. This error is common to
five of the eight non-flux-adjusted models. Also, over Northern
Hemisphere mid-latitude land areas, zonal mean differences between July
and January temperatures simulated by the non-flux-adjusted models show
a greater spread (positive and negative) about observed values than
results from the flux-adjusted models. Elsewhere, differences between
the two classes of models are less obvious. At no latitude is the zonal
mean difference between averages over the two classes of models greater
than the standard deviation over models. The ability of coupled GCMs to
simulate a reasonable seasonal cycle is a necessary condition for
confidence in their prediction of long-term climatic changes (such as
global warming), but it is not a sufficient condition unless the
seasonal cycle and long-term changes involve similar climatic processes.
To test this possible connection, we compare seasonal cycle amplitude
with equilibrium warming under doubled atmospheric carbon dioxide for
the models in our data base. A small but positive correlation exists
between these two quantities. This result is predicted by a simple
conceptual model of the climate system, and it is consistent with other
modeling experience, which indicates that the seasonal cycle depends
only weakly on climate sensitivity.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s003820000081},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000ClDy...16..775C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}