lmd_EMC32008.bib

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@article{2008GeoRL..3515704C,
  author = {{Chepfer}, H. and {Bony}, S. and {Winker}, D. and {Chiriaco}, M. and 
	{Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Sèze}, G.},
  title = {{Use of CALIPSO lidar observations to evaluate the cloudiness simulated by a climate model}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325), Global Change: Global climate models (3337, 4928), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Cloud/radiation interaction, Global Change: Remote sensing (1855), Atmospheric Processes: Climatology (1616, 1620, 3305, 4215, 8408)},
  year = 2008,
  month = aug,
  volume = 35,
  eid = {L15704},
  pages = {L15704},
  abstract = {{New space-borne active sensors make it possible to observe the
three-dimensional structure of clouds. Here we use CALIPSO lidar
observations together with a lidar simulator to evaluate the cloudiness
simulated by a climate model: modeled atmospheric profiles are converted
to an ensemble of subgrid-scale attenuated backscatter lidar signals
from which a cloud fraction is derived. Except in regions of persistent
thick upper-level clouds, the cloud fraction diagnosed through this
procedure is close to that actually predicted by the model. A fractional
cloudiness is diagnosed consistently from CALIPSO data at a
spatio-temporal resolution comparable to that of the model. The
comparison of the model's cloudiness with CALIPSO data reveals
discrepancies more pronounced than in previous model evaluations based
on passive observations. This suggests that space-borne lidar
observations constitute a powerful tool for the evaluation of clouds in
large-scale models, including marine boundary-layer clouds
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2008GL034207},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008GeoRL..3515704C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2008GeoRL..3524808R,
  author = {{Risi}, C. and {Bony}, S. and {Vimeux}, F. and {Descroix}, L. and 
	{Ibrahim}, B. and {Lebreton}, E. and {Mamadou}, I. and {Sultan}, B.
	},
  title = {{What controls the isotopic composition of the African monsoon precipitation? Insights from event-based precipitation collected during the 2006 AMMA field campaign}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Biogeosciences: Isotopic composition and chemistry (1041, 4870), Global Change: Water cycles (1836), Atmospheric Processes: Tropical meteorology, Atmospheric Processes: Convective processes, Atmospheric Processes: Precipitation (1854)},
  year = 2008,
  month = dec,
  volume = 35,
  eid = {L24808},
  pages = {L24808},
  abstract = {{The stable isotopic composition of the tropical precipitation
constitutes a useful tool for paleoclimate reconstructions and to better
constrain the water cycle. To better understand what controls the
isotopic composition of tropical precipitation, we analyze the {$\delta$}
$^{18}$O and deuterium-excess of the precipitation of individual
events collected in the Niamey area (Niger) during the monsoon season,
as part of the 2006 AMMA field campaign. During the monsoon onset, the
abrupt increase of convective activity over the Sahel is associated with
an abrupt change in the isotopic composition. Before the onset, when
convective activity is scarce, the rain composition records the
intensity and the organization of individual convective systems. After
the onset, on the contrary, it records a regional-scale intra-seasonal
variability over the Sahel, by integrating convective activity both
spatially and temporally over the previous days.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2008GL035920},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008GeoRL..3524808R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2008JGRD..11319306R,
  author = {{Risi}, C. and {Bony}, S. and {Vimeux}, F.},
  title = {{Influence of convective processes on the isotopic composition ({$\delta$}$^{18}$O and {$\delta$}D) of precipitation and water vapor in the tropics: 2. Physical interpretation of the amount effect}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Processes: Convective processes, Biogeosciences: Paleoclimatology and paleoceanography (3344, 4900), Biogeosciences: Isotopic composition and chemistry (1041, 4870), water stable isotopes, convection, amount effect},
  year = 2008,
  month = oct,
  volume = 113,
  number = d12,
  eid = {D19306},
  pages = {D19306},
  abstract = {{In the tropics, the proportion of heavier water isotopes in
precipitation is anticorrelated with the precipitation amount. The
physical processes underlying this so-called amount effect are still
poorly understood and quantified. In the present study, stable water
isotopes (H$_{2}$$^{18}$O and HDO) have been introduced in a
single column model including the Emanuel convection parameterization.
We investigate the physical processes underlying the amount effect and
propose a methodology to quantify their relative contributions. We focus
on convective processes, since the idealized framework of the single
column models does not allow us to consider the effects of large-scale
horizontal advections of air masses of different isotopic signatures. We
show that two kinds of processes predominantly explain the amount
effect: first, the reevaporation of the falling rain and the diffusive
exchanges with the surrounding vapor; and second, the recycling of the
subcloud layer vapor feeding the convective system by convective fluxes.
This highlights the importance of a detailed representation of rain
evaporation processes to simulate accurately the isotopic composition of
precipitation in the tropics. The variability of the isotopic
composition on different timescales (from days to months) is also
studied using a unidimensional simulation of the Tropical Ocean-Global
Atmosphere-Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA-COARE)
campaign. The amount effect is best observable at intraseasonal or
longer timescales. The period of time over which convective activity
significantly affects the isotopic composition of precipitation is
related to the residence time of water within atmospheric reservoirs.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2008JD009943},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRD..11319306R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2008JGRD..11319305B,
  author = {{Bony}, S. and {Risi}, C. and {Vimeux}, F.},
  title = {{Influence of convective processes on the isotopic composition ({$\delta$}$^{18}$O and {$\delta$}D) of precipitation and water vapor in the tropics: 1. Radiative-convective equilibrium and Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere-Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA-COARE) simulations}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Processes: Convective processes, Atmospheric Processes: Stratosphere/troposphere interactions, Biogeosciences: Paleoclimatology and paleoceanography (3344, 4900), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Troposphere: composition and chemistry, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Cloud physics and chemistry, water stable isotopes, convection, tropical atmosphere},
  year = 2008,
  month = oct,
  volume = 113,
  number = d12,
  eid = {D19305},
  pages = {D19305},
  abstract = {{Cumulus convection constitutes a key process in the control of tropical
precipitation and the vertical transport of atmospheric water. To better
understand the influence of convective processes on the isotopic
composition of precipitation and water vapor, water stable isotopes
(H$_{2}$$^{18}$O and HDO) are introduced into a single
column model including the Emanuel convective parameterization. This
paper analyzes unidimensional simulations of the tropical atmosphere in
a state of radiative-convective equilibrium, and simulations forced by
data from the Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere-Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere
Response Experiment (TOGA-COARE). This study shows that deep convective
atmospheres are associated with robust isotopic features such as an
isotopic composition of the air below the tropical tropopause layer
(around 12-13 km) close to the typical values observed in the lower
tropical stratosphere, and an isotopic enrichment of the upper
tropospheric water that starts well below the tropopause. It highlights
the critical role of condensate lofting and convective detrainment in
these features, and the role of convective unsaturated downdrafts in the
control of the isotopic composition of precipitation. Finally, it shows
that the so-called ``amount effect'' primarily reveals the influence of
large-scale atmospheric circulation changes on the isotopic composition
of the precipitation, and that temperature changes not associated with
circulation changes lead to an ``anti-amount effect''. The detailed
analysis of the physical processes underlying the ``amount effect'' is
presented in a companion paper.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2008JD009942},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRD..11319305B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2008JAtS...65..407R,
  author = {{Rio}, C. and {Hourdin}, F.},
  title = {{A Thermal Plume Model for the Convective Boundary Layer: Representation of Cumulus Clouds}},
  journal = {Journal of Atmospheric Sciences},
  year = 2008,
  month = feb,
  volume = 65,
  pages = {407-425},
  doi = {10.1175/2007JAS2256.1},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JAtS...65..407R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2008JCli...21.5135D,
  author = {{Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Bony}, S.},
  title = {{An Assessment of the Primary Sources of Spread of Global Warming Estimates from Coupled Atmosphere Ocean Models}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2008,
  volume = 21,
  pages = {5135},
  doi = {10.1175/2008JCLI2239.1},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JCli...21.5135D},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2008JGRD..11324211V,
  author = {{Verma}, S. and {Venkataraman}, C. and {Boucher}, O.},
  title = {{Origin of surface and columnar Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) aerosols using source- and region-tagged emissions transport in a general circulation model}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801, 4906), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Pollution: urban and regional (0305, 0478, 4251), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Troposphere: constituent transport and chemistry, source- and region-tagged emissions, natural and anthropogenic sources, intercontinental incursion},
  year = 2008,
  month = dec,
  volume = 113,
  number = d12,
  eid = {D24211},
  pages = {D24211},
  abstract = {{We study the relative influence of aerosols emitted from different
sectors and geographical regions on aerosol loading in south Asia.
Sectors contributing aerosol emissions include biofuel and fossil fuel
combustion, open biomass burning, and natural sources. Geographical
regions include India (the Indo-Gangetic plain, central India, south
India, and northwest India), southeast Asia, east Asia, Africa-west
Asia, and the rest of the world. Simulations of the Indian Ocean
Experiment (INDOEX), from January to March 1999, are made in the general
circulation model of Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique
(LMD-ZT GCM) with emissions tagged by sector and geographical region.
Anthropogenic emissions dominate (54-88\%) the predicted aerosol optical
depth (AOD) over all the receptor regions. Among the anthropogenic
sectors, fossil fuel combustion has the largest overall influence on
aerosol loading, primarily sulfate, with emissions from India (50-80\%)
and rest of the world significantly influencing surface concentrations
and AOD. Biofuel combustion has a significant influence on both the
surface and columnar black carbon (BC) in particular over the Indian
subcontinent and Bay of Bengal with emissions largely from the Indian
region (60-80\%). Open biomass burning emissions influence organic matter
(OM) significantly, and arise largely from Africa-west Asia. The
emissions from Africa-west Asia affect the carbonaceous aerosols AOD in
all receptor regions, with their largest influence (AOD-BC: 60\%; and
AOD-OM: 70\%) over the Arabian Sea. Among Indian regions, the
Indo-Gangetic Plain is the largest contributor to anthropogenic surface
mass concentrations and AOD over the Bay of Bengal and India. Dust
aerosols are contributed mainly through the long-range transport from
Africa-west Asia over the receptor regions. Overall, the model estimates
significant intercontinental incursion of aerosol, for example, BC, OM,
and dust from Africa-west Asia and sulfate from distant regions (rest of
the world) into the INDOEX domain.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2007JD009538},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRD..11324211V},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2008GeoRL..3524813M,
  author = {{Morcrette}, J.-J. and {Beljaars}, A. and {Benedetti}, A. and 
	{Jones}, L. and {Boucher}, O.},
  title = {{Sea-salt and dust aerosols in the ECMWF IFS model}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801, 4906), Global Change: Earth system modeling (1225), Atmospheric Processes: Data assimilation},
  year = 2008,
  month = dec,
  volume = 35,
  eid = {L24813},
  pages = {L24813},
  abstract = {{The ECMWF IFS model has recently been modified to include prognostic
aerosols in its analysis and forecast modules. For the sea salt and dust
components, comparisons of three versions of the model are presented:
(i) a forecast only model started from conventional analysis with
free-running aerosols, (ii) a full analysis including aerosols, and
(iii) as in (i) but with sea salt and dust sources revised to account
for the 10-m wind including gustiness and calibrated on the aerosol
analysis results. It is shown that this new formulation of the sources
of the main natural aerosols gives an improved agreement with AERONET
surface observations where sea salt and dust aerosols are dominant. It
also shows how the information brought by the aerosol analysis can be
used to improve the representation of aerosols in numerical weather
prediction and climate-type general circulation models.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2008GL036041},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008GeoRL..3524813M},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2008TellA..60..863G,
  author = {{Gastineau}, G. and {Le Treut}, H. and {Li}, L.},
  title = {{Hadley circulation changes under global warming conditions indicated by coupled climate models}},
  journal = {Tellus Series A},
  year = 2008,
  month = oct,
  volume = 60,
  pages = {863-884},
  abstract = {{We use the mean meridional tropical circulation of the Atmospheric Ocean
Coupled General Circulation Models (AOGCM) to diagnose and quantify the
modifications of the mean meridional circulation of the atmosphere under
global warming conditions. The AOGCMs generally show a weakening of the
Hadley circulation for the winter cell in both hemispheres, accompanied
by a poleward extension of the Hadley circulation area. The conditions
explaining these modifications are analysed using detailed outputs from
IPSL-CM4. The AOGCM IPSL-CM4 shows changes, under CO$_{2}$
doubling, that are in accordance with the other models, for austral
winter. On the other hand, for boreal winter, the winter cell shows
little change in intensity and in extension. The poleward shift of the
Southern Hemisphere winter Hadley cell corresponds to changes in the
transient eddies, whereas the increase of the dry static stability is
mainly responsible for the mean weakening of the cell. For boreal
winter, a strong shrinking of the ascending branch area, and an increase
of the latent heating, is found to cancel the weakening of the
circulation due to dry static stability increase.
}},
  doi = {10.1111/j.1600-0870.2008.00344.x},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008TellA..60..863G},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2008Icar..197..556C,
  author = {{Crespin}, A. and {Lebonnois}, S. and {Vinatier}, S. and {Bézard}, B. and 
	{Coustenis}, A. and {Teanby}, N.~A. and {Achterberg}, R.~K. and 
	{Rannou}, P. and {Hourdin}, F.},
  title = {{Diagnostics of Titan's stratospheric dynamics using Cassini/CIRS data and the 2-dimensional IPSL circulation model}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  year = 2008,
  month = oct,
  volume = 197,
  pages = {556-571},
  abstract = {{The dynamics of Titan's stratosphere is discussed in this study, based
on a comparison between observations by the CIRS instrument on board the
Cassini spacecraft, and results of the 2-dimensional circulation model
developed at the Institute Pierre-Simon Laplace, available at
http://www.lmd.jussieu.fr/titanDbase [Rannou, P., Lebonnois, S.,
Hourdin, F., Luz, D., 2005. Adv. Space Res. 36, 2194-2198]. The
comparison aims at both evaluating the model's capabilities and
interpreting the observations concerning: (1) dynamical and thermal
structure using temperature retrievals from Cassini/CIRS and the
vertical profile of zonal wind at the Huygens landing site obtained by
Huygens/DWE; and (2) vertical and latitudinal profiles of stratospheric
gases deduced from Cassini/CIRS data. The modeled thermal structure is
similar to that inferred from observations (Cassini/CIRS and Earth-based
observations). However, the upper stratosphere (above 0.05 mbar) is
systematically too hot in the 2D-CM, and therefore the stratopause
region is not well represented. This bias may be related to the haze
structure and to misrepresented radiative effects in this region, such
as the cooling effect of hydrogen cyanide (HCN). The 2D-CM produces a
strong atmospheric superrotation, with zonal winds reaching 200 m s
$^{-1}$ at high winter latitudes between 200 and 300 km altitude
(0.1-1 mbar). The modeled zonal winds are in good agreement with
retrieved wind fields from occultation observations, Cassini/CIRS and
Huygens/DWE. Changes to the thermal structure are coupled to changes in
the meridional circulation and polar vortex extension, and therefore
affect chemical distributions, especially in winter polar regions. When
a higher altitude haze production source is used, the resulting modeled
meridional circulation is weaker and the vertical and horizontal mixing
due to the polar vortex is less extended in latitude. There is an
overall good agreement between modeled chemical distributions and
observations in equatorial regions. The difference in observed vertical
gradients of C $_{2}$H $_{2}$ and HCN may be an indicator of
the relative strength of circulation and chemical loss of HCN. The
negative vertical gradient of ethylene in the low stratosphere at
15{\deg} S, cannot be modeled with simple 1-dimensional models, where a
strong photochemical sink in the middle stratosphere would be necessary.
It is explained here by dynamical advection from the winter pole towards
the equator in the low stratosphere and by the fact that ethylene does
not condense. Near the winter pole (80{\deg} N), some compounds (C
$_{4}$H $_{2}$, C $_{3}$H $_{4}$) exhibit an
(interior) minimum in the observed abundance vertical profiles, whereas
2D-CM profiles are well mixed all along the atmospheric column. This
minimum can be a diagnostic of the strength of the meridional
circulation, and of the spatial extension of the winter polar vortex
where strong descending motions are present. In the summer hemisphere,
observed stratospheric abundances are uniform in latitude, whereas the
model maintains a residual enrichment over the summer pole from the
spring cell due to a secondary meridional overturning between 1 and 50
mbar, at latitudes south of 40-50{\deg} S. The strength, as well as
spatial and temporal extensions of this structure are a difficulty, that
may be linked to possible misrepresentation of horizontally mixing
processes, due to the restricted 2-dimensional nature of the model. This
restriction should also be kept in mind as a possible source of other
discrepancies.
}},
  doi = {10.1016/j.icarus.2008.05.010},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Icar..197..556C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2008GeoRL..3520810J,
  author = {{James}, R. and {Bonazzola}, M. and {Legras}, B. and {Surbled}, K. and 
	{Fueglistaler}, S.},
  title = {{Water vapor transport and dehydration above convective outflow during Asian monsoon}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Processes: Stratosphere/troposphere interactions, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Troposphere: constituent transport and chemistry, Atmospheric Processes: General circulation (1223), Atmospheric Processes: Convective processes, Atmospheric Processes: Tropical meteorology},
  year = 2008,
  month = oct,
  volume = 35,
  eid = {L20810},
  pages = {L20810},
  abstract = {{We investigate the respective roles of large-scale transport and
convection in determining the water vapor maximum at 100 hPa in the
Asian monsoon region. The study uses backward trajectories with ECMWF
ERA-Interim heating rates. It includes simple microphysics with
supersaturation and takes into account convective sources based on CLAUS
data with a simple parameterization of overshoots. A good agreement
between reconstructed water vapor and observations is obtained over
Asia. It is found that parcels belonging to the water vapor maximum have
been first lifted by convection over the Bay of Bengal and the Sea of
China and then transported through the tropical tropopause layer (TTL)
via the monsoon anticyclonic circulation towards North-West India, where
they are eventually dehydrated, avoiding the coldest temperatures of the
TTL. Convective moistening accounts for about 0.3 ppmv in the Asian
monsoon region and overshoots do not have a significant impact on the
water vapor budget.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2008GL035441},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008GeoRL..3520810J},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2008CRGeo.340..584L,
  author = {{Le Treut}, H. and {Gastineau}, G. and {Li}, L.},
  title = {{Uncertainties attached to global or local climate changes}},
  journal = {Comptes Rendus Geoscience},
  year = 2008,
  month = sep,
  volume = 340,
  pages = {584-590},
  abstract = {{The successive reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC) illustrate an apparent contradiction. On the one hand, the large
scale climatic change in response to the increase of greenhouse gases is
structured following patterns which have remained surprisingly stable
throughout the development of climate models. Already in the 1980s model
simulations of climate change were characterized by a larger warming in
polar areas and over the continents, and a tendency for precipitations
to accentuate existing contrasts, with a drier climate in semiarid
regions and more precipitations at mid-latitudes or near the Equator. On
the other hand, models have made little progress in predicting more
unanimously and more reliably the global amplitude of climate changes
and their geographical distributions. This lack of progress is certainly
linked with the role of the atmospheric dynamics in shaping up certain
aspects of climate response, either small scales which affect
atmospheric stratification, or synoptic scales, whose inherent
complexity and nonlinear interactions also limit the possibility of more
accurate regional predictions.
}},
  doi = {10.1016/j.crte.2008.06.003},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008CRGeo.340..584L},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2008GeCAS..72R1006W,
  author = {{Wartho}, J.-A. and {Li}, Z.-X. and {Occhipinti}, S.~A. and 
	{Reddy}, S.},
  title = {{$^{40}$Ar/$^{39}$Ar UV laser dating, EBSD and EMP analysis of 1040-940 Ma metamorphic/deformation/cooling events recorded in Sibao Orogen white micas, South China}},
  journal = {Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta Supplement},
  year = 2008,
  month = jul,
  volume = 72,
  pages = {A1006},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008GeCAS..72R1006W},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2008NPGeo..15..365Y,
  author = {{Yiou}, P. and {Goubanova}, K. and {Li}, Z.~X. and {Nogaj}, M.
	},
  title = {{Weather regime dependence of extreme value statistics for summer temperature and precipitation}},
  journal = {Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics},
  year = 2008,
  month = may,
  volume = 15,
  pages = {365-378},
  abstract = {{Extreme Value Theory (EVT) is a useful tool to describe the statistical
properties of extreme events. Its underlying assumptions include some
form of temporal stationarity in the data. Previous studies have been
able to treat long-term trends in datasets, to obtain the time
dependence of EVT parameters in a parametric form. Since there is also a
dependence of surface temperature and precipitation to weather patterns
obtained from pressure data, we determine the EVT parameters of those
meteorological variables over France conditional to the occurrence of
North Atlantic weather patterns in the summer. We use a clustering
algorithm on geopotential height data over the North Atlantic to obtain
those patterns. This approach refines the straightforward application of
EVT on climate data by allowing us to assess the role of atmospheric
variability on temperature and precipitation extreme parameters. This
study also investigates the statistical robustness of this relation. Our
results show how weather regimes can modulate the different behavior of
mean climate variables and their extremes. Such a modulation can be very
different for the mean and extreme precipitation.
}},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008NPGeo..15..365Y},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2008JGRD..113.5204Q,
  author = {{Quaas}, J. and {Boucher}, O. and {Bellouin}, N. and {Kinne}, S.
	},
  title = {{Satellite-based estimate of the direct and indirect aerosol climate forcing}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Processes: Clouds and aerosols, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801, 4906), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Cloud/radiation interaction, Global Change: Remote sensing (1855), Atmospheric Processes: Climate change and variability (1616, 1635, 3309, 4215, 4513)},
  year = 2008,
  month = mar,
  volume = 113,
  eid = {D05204},
  pages = {D05204},
  abstract = {{The main uncertainty in anthropogenic forcing of the Earth's climate
stems from pollution aerosols, particularly their ``indirect effect''
whereby aerosols modify cloud properties. We develop a new methodology
to derive a measurement-based estimate using almost exclusively
information from an Earth radiation budget instrument (CERES) and a
radiometer (MODIS). We derive a statistical relationship between
planetary albedo and cloud properties, and, further, between the cloud
properties and column aerosol concentration. Combining these
relationships with a data set of satellite-derived anthropogenic aerosol
fraction, we estimate an anthropogenic radiative forcing of -0.9 +/- 0.4
Wm$^{-2}$ for the aerosol direct effect and of -0.2 +/- 0.1
Wm$^{-2}$ for the cloud albedo effect. Because of uncertainties in
both satellite data and the method, the uncertainty of this result is
likely larger than the values given here which correspond only to the
quantifiable error estimates. The results nevertheless indicate that
current global climate models may overestimate the cloud albedo effect.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2007JD008962},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRD..113.5204Q},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2008ClDy...30...37A,
  author = {{Arzel}, O. and {Fichefet}, T. and {Goosse}, H. and {Dufresne}, J.-L.
	},
  title = {{Causes and impacts of changes in the Arctic freshwater budget during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries in an AOGCM}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 2008,
  month = jan,
  volume = 30,
  pages = {37-58},
  abstract = {{The fourth version of the atmosphere-ocean general circulation (AOGCM)
model developed at the Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace (IPSL-CM4) is used
to investigate the mechanisms influencing the Arctic freshwater balance
in response to anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing. The freshwater
influence on the interannual variability of deep winter oceanic
convection in the Nordic Seas is also studied on the basis of
correlation and regression analyses of detrended variables. The model
shows that the Fram Strait outflow, which is an important source of
freshwater for the northern North Atlantic, experiences a rapid and
strong transition from a weak state toward a relatively strong state
during 1990-2010. The authors propose that this climate shift is
triggered by the retreat of sea ice in the Barents Sea during the late
twentieth century. This sea ice reduction initiates a positive feedback
in the atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system that alters both the atmospheric
and oceanic circulations in the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian
(GIN)-Barents Seas sector. Around year 2080, the model predicts a second
transition threshold beyond which the Fram Strait outflow is restored
toward its original weak value. The long-term freshening of the GIN Seas
is invoked to explain this rapid transition. It is further found that
the mechanism of interannual changes in deep mixing differ fundamentally
between the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. This difference is
caused by the dominant influence of freshwater over the twenty-first
century. In the GIN Seas, the interannual changes in the liquid
freshwater export out of the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait combined
with the interannual changes in the liquid freshwater import from the
North Atlantic are shown to have a major influence in driving the
interannual variability of the deep convection during the twenty-first
century. South of Iceland, the other region of deep water renewal in the
model, changes in freshwater import from the North Atlantic constitute
the dominant forcing of deep convection on interannual time scales over
the twenty-first century.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-007-0258-5},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ClDy...30...37A},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2008BAMS...89.1147H,
  author = {{Hollingsworth}, A. and {Engelen}, R.~J. and {Textor}, C. and 
	{Benedetti}, A. and {Boucher}, O. and {Chevallier}, F. and {Dethof}, A. and 
	{Elbern}, H. and {Eskes}, H. and {Flemming}, J. and {Granier}, C. and 
	{Kaiser}, J.~W. and {Morcrette}, J.-J. and {Rayner}, P. and 
	{Peuch}, V.-H. and {Rouil}, L. and {Schultz}, M.~G. and {Simmons}, A.~J.
	},
  title = {{Toward a Monitoring and Forecasting System For Atmospheric Composition: The GEMS Project}},
  journal = {Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society},
  year = 2008,
  volume = 89,
  pages = {1147},
  doi = {10.1175/2008BAMS2355.1},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008BAMS...89.1147H},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2008AtmEn..42.5728W,
  author = {{Woodhouse}, M.~T. and {Mann}, G.~W. and {Carslaw}, K.~S. and 
	{Boucher}, O.},
  title = {{New Directions: The impact of oceanic iron fertilisation on cloud condensation nuclei}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Environment},
  year = 2008,
  volume = 42,
  pages = {5728-5730},
  doi = {10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.05.005},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AtmEn..42.5728W},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}