lmd_EMC32010.bib

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@article{2010ClDy...34....1M,
  author = {{Marti}, O. and {Braconnot}, P. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Bellier}, J. and 
	{Benshila}, R. and {Bony}, S. and {Brockmann}, P. and {Cadule}, P. and 
	{Caubel}, A. and {Codron}, F. and {de Noblet}, N. and {Denvil}, S. and 
	{Fairhead}, L. and {Fichefet}, T. and {Foujols}, M.-A. and {Friedlingstein}, P. and 
	{Goosse}, H. and {Grandpeix}, J.-Y. and {Guilyardi}, E. and 
	{Hourdin}, F. and {Idelkadi}, A. and {Kageyama}, M. and {Krinner}, G. and 
	{Lévy}, C. and {Madec}, G. and {Mignot}, J. and {Musat}, I. and 
	{Swingedouw}, D. and {Talandier}, C.},
  title = {{Key features of the IPSL ocean atmosphere model and its sensitivity to atmospheric resolution}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Climate, Simulations, Ocean, Atmosphere, Coupling, Circulation, El Ni{\~n}o/Southern oscillation, North-Atlantic oscillation, Storm-tracks, Resolution},
  year = 2010,
  month = jan,
  volume = 34,
  pages = {1-26},
  abstract = {{This paper presents the major characteristics of the Institut Pierre
Simon Laplace (IPSL) coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model.
The model components and the coupling methodology are described, as well
as the main characteristics of the climatology and interannual
variability. The model results of the standard version used for IPCC
climate projections, and for intercomparison projects like the
Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP 2) are compared to
those with a higher resolution in the atmosphere. A focus on the North
Atlantic and on the tropics is used to address the impact of the
atmosphere resolution on processes and feedbacks. In the North Atlantic,
the resolution change leads to an improved representation of the
storm-tracks and the North Atlantic oscillation. The better
representation of the wind structure increases the northward salt
transports, the deep-water formation and the Atlantic meridional
overturning circulation. In the tropics, the ocean-atmosphere dynamical
coupling, or Bjerknes feedback, improves with the resolution. The
amplitude of ENSO (El Ni{\~n}o-Southern oscillation) consequently
increases, as the damping processes are left unchanged.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-009-0640-6},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ClDy...34....1M},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010BAMS...91...95H,
  author = {{Hourdin}, F. and {Musat}, I. and {Guichard}, F. and {Ruti}, P.~M. and 
	{Favot}, F. and {Filiberti*}, M.-A. and {Pham}, M. and {Grandpeix}, J.-Y. and 
	{Polcher}, J. and {Marquet}, P. and {Boone}, A. and {Lafore}, J.-P. and 
	{Redelsperger}, J.-L. and {Dell'Aquila}, A. and {Doval}, T.~L. and 
	{Traore}, A.~K. and {Gallée}, H.},
  title = {{AMMA-Model Intercomparison Project}},
  journal = {Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society},
  year = 2010,
  volume = 91,
  pages = {95},
  doi = {10.1175/2009BAMS2791.1},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010BAMS...91...95H},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010JGRD..11524123R,
  author = {{Risi}, C. and {Bony}, S. and {Vimeux}, F. and {Jouzel}, J.},
  title = {{Correction to ``Water-stable isotopes in the LMDZ4 general circulation model: Model evaluation for present-day and past climates and applications to climatic interpretations of tropical isotopic records''}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {water isotopes; past precipitation changes; general circulation model., water isotopes, general circulation model, past precipitation changes},
  year = 2010,
  month = dec,
  volume = 115,
  number = d14,
  eid = {D24123},
  pages = {D24123},
  doi = {10.1029/2010JD015242},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..11524123R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010JGRD..11524110R,
  author = {{Risi}, C. and {Bony}, S. and {Vimeux}, F. and {Frankenberg}, C. and 
	{Noone}, D. and {Worden}, J.},
  title = {{Understanding the Sahelian water budget through the isotopic composition of water vapor and precipitation}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Global Change: Water cycles (1836), Biogeosciences: Isotopic composition and chemistry (1041, 4870), Hydrology: Water budgets, Atmospheric Processes: Global climate models (1626, 4928), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Troposphere: composition and chemistry, water isotopes, Sahel, Sahara, general circulation models, atmospheric convection, continental recycling},
  year = 2010,
  month = dec,
  volume = 115,
  number = d14,
  eid = {D24110},
  pages = {D24110},
  abstract = {{The goal of this paper is to investigate the added value of water
isotopic measurements to estimate the relative influence of large-scale
dynamics, convection, and land surface recycling on the Sahelian water
budget. To this aim, we use isotope data in the lower tropospheric water
vapor measured by the SCIAMACHY and TES satellite instruments and in
situ precipitation data from the Global Network for Isotopes in
Precipitation and collected during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary
Analysis field campaign, together with water-tagging experiments with
the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique general
circulation model (LMDZ) fitted with isotopes. We show that some
isotopic biases in LMDZ reveal the misrepresentation of dehydrating
processes that would be undetected without isotopic measurements. In dry
regions, the vapor isotopic composition is primarily controlled by the
intensity of the air dehydration. In addition, it may also keep some
memory of dehydration pathways that is erased in the humidity
distribution, namely the relative contribution of dehydration in the
tropical upper troposphere versus midlatitudes. In wet regions, vapor
and rain isotope compositions are primarily controlled by changes in
convection, through rain reevaporation and through the progressive
depletion of the vapor by convective mixing along air mass trajectories.
Gradients in vapor isotope composition along air mass trajectories may
help estimate continental recycling intensity, provided that we could
quantify the effect of convection on the isotopic composition of water
vapor.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2010JD014690},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..11524110R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010E&PSL.298..104L,
  author = {{Landais}, A. and {Risi}, C. and {Bony}, S. and {Vimeux}, F. and 
	{Descroix}, L. and {Falourd}, S. and {Bouygues}, A.},
  title = {{Combined measurements of $^{17}$O $_{excess}$ and d-excess in African monsoon precipitation: Implications for evaluating convective parameterizations}},
  journal = {Earth and Planetary Science Letters},
  year = 2010,
  month = sep,
  volume = 298,
  pages = {104-112},
  abstract = {{Water stable isotopes ({$\delta$} $^{18}$O, {$\delta$}D) are useful
tools to depict and to understand the atmospheric water cycle. In
tropical regions, they record the variations of convective activity and
their implementation in convection schemes brings constraints on our
understanding and parameterization of this phenomena. Here, we present
for the first time measurements of a new isotopic marker of the
hydrological cycle ( $^{17}$O $_{excess}$ resulting from the
combination of {$\delta$} $^{17}$O and {$\delta$} $^{18}$O of
water) in convective regions on two different time scales: (i) during
the African monsoon onset and intra-seasonal variability (Banizoumbou,
2006) and (ii) during the squall line of the 11th of August 2006
(Niamey). $^{17}$O $_{excess}$ responds to the monsoon onset
by a \~{} 30 per meg increase as well as to different convective processes
in squall lines by \~{} 20 per meg variations. These variations parallel
those of d-excess at first order and display significant correlation
with relative humidity in the lower troposphere. Still, higher
correlation coefficients are observed between d-excess and relative
humidity than between $^{17}$O $_{excess}$ and relative
humidity, suggesting a higher influence of relative humidity on d-excess
than on $^{17}$O $_{excess}$. Using a simple reevaporation
model and a more sophisticated 2D model of a squall line, we show that
reevaporation is the process explaining the increase of d-excess and
$^{17}$O $_{excess}$ with relative humidity for these two
studies. We also show that the combination of $^{17}$O
$_{excess}$ and d-excess is a powerful tool to constrain the
representation of isotopic processes during rain reevaporation. In turn,
a good representation of such processes enables to use water isotopes to
evaluate convective parameterization in atmospheric models.
}},
  doi = {10.1016/j.epsl.2010.07.033},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010E%26PSL.298..104L},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010JGRD..11512118R,
  author = {{Risi}, C. and {Bony}, S. and {Vimeux}, F. and {Jouzel}, J.},
  title = {{Water-stable isotopes in the LMDZ4 general circulation model: Model evaluation for present-day and past climates and applications to climatic interpretations of tropical isotopic records}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Processes: Global climate models (1626, 4928), Atmospheric Processes: Paleoclimatology (0473, 4900), Global Change: Water cycles (1836), Biogeosciences: Isotopic composition and chemistry (1041, 4870), Geochemistry: Stable isotope geochemistry (0454, water isotopes, general circulation model, past precipitation changes},
  year = 2010,
  month = jun,
  volume = 115,
  number = d14,
  eid = {D12118},
  pages = {D12118},
  abstract = {{We present simulations of water-stable isotopes from the LMDZ general
circulation model (the LMDZ-iso GCM) and evaluate them at different time
scales (synoptic to interannual). LMDZ-iso reproduces reasonably well
the spatial and seasonal variations of both {$\delta$}$^{18}$O and
deuterium excess. When nudged with reanalyses, LMDZ-iso is able to
capture the synoptic variability of isotopes in winter at a midlatitude
station, and the interannual variability in mid and high latitudes is
strongly improved. The degree of equilibration between the vapor and the
precipitation is strongly sensitive to kinetic effects during rain
reevaporation, calling for more synchronous vapor and precipitation
measurements. We then evaluate the simulations of two past climates:
Last Glacial Maximum (21 ka) and Mid-Holocene (6 ka). A particularity of
LMDZ-iso compared to other isotopic GCMs is that it simulates a lower d
excess during the LGM over most high-latitude regions, consistent with
observations. Finally, we use LMDZ-iso to explore the relationship
between precipitation and {$\delta$}$^{18}$O in the tropics, and we
discuss its paleoclimatic implications. We show that the imprint of
uniform temperature changes on tropical {$\delta$}$^{18}$O is weak.
Large regional changes in {$\delta$}$^{18}$O can, however, be
associated with dynamical changes of precipitation. Using LMDZ as a test
bed for reconstructing past precipitation changes through local
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O records, we show that past tropical precipitation
changes can be well reconstructed qualitatively but not quantitatively.
Over continents, nonlocal effects make the local reconstruction even
less accurate.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2009JD013255},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..11512118R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010BoLMe.135..469R,
  author = {{Rio}, C. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Couvreux}, F. and {Jam}, A.
	},
  title = {{Resolved Versus Parametrized Boundary-Layer Plumes. Part II: Continuous Formulations of Mixing Rates for Mass-Flux Schemes}},
  journal = {Boundary-Layer Meteorology},
  keywords = {Boundary-layer thermals, Entrainment and detrainment, Large-eddy simulations, Mass-flux parametrization},
  year = 2010,
  month = jun,
  volume = 135,
  pages = {469-483},
  abstract = {{The conditional sampling of coherent structures in large-eddy
simulations of the convective boundary layer (Couvreux et al.
Boundary-layer Meteorol 134:441-458, 2010) is used to propose and
evaluate formulations of fractional entrainment and detrainment rates
for mass-flux schemes. The proposed formulations are physically-based
and continuous from the surface to the top of clouds. Entrainment is
related to the updraft vertical velocity divergence, while detrainment
depends on the thermal vertical velocity, on buoyancy and on the
moisture contrast between the mean plume and its environment. The
proposed formulations are first directly evaluated in simulations of
shallow clouds. They are then tested in single-column simulations with
the thermal plume model, a mass-flux representation of boundary-layer
thermals.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s10546-010-9478-z},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010BoLMe.135..469R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010JGRD..11510112R,
  author = {{Risi}, C. and {Landais}, A. and {Bony}, S. and {Jouzel}, J. and 
	{Masson-Delmotte}, V. and {Vimeux}, F.},
  title = {{Understanding the $^{17}$O excess glacial-interglacial variations in Vostok precipitation}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Paleoceanography: Ice cores (0724), Biogeosciences: Isotopic composition and chemistry (1041, 4870), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Troposphere: composition and chemistry, Global Change: Water cycles (1836), Atmospheric Processes: Paleoclimatology (0473, 4900), $^{17}$O excess, ice core isotopic composition, surface relative humidity},
  year = 2010,
  month = may,
  volume = 115,
  number = d14,
  eid = {D10112},
  pages = {D10112},
  abstract = {{Combined measurements of {$\delta$}$^{18}$O, {$\delta$}$^{17}$O,
and {$\delta$}D in ice cores, leading to d excess and $^{17}$O
excess, are expected to provide new constraints on the water cycle and
past climates. We explore different processes, both in the source
regions and during the poleward transport, that could explain the
$^{17}$O excess increase by 20 per meg observed from the Last
Glacial Maximum (LGM) to Early Holocene (EH) at the Vostok station.
Using a single-column model over tropical and subtropical oceans, we
show that the relative humidity at the surface is the main factor
controlling $^{17}$O excess in source regions. Then, using a
Rayleigh-type model, we show that the $^{17}$O excess signal from
the source region is preserved in the polar snowfall, contrary to d
excess. Evaporative recharge over mid and high latitudes and
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O seasonality in polar regions can also affect the
Vostok $^{17}$O excess but cannot account for most of the 20 per
meg deglacial increase from LGM to EH. On the other hand, a decrease of
the relative humidity at the surface (rh$_{s}$) by 8 to 22\% would
explain the observed change in $^{17}$O excess. Such a change
would not necessarily be incompatible with a nearly unchanged boundary
layer relative humidity, if the surface thermodynamic disequilibrium
decreased by 4{\deg}C. Such a change in rh$_{s}$ would affect
source and polar temperatures reconstructions from {$\delta$}$^{18}$O
and d excess measurements, strengthening the interest of $^{17}$O
excess measurements to better constrain such changes.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2008JD011535},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..11510112R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010JAtS...67..898G,
  author = {{Grandpeix}, J.-Y. and {Lafore}, J.-P. and {Cheruy}, F.},
  title = {{A Density Current Parameterization Coupled with Emanuel's Convection Scheme. Part II: 1D Simulations}},
  journal = {Journal of Atmospheric Sciences},
  year = 2010,
  month = apr,
  volume = 67,
  pages = {898-922},
  doi = {10.1175/2009JAS3045.1},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JAtS...67..898G},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010ACP....10.3463R,
  author = {{Rio}, C. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Chédin}, A.},
  title = {{Numerical simulation of tropospheric injection of biomass burning products by pyro-thermal plumes}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2010,
  month = apr,
  volume = 10,
  pages = {3463-3478},
  abstract = {{The thermal plume model, a mass-flux scheme originally developed to
represent the vertical transport by convective structures within the
boundary layer, is adapted to the representation of plumes generated by
fires, with the aim of estimating the height at which fire emissions are
actually injected in the atmosphere. The parameterization, which takes
into account the excess of near surface temperature induced by fires and
the mixing between convective plumes and environmental air, is first
evaluated on two well-documented fires. Simulations over Southern Africa
performed with the general circulation model LMDZ over one month show
that the CO$_{2}$ can be injected far above the boundary layer
height, leading to a daily excess of CO$_{2}$ in the
mid-troposphere of an order of 2 ppmv. These results agree with
satellite retrievals of a diurnal cycle of CO$_{2}$ in the free
troposphere over regions affected by biomass burning in the Tropics.
}},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10.3463R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010BoLMe.134..441C,
  author = {{Couvreux}, F. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Rio}, C.},
  title = {{Resolved Versus Parametrized Boundary-Layer Plumes. Part I: A Parametrization-Oriented Conditional Sampling in Large-Eddy Simulations}},
  journal = {Boundary-Layer Meteorology},
  keywords = {Coherent structures, Conditional sampling, Convective boundary layer, Large-eddy simulations, Mass-flux parametrization},
  year = 2010,
  month = mar,
  volume = 134,
  pages = {441-458},
  abstract = {{A conditional sampling based on the combination of a passive tracer
emitted at the surface and thermodynamic variables is proposed to
characterise organized structures in large-eddy simulations of
cloud-free and cloudy boundary layers. The sampling is evaluated against
more traditional sampling of dry thermals or clouds. It enables the
characterization of convective updrafts from the surface to the top of
the boundary layer (or the top of cumulus clouds), describing in
particular the transition from the sub-cloud to the cloud layer, and
retrieves plume characteristics, entrainment and detrainment rates,
variances and fluxes. This sampling is used to analyze the contribution
of boundary-layer thermals to vertical fluxes and variances.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s10546-009-9456-5},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010BoLMe.134..441C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010QJRMS.136S.227R,
  author = {{Risi}, C. and {Bony}, S. and {Vimeux}, F. and {Chong}, M. and 
	{Descroix}, L.},
  title = {{Evolution of the stable water isotopic composition of the rain sampled along Sahelian squall lines}},
  journal = {Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society},
  year = 2010,
  month = jan,
  volume = 136,
  pages = {227-242},
  doi = {10.1002/qj.485},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010QJRMS.136S.227R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010JGRD..115.0H16C,
  author = {{Chepfer}, H. and {Bony}, S. and {Winker}, D. and {Cesana}, G. and 
	{Dufresne}, J.~L. and {Minnis}, P. and {Stubenrauch}, C.~J. and 
	{Zeng}, S.},
  title = {{The GCM-Oriented CALIPSO Cloud Product (CALIPSO-GOCCP)}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Chemical kinetic and photochemical properties, Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325), Global Change: Remote sensing (1855), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Cloud/radiation interaction, Atmospheric Processes: Clouds and cloud feedbacks, cloud, satellite, climatology},
  year = 2010,
  month = jan,
  volume = 115,
  eid = {D00H16},
  pages = {D00H16},
  abstract = {{This article presents the GCM-Oriented Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared
Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) Cloud Product (GOCCP)
designed to evaluate the cloudiness simulated by general circulation
models (GCMs). For this purpose, Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal
Polarization L1 data are processed following the same steps as in a
lidar simulator used to diagnose the model cloud cover that CALIPSO
would observe from space if the satellite was flying above an atmosphere
similar to that predicted by the GCM. Instantaneous profiles of the
lidar scattering ratio (SR) are first computed at the highest horizontal
resolution of the data but at the vertical resolution typical of current
GCMs, and then cloud diagnostics are inferred from these profiles:
vertical distribution of cloud fraction, horizontal distribution of low,
middle, high, and total cloud fractions, instantaneous SR profiles, and
SR histograms as a function of height. Results are presented for
different seasons (January-March 2007-2008 and June-August 2006-2008),
and their sensitivity to parameters of the lidar simulator is
investigated. It is shown that the choice of the vertical resolution and
of the SR threshold value used for cloud detection can modify the cloud
fraction by up to 0.20, particularly in the shallow cumulus regions. The
tropical marine low-level cloud fraction is larger during nighttime (by
up to 0.15) than during daytime. The histograms of SR characterize the
cloud types encountered in different regions. The GOCCP high-level cloud
amount is similar to that from the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder
(TOVS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). The low-level and
middle-level cloud fractions are larger than those derived from passive
remote sensing (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project,
Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-Cloud and Earth Radiant
Energy System Polarization and Directionality of Earth Reflectances,
TOVS Path B, AIRS-Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique)
because the latter only provide information on the uppermost cloud
layer.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2009JD012251},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..115.0H16C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010RvGeo..48.4005O,
  author = {{O'Connor}, F.~M. and {Boucher}, O. and {Gedney}, N. and {Jones}, C.~D. and 
	{Folberth}, G.~A. and {Coppell}, R. and {Friedlingstein}, P. and 
	{Collins}, W.~J. and {Chappellaz}, J. and {Ridley}, J. and {Johnson}, C.~E.
	},
  title = {{Possible role of wetlands, permafrost, and methane hydrates in the methane cycle under future climate change: A review}},
  journal = {Reviews of Geophysics},
  keywords = {Global Change: Earth system modeling (1225), Hydrology: Wetlands (0497), Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325)},
  year = 2010,
  month = dec,
  volume = 48,
  eid = {RG4005},
  pages = {RG4005},
  abstract = {{We have reviewed the available scientific literature on how natural
sources and the atmospheric fate of methane may be affected by future
climate change. We discuss how processes governing methane wetland
emissions, permafrost thawing, and destabilization of marine hydrates
may affect the climate system. It is likely that methane wetland
emissions will increase over the next century. Uncertainties arise from
the temperature dependence of emissions and changes in the geographical
distribution of wetland areas. Another major concern is the possible
degradation or thaw of terrestrial permafrost due to climate change. The
amount of carbon stored in permafrost, the rate at which it will thaw,
and the ratio of methane to carbon dioxide emissions upon decomposition
form the main uncertainties. Large amounts of methane are also stored in
marine hydrates, and they could be responsible for large emissions in
the future. The time scales for destabilization of marine hydrates are
not well understood and are likely to be very long for hydrates found in
deep sediments but much shorter for hydrates below shallow waters, such
as in the Arctic Ocean. Uncertainties are dominated by the sizes and
locations of the methane hydrate inventories, the time scales associated
with heat penetration in the ocean and sediments, and the fate of
methane released in the seawater. Overall, uncertainties are large, and
it is difficult to be conclusive about the time scales and magnitudes of
methane feedbacks, but significant increases in methane emissions are
likely, and catastrophic emissions cannot be ruled out. We also identify
gaps in our scientific knowledge and make recommendations for future
research and development in the context of Earth system modeling.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2010RG000326},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010RvGeo..48.4005O},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010JGRD..11523308C,
  author = {{Collins}, W.~J. and {Sitch}, S. and {Boucher}, O.},
  title = {{How vegetation impacts affect climate metrics for ozone precursors}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Troposphere: composition and chemistry, Biogeosciences: Biosphere/atmosphere interactions (0315), Biogeosciences: Biogeochemical cycles, processes, and modeling (0412, 0793, 1615, 4805, 4912), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Evolution of the atmosphere (1610, 8125), climate metrics, ozone},
  year = 2010,
  month = dec,
  volume = 115,
  number = d14,
  eid = {D23308},
  pages = {D23308},
  abstract = {{We examine the effect of ozone damage to vegetation as caused by
anthropogenic emissions of ozone precursor species and quantify it in
terms of its impact on terrestrial carbon stores. A simple climate model
is then used to assess the expected changes in global surface
temperature from the resulting perturbations to atmospheric
concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and ozone. The concept of
global temperature change potential (GTP) metric, which relates the
global average surface temperature change induced by the pulse emission
of a species to that induced by a unit mass of carbon dioxide, is used
to characterize the impact of changes in emissions of ozone precursors
on surface temperature as a function of time. For NO$_{x}$
emissions, the longer-timescale methane perturbation is of the opposite
sign to the perturbations in ozone and carbon dioxide, so NO$_{x}$
emissions are warming in the short term, but cooling in the long term.
For volatile organic compound (VOC), CO, and methane emissions, all the
terms are warming for an increase in emissions. The GTPs for the 20 year
time horizon are strong functions of emission location, with a large
component of the variability owing to the different vegetation responses
on different continents. At this time horizon, the induced change in the
carbon cycle is the largest single contributor to the GTP metric for
NO$_{x}$ and VOC emissions. For NO$_{x}$ emissions, we
estimate a GTP$_{20}$ of -9 (cooling) to +24 (warming) depending
on assumptions of the sensitivity of vegetation types to ozone damage.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2010JD014187},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..11523308C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010JCli...23.6394Z,
  author = {{Zou}, L. and {Zhou}, T. and {Li}, L. and {Zhang}, J.},
  title = {{East China Summer Rainfall Variability of 1958-2000: Dynamical Downscaling with a Variable-Resolution AGCM}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2010,
  month = dec,
  volume = 23,
  pages = {6394-6408},
  doi = {10.1175/2010JCLI3689.1},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JCli...23.6394Z},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010JGRD..11521212H,
  author = {{Haywood}, J.~M. and {Jones}, A. and {Clarisse}, L. and {Bourassa}, A. and 
	{Barnes}, J. and {Telford}, P. and {Bellouin}, N. and {Boucher}, O. and 
	{Agnew}, P. and {Clerbaux}, C. and {Coheur}, P. and {Degenstein}, D. and 
	{Braesicke}, P.},
  title = {{Observations of the eruption of the Sarychev volcano and simulations using the HadGEM2 climate model}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801, 4906), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Volcanic effects (8409), Atmospheric Processes: Clouds and aerosols, Volcanology: Explosive volcanism, volcano, eruption, Sarychev, aerosol, sulphuric acid, climate},
  year = 2010,
  month = nov,
  volume = 115,
  number = d14,
  eid = {D21212},
  pages = {D21212},
  abstract = {{In June 2009 the Sarychev volcano located in the Kuril Islands to the
northeast of Japan erupted explosively, injecting ash and an estimated
1.2 {\plusmn} 0.2 Tg of sulfur dioxide into the upper troposphere and
lower stratosphere, making it arguably one of the 10 largest
stratospheric injections in the last 50 years. During the period
immediately after the eruption, we show that the sulfur dioxide
(SO$_{2}$) cloud was clearly detected by retrievals developed for
the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) satellite
instrument and that the resultant stratospheric sulfate aerosol was
detected by the Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System
(OSIRIS) limb sounder and CALIPSO lidar. Additional surface-based
instrumentation allows assessment of the impact of the eruption on the
stratospheric aerosol optical depth. We use a nudged version of the
HadGEM2 climate model to investigate how well this state-of-the-science
climate model can replicate the distributions of SO$_{2}$ and
sulfate aerosol. The model simulations and OSIRIS measurements suggest
that in the Northern Hemisphere the stratospheric aerosol optical depth
was enhanced by around a factor of 3 (0.01 at 550 nm), with resultant
impacts upon the radiation budget. The simulations indicate that, in the
Northern Hemisphere for July 2009, the magnitude of the mean radiative
impact from the volcanic aerosols is more than 60\% of the direct
radiative forcing of all anthropogenic aerosols put together. While the
cooling induced by the eruption will likely not be detectable in the
observational record, the combination of modeling and measurements would
provide an ideal framework for simulating future larger volcanic
eruptions.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2010JD014447},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..11521212H},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010A&A...522A..22W,
  author = {{Wordsworth}, R.~D. and {Forget}, F. and {Selsis}, F. and {Madeleine}, J.-B. and 
	{Millour}, E. and {Eymet}, V.},
  title = {{Is Gliese 581d habitable? Some constraints from radiative-convective climate modeling}},
  journal = {\aap},
  archiveprefix = {arXiv},
  eprint = {1005.5098},
  primaryclass = {astro-ph.EP},
  keywords = {planets and satellites: atmospheres, planets and satellites: surfaces, planetary systems, planet-star interactions, convection, radiative transfer},
  year = 2010,
  month = nov,
  volume = 522,
  eid = {A22},
  pages = {A22},
  abstract = {{The recently discovered exoplanet Gl 581d is extremely close to the
outer edge of its system's habitable zone, which has led to much
speculation on its possible climate. We have performed a range of
simulations to assess whether, given simple combinations of chemically
stable greenhouse gases, the planet could sustain liquid water on its
surface. For best estimates of the surface gravity, surface albedo and
cloud coverage, we find that less than 10 bars of CO$_{2}$ is
sufficient to maintain a global mean temperature above the melting point
of water. Furthermore, even with the most conservative choices of these
parameters, we calculate temperatures above the water melting point for
CO$_{2}$ partial pressures greater than about 40 bar. However, we
note that as Gl 581d is probably in a tidally resonant orbit, further
simulations in 3D are required to test whether such atmospheric
conditions are stable against the collapse of CO$_{2}$ on the
surface.
}},
  doi = {10.1051/0004-6361/201015053},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010A%26A...522A..22W},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010GeoRL..3720704C,
  author = {{Cattiaux}, J. and {Vautard}, R. and {Cassou}, C. and {Yiou}, P. and 
	{Masson-Delmotte}, V. and {Codron}, F.},
  title = {{Winter 2010 in Europe: A cold extreme in a warming climate}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Global Change: Regional climate change, Global Change: Climate dynamics (0429, 3309), Global Change: Climate variability (1635, 3305, 3309, 4215, 4513)},
  year = 2010,
  month = oct,
  volume = 37,
  eid = {L20704},
  pages = {L20704},
  abstract = {{The winter of 2009/2010 was characterized by record persistence of the
negative phase of the North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) which caused
several severe cold spells over Northern and Western Europe. This
somehow unusual winter with respect to the most recent ones arose
concurrently with public debate on climate change, during and after the
Copenhagen climate negotiations. We show however that the cold European
temperature anomaly of winter 2010 was (i) not extreme relative to
winters of the past six decades, and (ii) warmer than expected from its
record-breaking seasonal circulation indices such as NAO or blocking
frequency. Daily flow-analogues of winter 2010, taken in past winters,
were associated with much colder temperatures. The winter 2010 thus
provides a consistent picture of a regional cold event mitigated by
long-term climate warming.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2010GL044613},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeoRL..3720704C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010GeoRL..3720703R,
  author = {{Rap}, A. and {Forster}, P.~M. and {Haywood}, J.~M. and {Jones}, A. and 
	{Boucher}, O.},
  title = {{Estimating the climate impact of linear contrails using the UK Met Office climate model}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Global Change: Global climate models (3337, 4928), Atmospheric Processes: Clouds and cloud feedbacks, Global Change: Impacts of global change (1225), Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325), Atmospheric Processes: Climate change and variability (1616, 1635, 3309, 4215, 4513)},
  year = 2010,
  month = oct,
  volume = 37,
  eid = {L20703},
  pages = {L20703},
  abstract = {{The HadGEM2 global climate model is employed to investigate some of the
linear contrail effects on climate. Our study parameterizes linear
contrails as a thin layer of aerosol. We find that at 100 times the air
traffic of year 2000, linear contrails would change the equilibrium
global-mean temperature by +0.13 K, corresponding to a climate
sensitivity of 0.3 K/(Wm$^{-2}$) and a climate efficacy of 31\%
(significantly smaller than the only previously published estimate of
59\%). Our model suggests that contrails cause a slight warming of the
surface and, as noted by most global warming modelling studies, land
areas are affected more than the oceans. Also, unlike the contrail
coverage and radiative forcing, the contrail temperature change response
is not geographically correlated with air traffic patterns. In terms of
the contrail impact on precipitation, the main feature is the northern
shift of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone. Finally, our model
strongly indicates that the contrail impact on both the diurnal
temperature range and regional climate is significantly smaller than
some earlier studies suggested.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2010GL045161},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeoRL..3720703R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010AtmRe..44.3343B,
  author = {{Boucher}, O. and {Folberth}, G.~A.},
  title = {{New Directions: Atmospheric methane removal as a way to mitigate climate change?}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Research},
  year = 2010,
  month = sep,
  volume = 44,
  pages = {3343-3345},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AtmRe..44.3343B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010Icar..208..658M,
  author = {{Morgan}, G.~A. and {Head}, J.~W. and {Forget}, F. and {Madeleine}, J.-B. and 
	{Spiga}, A.},
  title = {{Gully formation on Mars: Two recent phases of formation suggested by links between morphology, slope orientation and insolation history}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  year = 2010,
  month = aug,
  volume = 208,
  pages = {658-666},
  abstract = {{The unusual 80 km diameter Noachian-aged Asimov crater in Noachis Terra
(46{\deg}S, 5{\deg}E) is characterized by extensive Noachian-Hesperian
crater fill and a younger superposed annulus of valleys encircling the
margins of the crater floor. These valleys provide an opportunity to
study the relationships of gully geomorphology as a function of changing
slope orientation relative to solar insolation. We found that the level
of development of gullies was highly correlated with slope orientation
and solar insolation. The largest and most complex gully systems, with
the most well-developed fluvial landforms, are restricted to pole-facing
slopes. In contrast, gullies on equator-facing slopes are smaller, more
poorly developed and integrated, more highly degraded, and contain more
impact craters. We used a 1D version of the Laboratoire de
Météorologie Dynamique GCM, and slope geometries
(orientation and angle), driven by predicted spin-axis/orbital parameter
history, to assess the distribution and history of surface temperatures
in these valleys during recent geological history. Surface temperatures
on pole-facing slopes preferential for water ice accumulation and
subsequent melting are predicted to occur as recently as 0.5-2.1 Ma,
which is consistent with age estimates of gully activity elsewhere on
Mars. In contrast, the 1D model predicts that water ice cannot
accumulate on equator-facing slopes until obliquities exceed 45{\deg},
suggesting they are unlikely to have been active over the last 5 Ma. The
correlation of the temperature predictions and the geological evidence
for age differences suggests that there were two phases of gully
formation in the last few million years: an older phase in which
top-down melting occurred on equator-facing slopes and a younger more
robust phase on pole-facing slopes. The similarities of small-scale
fluvial erosion features seen in the gullies on Mars and those observed
in gullies cut by seasonal and perennial snowmelt in the Antarctic Dry
Valleys supports a top-down melting origin for these gullies on Mars.
}},
  doi = {10.1016/j.icarus.2010.02.019},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010Icar..208..658M},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010ACP....10.7545W,
  author = {{Woodhouse}, M.~T. and {Carslaw}, K.~S. and {Mann}, G.~W. and 
	{Vallina}, S.~M. and {Vogt}, M. and {Halloran}, P.~R. and {Boucher}, O.
	},
  title = {{Low sensitivity of cloud condensation nuclei to changes in the sea-air flux of dimethyl-sulphide}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2010,
  month = aug,
  volume = 10,
  pages = {7545-7559},
  abstract = {{The emission of dimethyl-sulphide (DMS) gas by phytoplankton and the
subsequent formation of aerosol has long been suggested as an important
climate regulation mechanism. The key aerosol quantity is the number
concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), but until recently
global models did not include the necessary aerosol physics to quantify
CCN. Here we use a global aerosol microphysics model to calculate the
sensitivity of CCN to changes in DMS emission using multiple present-day
and future sea-surface DMS climatologies. Calculated annual fluxes of
DMS to the atmosphere for the five model-derived and one observations
based present day climatologies are in the range 15.1 to 32.3 Tg
a$^{-1}$ sulphur. The impact of DMS climatology on surface
level CCN concentrations was calculated in terms of summer and winter
hemispheric mean values of {$\Delta$}CCN/{$\Delta$}Flux$_{DMS}$, which
varied between -43 and +166 cm$^{-3}$/(mg
m$^{-2}$ day$^{-1}$ sulphur), with a mean of 63
cm$^{-3}$/(mg m$^{-2}$ day$^{-1}$
sulphur). The range is due to CCN production in the atmosphere being
strongly dependent on the spatial distribution of the emitted DMS. The
relative sensitivity of CCN to DMS (i.e. fractional change in CCN
divided by fractional change in DMS flux) depends on the abundance of
non-DMS derived aerosol in each hemisphere. The relative sensitivity
averaged over the five present day DMS climatologies is estimated to be
0.02 in the northern hemisphere (i.e. a 0.02\% change in CCN for a 1\%
change in DMS) and 0.07 in the southern hemisphere where aerosol
abundance is lower. In a globally warmed scenario in which the DMS flux
increases by \~{}1\% relative to present day we estimate a \~{}0.1\% increase in
global mean CCN at the surface. The largest CCN response occurs in the
Southern Ocean, contributing to a Southern Hemisphere mean annual
increase of less than 0.2\%. We show that the changes in DMS flux and CCN
concentration between the present day and global warming scenario are
similar to interannual differences due to variability in windspeed. In
summary, although DMS makes a significant contribution to global marine
CCN concentrations, the sensitivity of CCN to potential future changes
in DMS flux is very low. This finding, together with the predicted small
changes in future seawater DMS concentrations, suggests that the role of
DMS in climate regulation is very weak.
}},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10.7545W},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010JCli...23.3752G,
  author = {{Goubanova}, K. and {Li}, L. and {Yiou}, P. and {Codron}, F.
	},
  title = {{Relation between Large-Scale Circulation and European Winter Temperature: Does It Hold under Warmer Climate?}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2010,
  month = jul,
  volume = 23,
  pages = {3752-3760},
  doi = {10.1175/2010JCLI3166.1},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JCli...23.3752G},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010GeoRL..3714701A,
  author = {{Andrews}, T. and {Forster}, P.~M. and {Boucher}, O. and {Bellouin}, N. and 
	{Jones}, A.},
  title = {{Precipitation, radiative forcing and global temperature change}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325), Global Change: Water cycles (1836), Global Change: Global climate models (3337, 4928), Atmospheric Processes: Precipitation (1854), Atmospheric Processes: Radiative processes},
  year = 2010,
  month = jul,
  volume = 37,
  eid = {L14701},
  pages = {L14701},
  abstract = {{Radiative forcing is a useful tool for predicting equilibrium global
temperature change. However, it is not so useful for predicting global
precipitation changes, as changes in precipitation strongly depend on
the climate change mechanism and how it perturbs the atmospheric and
surface energy budgets. Here a suite of climate model experiments and
radiative transfer calculations are used to quantify and assess this
dependency across a range of climate change mechanisms. It is shown that
the precipitation response can be split into two parts: a fast
atmospheric response that strongly correlates with the atmospheric
component of radiative forcing, and a slower response to global surface
temperature change that is independent of the climate change mechanism,
{\tilde}2-3\% per unit of global surface temperature change. We highlight
the precipitation response to black carbon aerosol forcing as falling
within this range despite having an equilibrium response that is of
opposite sign to the radiative forcing and global temperature change.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2010GL043991},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeoRL..3714701A},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010ACP....10.5999J,
  author = {{Jones}, A. and {Haywood}, J. and {Boucher}, O. and {Kravitz}, B. and 
	{Robock}, A.},
  title = {{Geoengineering by stratospheric SO$_{2}$ injection: results from the Met Office HadGEM2 climate model and comparison with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2010,
  month = jul,
  volume = 10,
  pages = {5999-6006},
  abstract = {{We examine the response of the Met Office Hadley Centre's HadGEM2-AO
climate model to simulated geoengineering by continuous injection of
SO$_{2}$ into the lower stratosphere, and compare the results with
those from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE. Despite the
differences between the models, we find a broadly similar geographic
distribution of the response to geoengineering in both models in terms
of near-surface air temperature and mean June-August precipitation. The
simulations also suggest that significant changes in regional climate
would be experienced even if geoengineering was successful in
maintaining global-mean temperature near current values, and both models
indicate rapid warming if geoengineering is not sustained.
}},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10.5999J},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010MWRv..138.2426B,
  author = {{Bellenger}, H. and {Takayabu}, Y.~N. and {Ushiyama}, T. and 
	{Yoneyama}, K.},
  title = {{Role of Diurnal Warm Layers in the Diurnal Cycle of Convection over the Tropical Indian Ocean during MISMO}},
  journal = {Monthly Weather Review},
  year = 2010,
  month = jun,
  volume = 138,
  pages = {2426-2433},
  doi = {10.1175/2010MWR3249.1},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MWRv..138.2426B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010JGRE..115.6006L,
  author = {{Lebonnois}, S. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Eymet}, V. and {Crespin}, A. and 
	{Fournier}, R. and {Forget}, F.},
  title = {{Superrotation of Venus' atmosphere analyzed with a full general circulation model}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets)},
  keywords = {Planetary Sciences: Solid Surface Planets: Meteorology (3346), Atmospheric Processes: Planetary meteorology (5445, 5739), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Planetary atmospheres (5210, 5405, 5704), Atmospheric Processes: General circulation (1223)},
  year = 2010,
  month = jun,
  volume = 115,
  eid = {E06006},
  pages = {E06006},
  abstract = {{A general circulation model (GCM) has been developed for the Venus
atmosphere, from the surface up to 100 km altitude, based on the GCM
developed for Earth at our laboratory. Key features of this new GCM
include topography, diurnal cycle, dependence of the specific heat on
temperature, and a consistent radiative transfer module based on net
exchange rate matrices. This allows a consistent computation of the
temperature field, in contrast to previous GCMs of Venus atmosphere that
used simplified temperature forcing. The circulation is analyzed after
350 Venus days (111 Earth years). Superrotation is obtained above
roughly 40 km altitude. Below, the zonal wind remains very small
compared to observed values, which is a major pending question. The
meridional circulation consists of equator-to-pole cells, the dominant
one being located within the cloud layers. The modeled temperature
structure is globally consistent with observations, though discrepancies
persist in the stability of the lowest layers and equator-pole
temperature contrast within the clouds (10 K in the model compared to
the observed 40 K). In agreement with observational data, a convective
layer is found between the base of the clouds (around 47 km) and the
middle of the clouds (55-60 km altitude). The transport of angular
momentum is analyzed, and comparison between the reference simulation
and a simulation without diurnal cycle illustrates the role played by
thermal tides in the equatorial region. Without diurnal cycle, the
Gierasch-Rossow-Williams mechanism controls angular momentum transport.
The diurnal tides add a significant downward transport of momentum in
the equatorial region, causing low latitude momentum accumulation.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2009JE003458},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRE..115.6006L},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010MWRv..138.1957Y,
  author = {{Yano}, J.-I. and {Bénard}, P. and {Couvreux}, F. and {Lahellec}, A.
	},
  title = {{NAM-SCA: A Nonhydrostatic Anelastic Model with Segmentally Constant Approximations}},
  journal = {Monthly Weather Review},
  year = 2010,
  month = may,
  volume = 138,
  pages = {1957-1974},
  doi = {10.1175/2009MWR2997.1},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MWRv..138.1957Y},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010MWRv..138.1767D,
  author = {{Diatta}, S. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Gaye}, A.~T. and {Viltard}, N.
	},
  title = {{Comparison of Rainfall Profiles in the West African Monsoon as Depicted by TRMM PR and the LMDZ Climate Model}},
  journal = {Monthly Weather Review},
  year = 2010,
  month = may,
  volume = 138,
  pages = {1767-1777},
  doi = {10.1175/2009MWR3092.1},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MWRv..138.1767D},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010JGRD..11510205R,
  author = {{Rap}, A. and {Forster}, P.~M. and {Jones}, A. and {Boucher}, O. and 
	{Haywood}, J.~M. and {Bellouin}, N. and {de Leon}, R.~R.},
  title = {{Parameterization of contrails in the UK Met Office Climate Model}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Cloud/radiation interaction, Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325), Global Change: Global climate models (3337, 4928), contrails, climate model, parameterization},
  year = 2010,
  month = may,
  volume = 115,
  number = d14,
  eid = {D10205},
  pages = {D10205},
  abstract = {{Persistent contrails are believed to currently have a relatively small
but significant positive radiative forcing on climate. With air travel
predicted to continue its rapid growth over the coming years, the
contrail warming effect on climate is expected to increase.
Nevertheless, there remains a high level of uncertainty in the current
estimates of contrail radiative forcing. Contrail formation depends
mostly on the aircraft flying in cold and moist enough air masses. Most
studies to date have relied on simple parameterizations using averaged
meteorological conditions. In this paper we take into account the
short-term variability in background cloudiness by developing an on-line
contrail parameterization for the UK Met Office climate model. With this
parameterization, we estimate that for the air traffic of year 2002 the
global mean annual linear contrail coverage was approximately 0.11\%.
Assuming a global mean contrail optical depth of 0.2 or smaller and
assuming hexagonal ice crystals, the corresponding contrail radiative
forcing was calculated to be less than 10 mW m$^{-2}$ in all-sky
conditions. We find that the natural cloud masking effect on contrails
may be significantly higher than previously believed. This new result is
explained by the fact that contrails seem to preferentially form in
cloudy conditions, which ameliorates their overall climate impact by
approximately 40\%.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2009JD012443},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..11510205R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010BAMS...91..611W,
  author = {{Williams}, J.~E. and {Scheele}, R. and {van Velthoven}, P. and 
	{Bouarar}, I. and {Law}, K. and {Josse}, B. and {Peuch}, V.-H. and 
	{Yang}, X. and {Pyle}, J. and {Thouret}, V. and {Barret}, B. and 
	{Liousse}, C. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Szopa}, S. and {Cozic}, A.
	},
  title = {{Global Chemistry Simulations in the AMMA Multimodel Intercomparison Project}},
  journal = {Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society},
  year = 2010,
  month = may,
  volume = 91,
  pages = {611-624},
  doi = {10.1175/2009BAMS2818.1},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010BAMS...91..611W},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010ACP....10.4757W,
  author = {{Wyant}, M.~C. and {Wood}, R. and {Bretherton}, C.~S. and {Mechoso}, C.~R. and 
	{Bacmeister}, J. and {Balmaseda}, M.~A. and {Barrett}, B. and 
	{Codron}, F. and {Earnshaw}, P. and {Fast}, J. and {Hannay}, C. and 
	{Kaiser}, J.~W. and {Kitagawa}, H. and {Klein}, S.~A. and {K{\"o}hler}, M. and 
	{Manganello}, J. and {Pan}, H.-L. and {Sun}, F. and {Wang}, S. and 
	{Wang}, Y.},
  title = {{The PreVOCA experiment: modeling the lower troposphere in the Southeast Pacific}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2010,
  month = may,
  volume = 10,
  pages = {4757-4774},
  abstract = {{The Preliminary VOCALS Model Assessment (PreVOCA) aims to assess
contemporary atmospheric modeling of the subtropical South East Pacific,
with a particular focus on the clouds and the marine boundary layer
(MBL). Models results from fourteen modeling centers were collected
including operational forecast models, regional models, and global
climate models for the month of October 2006. Forecast models and global
climate models produced daily forecasts, while most regional models were
run continuously during the study period, initialized and forced at the
boundaries with global model analyses. Results are compared in the
region from 40{\deg} S to the equator and from 110{\deg} W to 70{\deg} W,
corresponding to the Pacific coast of South America. Mean-monthly model
surface winds agree well with QuikSCAT observed winds and models agree
fairly well on mean weak large-scale subsidence in the region next to
the coast. However they have greatly differing geographic patterns of
mean cloud fraction with only a few models agreeing well with MODIS
observations. Most models also underestimate the MBL depth by several
hundred meters in the eastern part of the study region. The diurnal
cycle of liquid water path is underestimated by most models at the
85{\deg} W 20{\deg} S stratus buoy site compared with satellite,
consistent with previous modeling studies. The low cloud fraction is
also underestimated during all parts of the diurnal cycle compared to
surface-based climatologies. Most models qualitatively capture the MBL
deepening around 15 October 2006 at the stratus buoy, associated with
colder air at 700 hPa.
}},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10.4757W},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010JAtS...67..881G,
  author = {{Grandpeix}, J.-Y. and {Lafore}, J.-P.},
  title = {{A Density Current Parameterization Coupled with Emanuel's Convection Scheme. Part I: The Models}},
  journal = {Journal of Atmospheric Sciences},
  year = 2010,
  month = apr,
  volume = 67,
  pages = {881-897},
  doi = {10.1175/2009JAS3044.1},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JAtS...67..881G},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010CRGeo.342..390R,
  author = {{Roca}, R. and {Bergès}, J.-C. and {Brogniez}, H. and {Capderou}, M. and 
	{Chambon}, P. and {Chomette}, O. and {Cloché}, S. and {Fiolleau}, T. and 
	{Jobard}, I. and {Lémond}, J. and {Ly}, M. and {Picon}, L. and 
	{Raberanto}, P. and {Szantai}, A. and {Viollier}, M.},
  title = {{On the water and energy cycles in the Tropics}},
  journal = {Comptes Rendus Geoscience},
  year = 2010,
  month = apr,
  volume = 342,
  pages = {390-402},
  abstract = {{The water and energy cycles are major elements of the Earth climate.
These cycles are especially active in the intertropical belt where
satellites provide the most suitable observational platform. The history
of Earth observations of the water cycle and of the radiation budget
viewed from space reveals that the fundamental questions from the early
times are still relevant for today's research. The last 2 decades have
seen a number of milestones regarding the documentation of rainfall,
mesoscale convective systems (MCS), water vapour and radiation at the
top of the atmosphere (TOA). Beyond dedicated missions that provided
enhanced characterizations of some elements of the atmospheric water
cycle and field campaigns that allowed the gathering of validation data,
the advent of the long record of meteorological satellites lead to new
questioning on the homogenisation of the data time series, etc. The use
of this record to document the tropical climate brought new results of
the distribution of humidity and reinforced the understanding of some
robust features of the African monsoon. Challenges for the immediate
future concerns the deepening of the understanding of the role of cloud
systems in the monsoon circulation, the downscaling of the documentation
of the water and energy cycle at the scale of these cloud systems, the
research of better adequation between the users and the satellite
estimate of rainfall and finally a much needed methodological effort to
build exploitable time series for the estimation of climatic trends in
the water and energy cycle in the Tropics. The required observations to
address these challenges are rapidly presented with emphasis on the
upcoming Megha-Tropiques (MT) mission.
}},
  doi = {10.1016/j.crte.2010.01.003},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CRGeo.342..390R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010ACP....10.1701C,
  author = {{Carslaw}, K.~S. and {Boucher}, O. and {Spracklen}, D.~V. and 
	{Mann}, G.~W. and {Rae}, J.~G.~L. and {Woodward}, S. and {Kulmala}, M.
	},
  title = {{A review of natural aerosol interactions and feedbacks within the Earth system}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2010,
  month = feb,
  volume = 10,
  pages = {1701-1737},
  abstract = {{The natural environment is a major source of atmospheric aerosols,
including dust, secondary organic material from terrestrial biogenic
emissions, carbonaceous particles from wildfires, and sulphate from
marine phytoplankton dimethyl sulphide emissions. These aerosols also
have a significant effect on many components of the Earth system such as
the atmospheric radiative balance and photosynthetically available
radiation entering the biosphere, the supply of nutrients to the ocean,
and the albedo of snow and ice. The physical and biological systems that
produce these aerosols can be highly susceptible to modification due to
climate change so there is the potential for important climate
feedbacks. We review the impact of these natural systems on atmospheric
aerosol based on observations and models, including the potential for
long term changes in emissions and the feedbacks on climate. The number
of drivers of change is very large and the various systems are strongly
coupled. There have therefore been very few studies that integrate the
various effects to estimate climate feedback factors. Nevertheless,
available observations and model studies suggest that the regional
radiative perturbations are potentially several Watts per square metre
due to changes in these natural aerosol emissions in a future climate.
Taking into account only the direct radiative effect of changes in the
atmospheric burden of natural aerosols, and neglecting potentially large
effects on other parts of the Earth system, a global mean radiative
perturbation approaching 1 W m$^{-2}$ is possible by the end
of the century. The level of scientific understanding of the climate
drivers, interactions and impacts is very low.
}},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10.1701C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010ClDy...34..149W,
  author = {{Wu}, T. and {Yu}, R. and {Zhang}, F. and {Wang}, Z. and {Dong}, M. and 
	{Wang}, L. and {Jin}, X. and {Chen}, D. and {Li}, L.},
  title = {{The Beijing Climate Center atmospheric general circulation model: description and its performance for the present-day climate}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 2010,
  month = jan,
  volume = 34,
  pages = {149-150},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-009-0594-8},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ClDy...34..149W},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010ClDy...34..123W,
  author = {{Wu}, T. and {Yu}, R. and {Zhang}, F. and {Wang}, Z. and {Dong}, M. and 
	{Wang}, L. and {Jin}, X. and {Chen}, D. and {Li}, L.},
  title = {{The Beijing Climate Center atmospheric general circulation model: description and its performance for the present-day climate}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {BCC\_AGCM2.0.1, CAM3, Performance, Present climate, ERA-40 reanalysis},
  year = 2010,
  month = jan,
  volume = 34,
  pages = {123-147},
  abstract = {{The Beijing Climate Center atmospheric general circulation model version
2.0.1 (BCC\_AGCM2.0.1) is described and its performance in simulating the
present-day climate is assessed. BCC\_AGCM2.0.1 originates from the
community atmospheric model version 3 (CAM3) developed by the National
Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The dynamics in BCC\_AGCM2.0.1
is, however, substantially different from the Eulerian spectral
formulation of the dynamical equations in CAM3, and several new physical
parameterizations have replaced the corresponding original ones. The
major modification of the model physics in BCC\_AGCM2.0.1 includes a new
convection scheme, a dry adiabatic adjustment scheme in which potential
temperature is conserved, a modified scheme to calculate the sensible
heat and moisture fluxes over the open ocean which takes into account
the effect of ocean waves on the latent and sensible heat fluxes, and an
empirical equation to compute the snow cover fraction. Specially, the
new convection scheme in BCC\_AGCM2.0.1, which is generated from the
Zhang and McFarlane{\rsquo}s scheme but modified, is tested to have
significant improvement in tropical maximum but also the subtropical
minimum precipitation, and the modified scheme for turbulent fluxes are
validated using EPIC2001 in situ observations and show a large
improvement than its original scheme in CAM3. BCC\_AGCM2.0.1 is forced by
observed monthly varying sea surface temperatures and sea ice
concentrations during 1949-2000. The model climatology is compiled
for the period 1971-2000 and compared with the ERA-40 reanalysis
products. The model performance is evaluated in terms of energy budgets,
precipitation, sea level pressure, air temperature, geopotential height,
and atmospheric circulation, as well as their seasonal variations.
Results show that BCC\_AGCM2.0.1 reproduces fairly well the present-day
climate. The combined effect of the new dynamical core and the updated
physical parameterizations in BCC\_AGCM2.0.1 leads to an overall
improvement, compared to the original CAM3.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-008-0487-2},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ClDy...34..123W},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010ACP....10...79K,
  author = {{Koch}, D. and {Schulz}, M. and {Kinne}, S. and {McNaughton}, C. and 
	{Spackman}, J.~R. and {Balkanski}, Y. and {Bauer}, S. and {Berntsen}, T. and 
	{Bond}, T.~C. and {Boucher}, O. and {Chin}, M. and {Clarke}, A. and 
	{de Luca}, N. and {Dentener}, F. and {Diehl}, T. and {Dubovik}, O. and 
	{Easter}, R. and {Fahey}, D.~W. and {Feichter}, J. and {Fillmore}, D. and 
	{Freitag}, S. and {Ghan}, S. and {Ginoux}, P. and {Gong}, S. and 
	{Horowitz}, L. and {Iversen}, T. and {Kirkev{\aa}g}, A. and 
	{Klimont}, Z. and {Kondo}, Y. and {Krol}, M. and {Liu}, X. and 
	{Miller}, R. and {Montanaro}, V. and {Moteki}, N. and {Myhre}, G. and 
	{Penner}, J.~E. and {Perlwitz}, J. and {Pitari}, G. and {Reddy}, S. and 
	{Sahu}, L. and {Sakamoto}, H. and {Schuster}, G. and {Schwarz}, J.~P. and 
	{Seland}, {\O}. and {Stier}, P. and {Takegawa}, N. and {Takemura}, T. and 
	{Textor}, C. and {van Aardenne}, J.~A. and {Zhao}, Y.},
  title = {{Corrigendum to ``Evaluation of black carbon estimations in global aerosol models'' published in Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 9001-9026, 2009}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2010,
  month = jan,
  volume = 10,
  pages = {79-81},
  abstract = {{No abstract available.
}},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10...79K},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2010AtmEn..44.3343B,
  author = {{Boucher}, O. and {Folberth}, G.~A.},
  title = {{New Directions: Atmospheric methane removal as a way to mitigate climate change?}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Environment},
  year = 2010,
  volume = 44,
  pages = {3343-3345},
  doi = {10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.04.032},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AtmEn..44.3343B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}