lmd_EMC32013.bib

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@article{2013ClDy...40.2123D,
  author = {{Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Foujols}, M.-A. and {Denvil}, S. and 
	{Caubel}, A. and {Marti}, O. and {Aumont}, O. and {Balkanski}, Y. and 
	{Bekki}, S. and {Bellenger}, H. and {Benshila}, R. and {Bony}, S. and 
	{Bopp}, L. and {Braconnot}, P. and {Brockmann}, P. and {Cadule}, P. and 
	{Cheruy}, F. and {Codron}, F. and {Cozic}, A. and {Cugnet}, D. and 
	{de Noblet}, N. and {Duvel}, J.-P. and {Ethé}, C. and {Fairhead}, L. and 
	{Fichefet}, T. and {Flavoni}, S. and {Friedlingstein}, P. and 
	{Grandpeix}, J.-Y. and {Guez}, L. and {Guilyardi}, E. and {Hauglustaine}, D. and 
	{Hourdin}, F. and {Idelkadi}, A. and {Ghattas}, J. and {Joussaume}, S. and 
	{Kageyama}, M. and {Krinner}, G. and {Labetoulle}, S. and {Lahellec}, A. and 
	{Lefebvre}, M.-P. and {Lefevre}, F. and {Levy}, C. and {Li}, Z.~X. and 
	{Lloyd}, J. and {Lott}, F. and {Madec}, G. and {Mancip}, M. and 
	{Marchand}, M. and {Masson}, S. and {Meurdesoif}, Y. and {Mignot}, J. and 
	{Musat}, I. and {Parouty}, S. and {Polcher}, J. and {Rio}, C. and 
	{Schulz}, M. and {Swingedouw}, D. and {Szopa}, S. and {Talandier}, C. and 
	{Terray}, P. and {Viovy}, N. and {Vuichard}, N.},
  title = {{Climate change projections using the IPSL-CM5 Earth System Model: from CMIP3 to CMIP5}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Climate, Climate change, Climate projections, Earth System Model, CMIP5, CMIP3, Greenhouse gases, Aerosols, Carbon cycle, Allowable emissions, RCP scenarios, Land use changes},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 40,
  pages = {2123-2165},
  abstract = {{We present the global general circulation model IPSL-CM5 developed to
study the long-term response of the climate system to natural and
anthropogenic forcings as part of the 5th Phase of the Coupled Model
Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). This model includes an interactive
carbon cycle, a representation of tropospheric and stratospheric
chemistry, and a comprehensive representation of aerosols. As it
represents the principal dynamical, physical, and bio-geochemical
processes relevant to the climate system, it may be referred to as an
Earth System Model. However, the IPSL-CM5 model may be used in a
multitude of configurations associated with different boundary
conditions and with a range of complexities in terms of processes and
interactions. This paper presents an overview of the different model
components and explains how they were coupled and used to simulate
historical climate changes over the past 150 years and different
scenarios of future climate change. A single version of the IPSL-CM5
model (IPSL-CM5A-LR) was used to provide climate projections associated
with different socio-economic scenarios, including the different
Representative Concentration Pathways considered by CMIP5 and several
scenarios from the Special Report on Emission Scenarios considered by
CMIP3. Results suggest that the magnitude of global warming projections
primarily depends on the socio-economic scenario considered, that there
is potential for an aggressive mitigation policy to limit global warming
to about two degrees, and that the behavior of some components of the
climate system such as the Arctic sea ice and the Atlantic Meridional
Overturning Circulation may change drastically by the end of the
twenty-first century in the case of a no climate policy scenario.
Although the magnitude of regional temperature and precipitation changes
depends fairly linearly on the magnitude of the projected global warming
(and thus on the scenario considered), the geographical pattern of these
changes is strikingly similar for the different scenarios. The
representation of atmospheric physical processes in the model is shown
to strongly influence the simulated climate variability and both the
magnitude and pattern of the projected climate changes.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-012-1636-1},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy...40.2123D},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013ClDy...40.2193H,
  author = {{Hourdin}, F. and {Grandpeix}, J.-Y. and {Rio}, C. and {Bony}, S. and 
	{Jam}, A. and {Cheruy}, F. and {Rochetin}, N. and {Fairhead}, L. and 
	{Idelkadi}, A. and {Musat}, I. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Lahellec}, A. and 
	{Lefebvre}, M.-P. and {Roehrig}, R.},
  title = {{LMDZ5B: the atmospheric component of the IPSL climate model with revisited parameterizations for clouds and convection}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Climate modeling, Physical parameterizations, Shallow convection, Deep convection, Climate change projections},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 40,
  pages = {2193-2222},
  abstract = {{Based on a decade of research on cloud processes, a new version of the
LMDZ atmospheric general circulation model has been developed that
corresponds to a complete recasting of the parameterization of
turbulence, convection and clouds. This LMDZ5B version includes a
mass-flux representation of the thermal plumes or rolls of the
convective boundary layer, coupled to a bi-Gaussian statistical cloud
scheme, as well as a parameterization of the cold pools generated below
cumulonimbus by re-evaporation of convective precipitation. The
triggering and closure of deep convection are now controlled by lifting
processes in the sub-cloud layer. An available lifting energy and
lifting power are provided both by the thermal plumes and by the spread
of cold pools. The individual parameterizations were carefully validated
against the results of explicit high resolution simulations. Here we
present the work done to go from those new concepts and developments to
a full 3D atmospheric model, used in particular for climate change
projections with the IPSL-CM5B coupled model. Based on a series of
sensitivity experiments, we document the differences with the previous
LMDZ5A version distinguishing the role of parameterization changes from
that of model tuning. Improvements found previously in single-column
simulations of case studies are confirmed in the 3D model: (1) the
convective boundary layer and cumulus clouds are better represented and
(2) the diurnal cycle of convective rainfall over continents is delayed
by several hours, solving a longstanding problem in climate modeling.
The variability of tropical rainfall is also larger in LMDZ5B at
intraseasonal time-scales. Significant biases of the LMDZ5A model
however remain, or are even sometimes amplified. The paper emphasizes
the importance of parameterization improvements and model tuning in the
frame of climate change studies as well as the new paradigm that
represents the improvement of 3D climate models under the control of
single-column case studies simulations.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-012-1343-y},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy...40.2193H},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013ClDy...40.2271R,
  author = {{Rio}, C. and {Grandpeix}, J.-Y. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Guichard}, F. and 
	{Couvreux}, F. and {Lafore}, J.-P. and {Fridlind}, A. and {Mrowiec}, A. and 
	{Roehrig}, R. and {Rochetin}, N. and {Lefebvre}, M.-P. and {Idelkadi}, A.
	},
  title = {{Control of deep convection by sub-cloud lifting processes: the ALP closure in the LMDZ5B general circulation model}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Deep convection parameterization, Triggering and closure, Oceanic versus continental convection, Diurnal cycle of precipitation, High resolution simulations to evaluate parameterizations assumptions},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 40,
  pages = {2271-2292},
  abstract = {{Recently, a new conceptual framework for deep convection scheme
triggering and closure has been developed and implemented in the LMDZ5B
general circulation model, based on the idea that deep convection is
controlled by sub-cloud lifting processes. Such processes include
boundary-layer thermals and evaporatively-driven cold pools (wakes),
which provide an available lifting energy that is compared to the
convective inhibition to trigger deep convection, and an available
lifting power (ALP) at cloud base, which is used to compute the
convective mass flux assuming the updraft vertical velocity at the level
of free convection. While the ALP closure was shown to delay the local
hour of maximum precipitation over land in better agreement with
observations, it results in an underestimation of the convection
intensity over the tropical ocean both in the 1D and 3D configurations
of the model. The specification of the updraft vertical velocity at the
level of free convection appears to be a key aspect of the closure
formulation, as it is weaker over tropical ocean than over land and
weaker in moist mid-latitudes than semi-arid regions. We propose a
formulation making this velocity increase with the level of free
convection, so that the ALP closure is adapted to various environments.
Cloud-resolving model simulations of observed oceanic and continental
case studies are used to evaluate the representation of lifting
processes and test the assumptions at the basis of the ALP closure
formulation. Results favor closures based on the lifting power of
sub-grid sub-cloud processes rather than those involving
quasi-equilibrium with the large-scale environment. The new version of
the model including boundary-layer thermals and cold pools coupled
together with the deep convection scheme via the ALP closure
significantly improves the representation of various observed case
studies in 1D mode. It also substantially modifies precipitation
patterns in the full 3D version of the model, including seasonal means,
diurnal cycle and intraseasonal variability.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-012-1506-x},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy...40.2271R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013ClDy...40.2167H,
  author = {{Hourdin}, F. and {Foujols}, M.-A. and {Codron}, F. and {Guemas}, V. and 
	{Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Bony}, S. and {Denvil}, S. and {Guez}, L. and 
	{Lott}, F. and {Ghattas}, J. and {Braconnot}, P. and {Marti}, O. and 
	{Meurdesoif}, Y. and {Bopp}, L.},
  title = {{Impact of the LMDZ atmospheric grid configuration on the climate and sensitivity of the IPSL-CM5A coupled model}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Climate modeling, Grid resolution, Climate change projections},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 40,
  pages = {2167-2192},
  abstract = {{The IPSL-CM5A climate model was used to perform a large number of
control, historical and climate change simulations in the frame of
CMIP5. The refined horizontal and vertical grid of the atmospheric
component, LMDZ, constitutes a major difference compared to the previous
IPSL-CM4 version used for CMIP3. From imposed-SST (Sea Surface
Temperature) and coupled numerical experiments, we systematically
analyze the impact of the horizontal and vertical grid resolution on the
simulated climate. The refinement of the horizontal grid results in a
systematic reduction of major biases in the mean tropospheric structures
and SST. The mid-latitude jets, located too close to the equator with
the coarsest grids, move poleward. This robust feature, is accompanied
by a drying at mid-latitudes and a reduction of cold biases in
mid-latitudes relative to the equator. The model was also extended to
the stratosphere by increasing the number of layers on the vertical from
19 to 39 (15 in the stratosphere) and adding relevant parameterizations.
The 39-layer version captures the dominant modes of the stratospheric
variability and exhibits stratospheric sudden warmings. Changing either
the vertical or horizontal resolution modifies the global energy balance
in imposed-SST simulations by typically several W/m$^{2}$ which
translates in the coupled atmosphere-ocean simulations into a different
global-mean SST. The sensitivity is of about 1.2 K per 1 W/m$^{2}$
when varying the horizontal grid. A re-tuning of model parameters was
thus required to restore this energy balance in the imposed-SST
simulations and reduce the biases in the simulated mean surface
temperature and, to some extent, latitudinal SST variations in the
coupled experiments for the modern climate. The tuning hardly
compensates, however, for robust biases of the coupled model. Despite
the wide range of grid configurations explored and their significant
impact on the present-day climate, the climate sensitivity remains
essentially unchanged.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-012-1411-3},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy...40.2167H},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013JAMES...5..692T,
  author = {{Tobin}, I. and {Bony}, S. and {Holloway}, C.~E. and {Grandpeix}, J.-Y. and 
	{Sèze}, G. and {Coppin}, D. and {Woolnough}, S.~J. and {Roca}, R.
	},
  title = {{Does convective aggregation need to be represented in cumulus parameterizations?}},
  journal = {Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems},
  keywords = {tropical deep convection, convective aggregation, satellite observations cloud-system resolving model, cumulus parameterization, large-scale circulation},
  year = 2013,
  month = dec,
  volume = 5,
  pages = {692-703},
  abstract = {{Tropical deep convection exhibits a variety of levels of aggregation
over a wide range of scales. Based on a multisatellite analysis, the
present study shows at mesoscale that different levels of aggregation
are statistically associated with differing large-scale atmospheric
states, despite similar convective intensity and large-scale forcings.
The more aggregated the convection, the dryer and less cloudy the
atmosphere, the stronger the outgoing longwave radiation, and the lower
the planetary albedo. This suggests that mesoscale convective
aggregation has the potential to affect couplings between moisture and
convection and between convection, radiation, and large-scale ascent. In
so doing, aggregation may play a role in phenomena such as ``hot spots''
or the Madden-Julian Oscillation. These findings support the need for
the representation of mesoscale organization in cumulus
parameterizations; most parameterizations used in current climate models
lack any such representation. The ability of a cloud system-resolving
model to reproduce observed relationships suggests that such models may
be useful to guide attempts at parameterizations of convective
aggregation.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/jame.20047},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JAMES...5..692T},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013ClDy...40.2251C,
  author = {{Cheruy}, F. and {Campoy}, A. and {Dupont}, J.-C. and {Ducharne}, A. and 
	{Hourdin}, F. and {Haeffelin}, M. and {Chiriaco}, M. and {Idelkadi}, A.
	},
  title = {{Combined influence of atmospheric physics and soil hydrology on the simulated meteorology at the SIRTA atmospheric observatory}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Climate model, Boundary layer parametrization, Evaluation, Land surface, Instrumented site, Land-atmosphere interactions},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 40,
  pages = {2251-2269},
  abstract = {{The identification of the land-atmosphere interactions as one of the key
source of uncertainty in climate models calls for process-level
assessment of the coupled atmosphere/land continental surface system in
numerical climate models. To this end, we propose a novel approach and
apply it to evaluate the standard and new parametrizations of boundary
layer/convection/clouds in the Earth System Model (ESM) of Institut
Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL), which differentiate the IPSL-CM5A and
IPSL-CM5B climate change simulations produced for the Coupled Model
Inter-comparison Project phase 5 exercise. Two different land surface
hydrology parametrizations are also considered to analyze different
land-atmosphere interactions. Ten-year simulations of the coupled land
surface/atmospheric ESM modules are confronted to observations collected
at the SIRTA (Site Instrumental de Recherche par
Télédection Atmosphérique), located near Paris
(France). For sounder evaluation of the physical parametrizations, the
grid of the model is stretched and refined in the vicinity of the SIRTA,
and the large scale component of the modeled circulation is adjusted
toward ERA-Interim reanalysis outside of the zoomed area. This allows us
to detect situations where the parametrizations do not perform
satisfactorily and can affect climate simulations at the
regional/continental scale, including in full 3D coupled runs. In
particular, we show how the biases in near surface state variables
simulated by the ESM are explained by (1) the sensible/latent heat
partitionning at the surface, (2) the low level cloudiness and its
radiative impact at the surface, (3) the parametrization of turbulent
transport in the surface layer, (4) the complex interplay between these
processes. We also show how the new set of parametrizations can improve
these biases.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-012-1469-y},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy...40.2251C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013JAtS...70.3940L,
  author = {{Lahellec}, A. and {Dufresne}, J.-L.},
  title = {{A Formal Analysis of the Feedback Concept in Climate Models. Part I: Exclusive and Inclusive Feedback Analyses}},
  journal = {Journal of Atmospheric Sciences},
  year = 2013,
  month = dec,
  volume = 70,
  pages = {3940-3958},
  abstract = {{Climate sensitivity and feedback are key concepts if the complex
behavior of climate response to perturbation is to be interpreted in a
simple way. They have also become an essential tool for comparing global
circulation models and assessing the reason for the spread in their
results. The authors introduce a formal basic model to analyze the
practical methods used to infer climate feedbacks and sensitivity from
GCMs. The tangent linear model is used first to critically review the
standard methods of feedback analyses that have been used in the GCM
community for 40 years now. This leads the authors to distinguish
between exclusive feedback analyses as in the partial radiative
perturbation approach and inclusive analyses as in the ``feedback
suppression'' methods. This review explains the hypotheses needed to
apply these methods with confidence. Attention is paid to the more
recent regression technique applied to the abrupt 2-CO2
experiment. A numerical evaluation of it is given, related to the
Lyapunov analysis of the dynamical feature of the regression. It is
applied to the Planck response, determined in its most strict definition
within the GCM. In this approach, the Planck feedback becomes a
dynamical feedback among others and, as such, also has a fast response
differing from its steady-state profile.
}},
  doi = {10.1175/JAS-D-12-0218.1},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JAtS...70.3940L},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013JAMES...5..826Z,
  author = {{Zhang}, M. and {Bretherton}, C.~S. and {Blossey}, P.~N. and 
	{Austin}, P.~H. and {Bacmeister}, J.~T. and {Bony}, S. and {Brient}, F. and 
	{Cheedela}, S.~K. and {Cheng}, A. and {Del Genio}, A.~D. and 
	{De Roode}, S.~R. and {Endo}, S. and {Franklin}, C.~N. and {Golaz}, J.-C. and 
	{Hannay}, C. and {Heus}, T. and {Isotta}, F.~A. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and 
	{Kang}, I.-S. and {Kawai}, H. and {K{\"o}hler}, M. and {Larson}, V.~E. and 
	{Liu}, Y. and {Lock}, A.~P. and {Lohmann}, U. and {Khairoutdinov}, M.~F. and 
	{Molod}, A.~M. and {Neggers}, R.~A.~J. and {Rasch}, P. and {Sandu}, I. and 
	{Senkbeil}, R. and {Siebesma}, A.~P. and {Siegenthaler-Le Drian}, C. and 
	{Stevens}, B. and {Suarez}, M.~J. and {Xu}, K.-M. and {von Salzen}, K. and 
	{Webb}, M.~J. and {Wolf}, A. and {Zhao}, M.},
  title = {{CGILS: Results from the first phase of an international project to understand the physical mechanisms of low cloud feedbacks in single column models}},
  journal = {Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems},
  keywords = {low cloud feedbacks, CGILS, single column models, large eddy models},
  year = 2013,
  month = dec,
  volume = 5,
  pages = {826-842},
  abstract = {{CGILS{\mdash}the CFMIP-GASS Intercomparison of Large Eddy Models (LESs)
and single column models (SCMs){\mdash}investigates the mechanisms of
cloud feedback in SCMs and LESs under idealized climate change
perturbation. This paper describes the CGILS results from 15 SCMs and 8
LES models. Three cloud regimes over the subtropical oceans are studied:
shallow cumulus, cumulus under stratocumulus, and well-mixed coastal
stratus/stratocumulus. In the stratocumulus and coastal stratus regimes,
SCMs without activated shallow convection generally simulated negative
cloud feedbacks, while models with active shallow convection generally
simulated positive cloud feedbacks. In the shallow cumulus alone regime,
this relationship is less clear, likely due to the changes in cloud
depth, lateral mixing, and precipitation or a combination of them. The
majority of LES models simulated negative cloud feedback in the
well-mixed coastal stratus/stratocumulus regime, and positive feedback
in the shallow cumulus and stratocumulus regime. A general framework is
provided to interpret SCM results: in a warmer climate, the moistening
rate of the cloudy layer associated with the surface-based turbulence
parameterization is enhanced; together with weaker large-scale
subsidence, it causes negative cloud feedback. In contrast, in the
warmer climate, the drying rate associated with the shallow convection
scheme is enhanced. This causes positive cloud feedback. These
mechanisms are summarized as the ``NESTS'' negative cloud feedback and the
``SCOPE'' positive cloud feedback (Negative feedback from Surface
Turbulence under weaker Subsidence{\mdash}Shallow Convection PositivE
feedback) with the net cloud feedback depending on how the two opposing
effects counteract each other. The LES results are consistent with these
interpretations.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/2013MS000246},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JAMES...5..826Z},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013ClDy...41.3339V,
  author = {{Vial}, J. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Bony}, S.},
  title = {{On the interpretation of inter-model spread in CMIP5 climate sensitivity estimates}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Climate sensitivity, Feedback, Radiative forcing, Fast adjustment, Radiative kernel, CMIP5 climate model simulations, Climate change, Inter-model spread},
  year = 2013,
  month = dec,
  volume = 41,
  pages = {3339-3362},
  abstract = {{This study diagnoses the climate sensitivity, radiative forcing and
climate feedback estimates from eleven general circulation models
participating in the Fifth Phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison
Project (CMIP5), and analyzes inter-model differences. This is done by
taking into account the fact that the climate response to increased
carbon dioxide (CO$_{2}$) is not necessarily only mediated by
surface temperature changes, but can also result from fast land warming
and tropospheric adjustments to the CO$_{2}$ radiative forcing. By
considering tropospheric adjustments to CO$_{2}$ as part of the
forcing rather than as feedbacks, and by using the radiative kernels
approach, we decompose climate sensitivity estimates in terms of
feedbacks and adjustments associated with water vapor, temperature lapse
rate, surface albedo and clouds. Cloud adjustment to CO$_{2}$ is,
with one exception, generally positive, and is associated with a reduced
strength of the cloud feedback; the multi-model mean cloud feedback is
about 33 \% weaker. Non-cloud adjustments associated with temperature,
water vapor and albedo seem, however, to be better understood as
responses to land surface warming. Separating out the tropospheric
adjustments does not significantly affect the spread in climate
sensitivity estimates, which primarily results from differing climate
feedbacks. About 70 \% of the spread stems from the cloud feedback, which
remains the major source of inter-model spread in climate sensitivity,
with a large contribution from the tropics. Differences in tropical
cloud feedbacks between low-sensitivity and high-sensitivity models
occur over a large range of dynamical regimes, but primarily arise from
the regimes associated with a predominance of shallow cumulus and
stratocumulus clouds. The combined water vapor plus lapse rate feedback
also contributes to the spread of climate sensitivity estimates, with
inter-model differences arising primarily from the relative humidity
responses throughout the troposphere. Finally, this study points to a
substantial role of nonlinearities in the calculation of adjustments and
feedbacks for the interpretation of inter-model spread in climate
sensitivity estimates. We show that in climate model simulations with
large forcing (e.g., 4 {\times} CO$_{2}$), nonlinearities cannot be
assumed minor nor neglected. Having said that, most results presented
here are consistent with a number of previous feedback studies, despite
the very different nature of the methodologies and all the uncertainties
associated with them.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-013-1725-9},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy...41.3339V},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013ClDy...41.3103T,
  author = {{Tomassini}, L. and {Geoffroy}, O. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and 
	{Idelkadi}, A. and {Cagnazzo}, C. and {Block}, K. and {Mauritsen}, T. and 
	{Giorgetta}, M. and {Quaas}, J.},
  title = {{The respective roles of surface temperature driven feedbacks and tropospheric adjustment to CO$_{2}$ in CMIP5 transient climate simulations}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Climate feedbacks, Tropospheric adjustment, Transient climate response},
  year = 2013,
  month = dec,
  volume = 41,
  pages = {3103-3126},
  abstract = {{An overview of radiative climate feedbacks and ocean heat uptake
efficiency diagnosed from idealized transient climate change experiments
of 14 CMIP5 models is presented. Feedbacks explain about two times more
variance in transient climate response across the models than ocean heat
uptake efficiency. Cloud feedbacks can clearly be identified as the main
source of inter-model spread. Models with strong longwave feedbacks in
the tropics feature substantial increases in cloud ice around the
tropopause suggestive of changes in cloud-top heights. The lifting of
the tropical tropopause goes together with a general weakening of the
tropical circulation. Distinctive inter-model differences in cloud
shortwave feedbacks occur in the subtropics including the equatorward
flanks of the storm-tracks. Related cloud fraction changes are not
confined to low clouds but comprise middle level clouds as well. A
reduction in relative humidity through the lower and mid troposphere can
be identified as being the main associated large-scale feature.
Experiments with prescribed sea surface temperatures are analyzed in
order to investigate whether the diagnosed feedbacks from the transient
climate simulations contain a tropospheric adjustment component that is
not conveyed through the surface temperature response. The strengths of
the climate feedbacks computed from atmosphere-only experiments with
prescribed increases in sea surface temperatures, but fixed
CO$_{2}$ concentrations, are close to the ones derived from the
transient experiment. Only the cloud shortwave feedback exhibits
discernible differences which, however, can not unequivocally be
attributed to tropospheric adjustment to CO$_{2}$. Although for
some models a tropospheric adjustment component is present in the global
mean shortwave cloud feedback, an analysis of spatial patterns does not
lend support to the view that cloud feedbacks are dominated by their
tropospheric adjustment part. Nevertheless, there is positive
correlation between the strength of tropospheric adjustment processes
and cloud feedbacks across different climate models.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-013-1682-3},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy...41.3103T},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013JGRD..11810725C,
  author = {{Campoy}, A. and {Ducharne}, A. and {Cheruy}, F. and {Hourdin}, F. and 
	{Polcher}, J. and {Dupont}, J.~C.},
  title = {{Response of land surface fluxes and precipitation to different soil bottom hydrological conditions in a general circulation model}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {land surface model, climate model, groundwater, soil-precipitation feedback Europe},
  year = 2013,
  month = oct,
  volume = 118,
  number = d17,
  pages = {10},
  abstract = {{Very different approaches exist in land surface models (LSMs) to
describe the water fluxes at the soil bottom, from free drainage to zero
flux, and even upward fluxes if the soil is coupled to a water table. To
explore the influence of these conditions on the water cycle in a
unified framework, we introduce new boundary conditions in the ORCHIDEE
LSM, which is coupled to the atmospheric general circulation model LMDZ.
We use a zoomed and nudged configuration centered over France to
reproduce the observed regional weather. Soil moisture and
evapotranspiration increase ranging from free drainage to impermeable
bottom, then by prescribing saturation closer and closer to the surface.
The corresponding response patterns can be related to both climate
regimes and soil texture. When confronted to observations from the SIRTA
observatory 25 km south of Paris, which exhibits a shallow water table,
the best simulations are the ones with prescribed saturation. The local
precipitation, however, is only increased if the new bottom boundary
conditions are applied globally. The magnitude of this increase depends
on the evaporation and on the relative weight of local versus remote
sources of moisture for precipitation between Western and Eastern
Europe. This suggests that the summer warm/dry bias of many climate
models in this region might be alleviated by including a sufficiently
realistic ground water description.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/jgrd.50627},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..11810725C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013GeoRL..40.5212S,
  author = {{Seneviratne}, S.~I. and {Wilhelm}, M. and {Stanelle}, T. and 
	{Hurk}, B. and {Hagemann}, S. and {Berg}, A. and {Cheruy}, F. and 
	{Higgins}, M.~E. and {Meier}, A. and {Brovkin}, V. and {Claussen}, M. and 
	{Ducharne}, A. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Findell}, K.~L. and 
	{Ghattas}, J. and {Lawrence}, D.~M. and {Malyshev}, S. and {Rummukainen}, M. and 
	{Smith}, B.},
  title = {{Impact of soil moisture-climate feedbacks on CMIP5 projections: First results from the GLACE-CMIP5 experiment}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {CMIP5, soil moisture, feedbacks, climate extremes, land-atmosphere interactions, projections},
  year = 2013,
  month = oct,
  volume = 40,
  pages = {5212-5217},
  abstract = {{Global Land-Atmosphere Climate Experiment-Coupled Model Intercomparison
Project phase 5 (GLACE-CMIP5) is a multimodel experiment investigating
the impact of soil moisture-climate feedbacks in CMIP5 projections. We
present here first GLACE-CMIP5 results based on five Earth System
Models, focusing on impacts of projected changes in regional soil
moisture dryness (mostly increases) on late 21st century climate.
Projected soil moisture changes substantially impact climate in several
regions in both boreal and austral summer. Strong and consistent effects
are found on temperature, especially for extremes (about 1-1.5 K for
mean temperature and 2-2.5 K for extreme daytime temperature). In the
Northern Hemisphere, effects on mean and heavy precipitation are also
found in most models, but the results are less consistent than for
temperature. A direct scaling between soil moisture-induced changes in
evaporative cooling and resulting changes in temperature mean and
extremes is found in the simulations. In the Mediterranean region, the
projected soil moisture changes affect about 25\% of the projected
changes in extreme temperature.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/grl.50956},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.5212S},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013JGRE..118.1468C,
  author = {{Cola{\"i}tis}, A. and {Spiga}, A. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Rio}, C. and 
	{Forget}, F. and {Millour}, E.},
  title = {{A thermal plume model for the Martian convective boundary layer}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets)},
  archiveprefix = {arXiv},
  eprint = {1306.6215},
  primaryclass = {physics.ao-ph},
  keywords = {Mars, atmosphere, convection, boundary layer, large-eddy simulations, PBL parameterization},
  year = 2013,
  month = jul,
  volume = 118,
  pages = {1468-1487},
  abstract = {{The Martian planetary boundary layer (PBL) is a crucial component of the
Martian climate system. Global climate models (GCMs) and mesoscale
models (MMs) lack the resolution to predict PBL mixing which is
therefore parameterized. Here we propose to adapt the ``thermal plume''
model, recently developed for Earth climate modeling, to Martian GCMs,
MMs, and single-column models. The aim of this physically based
parameterization is to represent the effect of organized turbulent
structures (updrafts and downdrafts) on the daytime PBL transport, as it
is resolved in large-eddy simulations (LESs). We find that the
terrestrial thermal plume model needs to be modified to satisfyingly
account for deep turbulent plumes found in the Martian convective PBL.
Our Martian thermal plume model qualitatively and quantitatively
reproduces the thermal structure of the daytime PBL on Mars:
superadiabatic near-surface layer, mixing layer, and overshoot region at
PBL top. This model is coupled to surface layer parameterizations taking
into account stability and turbulent gustiness to calculate
surface-atmosphere fluxes. Those new parameterizations for the surface
and mixed layers are validated against near-surface lander measurements.
Using a thermal plume model moreover enables a first-order estimation of
key turbulent quantities (e.g., PBL height and convective plume
velocity) in Martian GCMs and MMs without having to run costly LESs.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/jgre.20104},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRE..118.1468C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013ClDy...41..173P,
  author = {{P Sabin}, T. and {Krishnan}, R. and {Ghattas}, J. and {Denvil}, S. and 
	{Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Pascal}, T.},
  title = {{High resolution simulation of the South Asian monsoon using a variable resolution global climate model}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {High-resolution variable-grid LMDZ model, South Asian monsoon, Moist-convective processes, Scale interactions},
  year = 2013,
  month = jul,
  volume = 41,
  pages = {173-194},
  abstract = {{This study examines the feasibility of using a variable resolution
global general circulation model (GCM), with telescopic zooming and
enhanced resolution (\~{}35 km) over South Asia, to better understand
regional aspects of the South Asian monsoon rainfall distribution and
the interactions between monsoon circulation and precipitation. For this
purpose, two sets of ten member realizations are produced with and
without zooming using the LMDZ (Laboratoire Meteorologie Dynamique and Z
stands for zoom) GCM. The simulations without zoom correspond to a
uniform 1{\deg} {\times} 1{\deg} grid with the same total number of grid
points as in the zoom version. So the grid of the zoomed simulations is
finer inside the region of interest but coarser outside. The use of
these finer and coarser resolution ensemble members allows us to examine
the impact of resolution on the overall quality of the simulated
regional monsoon fields. It is found that the monsoon simulation with
high-resolution zooming greatly improves the representation of the
southwesterly monsoon flow and the heavy precipitation along the narrow
orography of the Western Ghats, the northeastern mountain slopes and
northern Bay of Bengal (BOB). A realistic Monsoon Trough (MT) is also
noticed in the zoomed simulation, together with remarkable improvements
in representing the associated precipitation and circulation features,
as well as the large-scale organization of meso-scale convective systems
over the MT region. Additionally, a more reasonable simulation of the
monsoon synoptic disturbances (lows and disturbances) along the MT is
noted in the high-resolution zoomed simulation. On the other hand, the
no-zoom version has limitations in capturing the depressions and their
movement, so that the MT zone is relatively dry in this case. Overall,
the results from this work demonstrate the usefulness of the
high-resolution variable resolution LMDZ model in realistically
capturing the interactions among the monsoon large-scale dynamics, the
synoptic systems and the meso-scale convective systems, which are
essential elements of the South Asian monsoon system.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-012-1658-8},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy...41..173P},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013BoLMe.147..421J,
  author = {{Jam}, A. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Rio}, C. and {Couvreux}, F.
	},
  title = {{Resolved Versus Parametrized Boundary-Layer Plumes. Part III: Derivation of a Statistical Scheme for Cumulus Clouds}},
  journal = {Boundary-Layer Meteorology},
  keywords = {Boundary-layer thermals, Cloud scheme, Conditional sampling, Large-eddy simulations, Probability distribution function},
  year = 2013,
  month = jun,
  volume = 147,
  pages = {421-441},
  abstract = {{We present a statistical cloud scheme based on the subgrid-scale
distribution of the saturation deficit. When analyzed in large-eddy
simulations (LES) of a typical cloudy convective boundary layer, this
distribution is shown to be bimodal and reasonably well-fitted by a
bi-Gaussian distribution. Thanks to a tracer-based conditional sampling
of coherent structures of the convective boundary layer in LES, we
demonstrate that one mode corresponds to plumes of buoyant air arising
from the surface, and the second to their environment, both within the
cloud and sub-cloud layers. According to this analysis, we propose a
cloud scheme based on a bi-Gaussian distribution of the saturation
deficit, which can be easily coupled with any mass-flux scheme that
discriminates buoyant plumes from their environment. For that, the
standard deviations of the two Gaussian modes are parametrized starting
from the top-hat distribution of the subgrid-scale thermodynamic
variables given by the mass-flux scheme. Single-column model simulations
of continental and maritime case studies show that this approach allows
us to capture the vertical and temporal variations of the cloud cover
and liquid water.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s10546-012-9789-3},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BoLMe.147..421J},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013ClDy...40.2223S,
  author = {{Szopa}, S. and {Balkanski}, Y. and {Schulz}, M. and {Bekki}, S. and 
	{Cugnet}, D. and {Fortems-Cheiney}, A. and {Turquety}, S. and 
	{Cozic}, A. and {Déandreis}, C. and {Hauglustaine}, D. and 
	{Idelkadi}, A. and {Lathière}, J. and {Lefevre}, F. and 
	{Marchand}, M. and {Vuolo}, R. and {Yan}, N. and {Dufresne}, J.-L.
	},
  title = {{Aerosol and ozone changes as forcing for climate evolution between 1850 and 2100}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Ozone, Aerosols, Radiative forcing, Climate-chemistry, Modeling, Future projections},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 40,
  pages = {2223-2250},
  abstract = {{Global aerosol and ozone distributions and their associated radiative
forcings were simulated between 1850 and 2100 following a recent
historical emission dataset and under the representative concentration
pathways (RCP) for the future. These simulations were used in an Earth
System Model to account for the changes in both radiatively and
chemically active compounds, when simulating the climate evolution. The
past negative stratospheric ozone trends result in a negative climate
forcing culminating at -0.15 W m$^{-2}$ in the 1990s. In the
meantime, the tropospheric ozone burden increase generates a positive
climate forcing peaking at 0.41 W m$^{-2}$. The future evolution
of ozone strongly depends on the RCP scenario considered. In RCP4.5 and
RCP6.0, the evolution of both stratospheric and tropospheric ozone
generate relatively weak radiative forcing changes until 2060-2070
followed by a relative 30 \% decrease in radiative forcing by 2100. In
contrast, RCP8.5 and RCP2.6 model projections exhibit strongly different
ozone radiative forcing trajectories. In the RCP2.6 scenario, both
effects (stratospheric ozone, a negative forcing, and tropospheric
ozone, a positive forcing) decline towards 1950s values while they both
get stronger in the RCP8.5 scenario. Over the twentieth century, the
evolution of the total aerosol burden is characterized by a strong
increase after World War II until the middle of the 1980s followed by a
stabilization during the last decade due to the strong decrease in
sulfates in OECD countries since the 1970s. The cooling effects reach
their maximal values in 1980, with -0.34 and -0.28 W m$^{-2}$
respectively for direct and indirect total radiative forcings. According
to the RCP scenarios, the aerosol content, after peaking around 2010, is
projected to decline strongly and monotonically during the twenty-first
century for the RCP8.5, 4.5 and 2.6 scenarios. While for RCP6.0 the
decline occurs later, after peaking around 2050. As a consequence the
relative importance of the total cooling effect of aerosols becomes
weaker throughout the twenty-first century compared with the positive
forcing of greenhouse gases. Nevertheless, both surface ozone and
aerosol content show very different regional features depending on the
future scenario considered. Hence, in 2050, surface ozone changes vary
between -12 and +12 ppbv over Asia depending on the RCP projection,
whereas the regional direct aerosol radiative forcing can locally exceed
-3 W m$^{-2}$.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-012-1408-y},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy...40.2223S},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013RvGeo..51..525Y,
  author = {{Yao}, T. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and {Gao}, J. and {Yu}, W. and 
	{Yang}, X. and {Risi}, C. and {Sturm}, C. and {Werner}, M. and 
	{Zhao}, H. and {He}, Y. and {Ren}, W. and {Tian}, L. and {Shi}, C. and 
	{Hou}, S.},
  title = {{A review of climatic controls on {$\delta$}$^{18}$O in precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau: Observations and simulations}},
  journal = {Reviews of Geophysics},
  keywords = {precipitation stable isotopes, observations, AGCMs simulations, Tibetan Plateau},
  year = 2013,
  month = dec,
  volume = 51,
  pages = {525-548},
  abstract = {{stable oxygen isotope ratio ({$\delta$}$^{18}$O) in precipitation is
an integrated tracer of atmospheric processes worldwide. Since the
1990s, an intensive effort has been dedicated to studying precipitation
isotopic composition at more than 20 stations in the Tibetan Plateau
(TP) located at the convergence of air masses between the westerlies and
Indian monsoon. In this paper, we establish a database of precipitation
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O and use different models to evaluate the climatic
controls of precipitation {$\delta$}$^{18}$O over the TP. The spatial
and temporal patterns of precipitation {$\delta$}$^{18}$O and their
relationships with temperature and precipitation reveal three distinct
domains, respectively associated with the influence of the westerlies
(northern TP), Indian monsoon (southern TP), and transition in between.
Precipitation {$\delta$}$^{18}$O in the monsoon domain experiences an
abrupt decrease in May and most depletion in August, attributable to the
shifting moisture origin between Bay of Bengal (BOB) and southern Indian
Ocean. High-resolution atmospheric models capture the spatial and
temporal patterns of precipitation {$\delta$}$^{18}$O and their
relationships with moisture transport from the westerlies and Indian
monsoon. Only in the westerlies domain are atmospheric models able to
represent the relationships between climate and precipitation
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O. More significant temperature effect exists when
either the westerlies or Indian monsoon is the sole dominant atmospheric
process. The observed and simulated altitude-{$\delta$}$^{18}$O
relationships strongly depend on the season and the domain (Indian
monsoon or westerlies). Our results have crucial implications for the
interpretation of paleoclimate records and for the application of
atmospheric simulations to quantifying paleoclimate and paleo-elevation
changes.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/rog.20023},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013RvGeo..51..525Y},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013NatCo...4E2934P,
  author = {{Pe{\~n}uelas}, J. and {Poulter}, B. and {Sardans}, J. and {Ciais}, P. and 
	{van der Velde}, M. and {Bopp}, L. and {Boucher}, O. and {Godderis}, Y. and 
	{Hinsinger}, P. and {Llusia}, J. and {Nardin}, E. and {Vicca}, S. and 
	{Obersteiner}, M. and {Janssens}, I.~A.},
  title = {{Human-induced nitrogen-phosphorus imbalances alter natural and managed ecosystems across the globe}},
  journal = {Nature Communications},
  year = 2013,
  month = dec,
  volume = 4,
  eid = {2934},
  pages = {2934},
  abstract = {{The availability of carbon from rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels
and of nitrogen from various human-induced inputs to ecosystems is
continuously increasing; however, these increases are not paralleled by
a similar increase in phosphorus inputs. The inexorable change in the
stoichiometry of carbon and nitrogen relative to phosphorus has no
equivalent in Earth{\rsquo}s history. Here we report the profound and yet
uncertain consequences of the human imprint on the phosphorus cycle and
nitrogen:phosphorus stoichiometry for the structure, functioning and
diversity of terrestrial and aquatic organisms and ecosystems. A mass
balance approach is used to show that limited phosphorus and nitrogen
availability are likely to jointly reduce future carbon storage by
natural ecosystems during this century. Further, if phosphorus
fertilizers cannot be made increasingly accessible, the crop yields
projections of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment imply an increase of
the nutrient deficit in developing regions.
}},
  doi = {10.1038/ncomms3934},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCo...4E2934P},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013IJCli..33.3217Z,
  author = {{Zhang}, J. and {Li}, D. and {Li}, L. and {Deng}, W.},
  title = {{Decadal variability of droughts and floods in the Yellow River basin during the last five centuries and relations with the North Atlantic SST}},
  journal = {International Journal of Climatology},
  year = 2013,
  month = dec,
  volume = 33,
  pages = {3217-3228},
  doi = {10.1002/joc.3662},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJCli..33.3217Z},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013WRR....49.7469J,
  author = {{Jouzel}, J. and {Delaygue}, G. and {Landais}, A. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and 
	{Risi}, C. and {Vimeux}, F.},
  title = {{Water isotopes as tools to document oceanic sources of precipitation}},
  journal = {Water Resources Research},
  year = 2013,
  month = nov,
  volume = 49,
  abstract = {{The isotopic composition of precipitation, in deuterium, oxygen 18 and
oxygen 17, depends on the climatic conditions prevailing in the oceanic
regions where it originates, mainly the sea surface temperature and the
relative humidity of air. This dependency applies to present-day
precipitation but also to past records which are extracted, for example,
from polar ice cores. In turn, coisotopic measurements of deuterium and
oxygen 18 offer the possibility to retrieve information about the
oceanic origin of modern precipitation as well as about past changes in
sea surface temperature and relative humidity of air. This
interpretation of isotopic measurements has largely relied on simple
Rayleigh-type isotopic models and is complemented by Lagrangian back
trajectory analysis of moisture sources. It is now complemented by
isotopic General Circulation Models (IGCM) in which the origin of
precipitation can be tagged. We shortly review published results
documenting this link between the oceanic sources of precipitation and
their isotopic composition. We then present experiments performed with
two different IGCMs, the GISS model II and the LMDZ model. We focus our
study on marine water vapor and its contribution to precipitation over
Antarctica and over the Andean region of South America. We show how IGCM
experiments allow us to relate climatic conditions prevailing in the
oceanic source of precipitation to its isotopic composition. Such
experiments support, at least qualitatively, the current interpretation
of ice core isotopic data in terms of changes in sea surface
temperature. Additionally, we discuss recent studies clearly showing the
added value of oxygen 17 measurements.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/2013WR013508},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013WRR....49.7469J},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013JGRD..11812195A,
  author = {{Alterskj{\ae}r}, K. and {Kristj{\'a}nsson}, J.~E. and {Boucher}, O. and 
	{Muri}, H. and {Niemeier}, U. and {Schmidt}, H. and {Schulz}, M. and 
	{Timmreck}, C.},
  title = {{Sea-salt injections into the low-latitude marine boundary layer: The transient response in three Earth system models}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {climate engineering},
  year = 2013,
  month = nov,
  volume = 118,
  number = d17,
  pages = {12},
  abstract = {{proposed mechanisms for counteracting global warming through solar
radiation management is the deliberate injection of sea salt acting via
marine cloud brightening and the direct effect of sea-salt aerosols. In
this study, we show results from multidecadal simulations of such
sea-salt climate engineering (SSCE) on top of the RCP4.5 emission
scenario using three Earth system models. As in the proposed ``G3''
experiment of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project, SSCE is
designed to keep the top-of-atmosphere radiative forcing at the 2020
level for 50 years. SSCE is then turned off and the models run for
another 20 years, enabling an investigation of the abrupt warming
associated with a termination of climate engineering (``termination
effect''). As in former idealized studies, the climate engineering in all
three models leads to a significant suppression of evaporation from
low-latitude oceans and reduced precipitation over low-latitude oceans
as well as in the storm-track regions. Unlike those studies, however, we
find in all models enhanced evaporation, cloud formation, and
precipitation over low-latitude land regions. This is a response to the
localized cooling over the low-latitude oceans imposed by the SSCE
design. As a result, the models obtain reduced aridity in many
low-latitude land regions as well as in southern Europe. Terminating the
SSCE leads to a rapid near-surface temperature increase, which, in the
Arctic, exceeds 2 K in all three models within 20 years after SSCE has
ceased. In the same period September Arctic sea ice cover shrinks by
over 25\%.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/2013JD020432},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..11812195A},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013JGRC..118.6303M,
  author = {{Melet}, A. and {Nikurashin}, M. and {Muller}, C. and {Falahat}, S. and 
	{Nycander}, J. and {Timko}, P.~G. and {Arbic}, B.~K. and {Goff}, J.~A.
	},
  title = {{Internal tide generation by abyssal hills using analytical theory}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Oceans)},
  keywords = {internal waves, internal tide generation, linear wave theory, small-scale topography, ocean mixing},
  year = 2013,
  month = nov,
  volume = 118,
  pages = {6303-6318},
  abstract = {{Internal tide driven mixing plays a key role in sustaining the deep
ocean stratification and meridional overturning circulation. Internal
tides can be generated by topographic horizontal scales ranging from
hundreds of meters to tens of kilometers. State of the art topographic
products barely resolve scales smaller than {\tilde}10 km in the deep
ocean. On these scales abyssal hills dominate ocean floor roughness. The
impact of abyssal hill roughness on internal-tide generation is
evaluated in this study. The conversion of M$_{2}$ barotropic to
baroclinic tidal energy is calculated based on linear wave theory both
in real and spectral space using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission
SRTM30\_PLUS bathymetric product at 1/120{\deg} resolution with and
without the addition of synthetic abyssal hill roughness. Internal tide
generation by abyssal hills integrates to 0.1 TW globally or 0.03 TW
when the energy flux is empirically corrected for supercritical slope
(i.e., {\tilde}10\% of the energy flux due to larger topographic scales
resolved in standard products in both cases). The abyssal hill driven
energy conversion is dominated by mid-ocean ridges, where abyssal hill
roughness is large. Focusing on two regions located over the
Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the East Pacific Rise, it is shown that
regionally linear theory predicts an increase of the energy flux due to
abyssal hills of up to 100\% or 60\% when an empirical correction for
supercritical slopes is attempted. Therefore, abyssal hills, unresolved
in state of the art topographic products, can have a strong impact on
internal tide generation, especially over mid-ocean ridges.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/2013JC009212},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRC..118.6303M},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013AdAtS..30.1587Z,
  author = {{Zhang}, J. and {Li}, L. and {Zhou}, T. and {Xin}, X.},
  title = {{Evaluation of spring persistent rainfall over East Asia in CMIP3/CMIP5 AGCM simulations}},
  journal = {Advances in Atmospheric Sciences},
  keywords = {model comparison, CMIP3, CMIP5, spring persistent rainfall (SPR), atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM)},
  year = 2013,
  month = nov,
  volume = 30,
  pages = {1587-1600},
  abstract = {{The progress made from Phase 3 to Phase 5 of the Coupled Model
Intercomparison Project (CMIP3 to CMIP5) in simulating spring persistent
rainfall (SPR) over East Asia was examined from the outputs of nine
atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs). The majority of the
models overestimated the precipitation over the SPR domain, with the
mean latitude of the SPR belt shifting to the north. The overestimation
was about 1mm d$^{-1}$ in the CMIP3 ensemble, and the
northward displacement was about 3{\deg}, while in the CMIP5 ensemble the
overestimation was suppressed to 0.7 mm d$^{-1}$ and the
northward shift decreased to 2.5{\deg}. The SPR features a
northeast-southwest extended rain belt with a slope of 0.4{\deg}N/{\deg}E.
The CMIP5 ensemble yielded a smaller slope (0.2{\deg}N/{\deg}E), whereas
the CMIP3 ensemble featured an unrealistic zonally-distributed slope.
The CMIP5 models also showed better skill in simulating the interannual
variability of SPR. Previous studies have suggested that the zonal
land-sea thermal contrast and sensible heat flux over the southeastern
Tibetan Plateau are important for the existence of SPR. These two
thermal factors were captured well in the CMIP5 ensemble, but
underestimated in the CMIP3 ensemble. The variability of zonal land-sea
thermal contrast is positively correlated with the rainfall amount over
the main SPR center, but it was found that an overestimated thermal
contrast between East Asia and South China Sea is a common problem in
most of the CMIP3 and CMIP5 models. Simulation of the meridional thermal
contrast is therefore important for the future improvement of current
AGCMs.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00376-013-2139-7},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdAtS..30.1587Z},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013TellB..5421043G,
  author = {{Gao}, J. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and {Risi}, C. and {He}, Y. and 
	{Yao}, T.},
  title = {{What controls precipitation {\^I}{\acute}18O in the southern Tibetan Plateau at seasonal and intra-seasonal scales? A case study at Lhasa and Nyalam}},
  journal = {Tellus Series B Chemical and Physical Meteorology B},
  year = 2013,
  month = oct,
  volume = 54,
  abstract = {{Understanding the spatial and temporal controls of precipitation
{$\delta$}18O in the southern Tibetan Plateau of central Asia is necessary
for paleoclimate reconstructions from the wealth of regional archives
(ice cores, lake sediments, tree ring cellulose, and speleothems). While
classical interpretations of such records were conducted in terms of
local precipitation, simulations conducted with atmospheric general
circulation models enabled with water stable isotopes have suggested
that past changes in south Asia precipitation {$\delta$}18O may be driven
by remote processes linked to moisture transport. Studies conducted at
the event scale can provide constraints to assess the drivers of
precipitation {$\delta$}18O and the validity of simulated mechanisms. Here,
we take advantage of new event precipitation {$\delta$}18O monitored from
January 2005 to December 2007 at two southern Tibetan Plateau stations
(Lhasa and Nyalam). The drivers of daily to seasonal variations are
investigated using statistical relationships with local and regional
temperature, precipitation amount and convective activity based on in
situ data and satellite products. The strongest control on precipitation
{$\delta$}18O at Lhasa during the monsoon season at event and seasonal
scales is provided by the integrated regional convective activity
upstream air mass trajectories, cumulated over several days. In
contrast, the integrated convection appears to be the main driver of
precipitation {$\delta$}18O at Nyalam only in July and August, and the
situation is more complex in other months. Local climate variables can
only account for a small fraction of the observed {$\delta$}18O variance,
with significant differences between both stations. This study offers a
better constraint on climate archives interpretation in the southern
Tibetan Plateau. The daily data presented here also provides a benchmark
to evaluate the capacity of isotopically enabled atmospheric general
circulation models (iGCMs) to simulate the response of precip!

itation {$\delta$}18O to convection. This is illustrated using a nudged and
zo omed simulation with the LMDZiso model. While it successfully
simulates some seasonal and daily characteristics of precipitation
{$\delta$}18O in the southern Tibetan Plateau, it fails to simulate the
correlation between {$\delta$}18O and upstream precipitation. This calls
for caution when using atmospheric models to interpret precipitation
{$\delta$}18O archives in terms of past monsoon variability.
}},
  doi = {10.3402/tellusb.v65i0.21043},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013TellB..5421043G},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013JGRD..11811175K,
  author = {{Kravitz}, B. and {Forster}, P.~M. and {Jones}, A. and {Robock}, A. and 
	{Alterskj{\ae}r}, K. and {Boucher}, O. and {Jenkins}, A.~K.~L. and 
	{Korhonen}, H. and {Kristj{\'a}nsson}, J.~E. and {Muri}, H. and 
	{Niemeier}, U. and {Partanen}, A.-I. and {Rasch}, P.~J. and 
	{Wang}, H. and {Watanabe}, S.},
  title = {{Sea spray geoengineering experiments in the geoengineering model intercomparison project (GeoMIP): Experimental design and preliminary results}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Geoengineering, Model Intercomparison, Marine Clouds},
  year = 2013,
  month = oct,
  volume = 118,
  number = d17,
  pages = {11},
  abstract = {{cloud brightening through sea spray injection has been proposed as a
method of temporarily alleviating some of the impacts of anthropogenic
climate change, as part of a set of technologies called geoengineering.
We outline here a proposal for three coordinated climate modeling
experiments to test aspects of sea spray geoengineering, to be conducted
under the auspices of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project
(GeoMIP). The first, highly idealized, experiment (G1ocean-albedo)
involves a uniform increase in ocean albedo to offset an instantaneous
quadrupling of CO$_{2}$ concentrations from preindustrial levels.
Results from a single climate model show an increased land-sea
temperature contrast, Arctic warming, and large shifts in annual mean
precipitation patterns. The second experiment (G4cdnc) involves
increasing cloud droplet number concentration in all low-level marine
clouds to offset some of the radiative forcing of an RCP4.5 scenario.
This experiment will test the robustness of models in simulating
geographically heterogeneous radiative flux changes and their effects on
climate. The third experiment (G4sea-salt) involves injection of sea
spray aerosols into the marine boundary layer between 30{\deg}S and
30{\deg}N to offset 2 W m$^{-2}$ of the effective radiative forcing
of an RCP4.5 scenario. A single model study shows that the induced
effective radiative forcing is largely confined to the latitudes in
which injection occurs. In this single model simulation, the forcing due
to aerosol-radiation interactions is stronger than the forcing due to
aerosol-cloud interactions.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/jgrd.50856},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..11811175K},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013JGRD..11811036T,
  author = {{Tilmes}, S. and {Fasullo}, J. and {Lamarque}, J.-F. and {Marsh}, D.~R. and 
	{Mills}, M. and {Alterskj{\ae}r}, K. and {Muri}, H. and {Kristj{\'a}nsson}, J.~E. and 
	{Boucher}, O. and {Schulz}, M. and {Cole}, J.~N.~S. and {Curry}, C.~L. and 
	{Jones}, A. and {Haywood}, J. and {Irvine}, P.~J. and {Ji}, D. and 
	{Moore}, J.~C. and {Karam}, D.~B. and {Kravitz}, B. and {Rasch}, P.~J. and 
	{Singh}, B. and {Yoon}, J.-H. and {Niemeier}, U. and {Schmidt}, H. and 
	{Robock}, A. and {Yang}, S. and {Watanabe}, S.},
  title = {{The hydrological impact of geoengineering in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {geoengineering, hydrological cycle, climate change, GeoMIP, solar radiation management, monsoon},
  year = 2013,
  month = oct,
  volume = 118,
  number = d17,
  pages = {11},
  abstract = {{The hydrological impact of enhancing Earth's albedo by solar radiation
management is investigated using simulations from 12 Earth System models
contributing to the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project
(GeoMIP). We contrast an idealized experiment, G1, where the global mean
radiative forcing is kept at preindustrial conditions by reducing
insolation while the CO$_{2}$ concentration is quadrupled to a
4{\times}CO$_{2}$ experiment. The reduction of evapotranspiration
over land with instantaneously increasing CO$_{2}$ concentrations
in both experiments largely contributes to an initial reduction in
evaporation. A warming surface associated with the transient adjustment
in 4{\times}CO$_{2}$ generates an increase of global precipitation
by around 6.9\% with large zonal and regional changes in both directions,
including a precipitation increase of 10\% over Asia and a reduction of
7\% for the North American summer monsoon. Reduced global evaporation
persists in G1 with temperatures close to preindustrial conditions.
Global precipitation is reduced by around 4.5\%, and significant
reductions occur over monsoonal land regions: East Asia (6\%), South
Africa (5\%), North America (7\%), and South America (6\%). The general
precipitation performance in models is discussed in comparison to
observations. In contrast to the 4{\times}CO$_{2}$ experiment,
where the frequency of months with heavy precipitation intensity is
increased by over 50\% in comparison to the control, a reduction of up to
20\% is simulated in G1. These changes in precipitation in both total
amount and frequency of extremes point to a considerable weakening of
the hydrological cycle in a geoengineered world.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/jgrd.50868},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..11811036T},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013JGRD..11810414C,
  author = {{Charnay}, B. and {Forget}, F. and {Wordsworth}, R. and {Leconte}, J. and 
	{Millour}, E. and {Codron}, F. and {Spiga}, A.},
  title = {{Exploring the faint young Sun problem and the possible climates of the Archean Earth with a 3-D GCM}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  archiveprefix = {arXiv},
  eprint = {1310.4286},
  primaryclass = {astro-ph.EP},
  keywords = {early Earth, Archean, paleo-climates},
  year = 2013,
  month = sep,
  volume = 118,
  number = d17,
  pages = {10},
  abstract = {{Different solutions have been proposed to solve the ``faint young Sun
problem,'' defined by the fact that the Earth was not fully frozen during
the Archean despite the fainter Sun. Most previous studies were
performed with simple 1-D radiative convective models and did not
account well for the clouds and ice-albedo feedback or the atmospheric
and oceanic transport of energy. We apply a global climate model (GCM)
to test the different solutions to the faint young Sun problem. We
explore the effect of greenhouse gases (CO$_{2}$ and
CH$_{4}$), atmospheric pressure, cloud droplet size, land
distribution, and Earth's rotation rate. We show that neglecting organic
haze, 100 mbar of CO$_{2}$ with 2 mbar of CH$_{4}$ at 3.8 Ga
and 10 mbar of CO$_{2}$ with 2 mbar of CH$_{4}$ at 2.5 Ga
allow a temperate climate (mean surface temperature between 10{\deg}C and
20{\deg}C). Such amounts of greenhouse gases remain consistent with the
geological data. Removing continents produces a warming lower than
+4{\deg}C. The effect of rotation rate is even more limited. Larger
droplets (radii of 17 {$\mu$}m versus 12 {$\mu$}m) and a doubling of the
atmospheric pressure produce a similar warming of around +7{\deg}C. In
our model, ice-free water belts can be maintained up to 25{\deg}N/S with
less than 1 mbar of CO$_{2}$ and no methane. An interesting cloud
feedback appears above cold oceans, stopping the glaciation. Such a
resistance against full glaciation tends to strongly mitigate the faint
young Sun problem.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/jgrd.50808},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..11810414C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013JGRD..118.9743J,
  author = {{Jones}, A. and {Haywood}, J.~M. and {Alterskj{\ae}r}, K. and 
	{Boucher}, O. and {Cole}, J.~N.~S. and {Curry}, C.~L. and {Irvine}, P.~J. and 
	{Ji}, D. and {Kravitz}, B. and {Egill-Kristj{\'a}nsson}, J. and 
	{Moore}, J.~C. and {Niemeier}, U. and {Robock}, A. and {Schmidt}, H. and 
	{Singh}, B. and {Tilmes}, S. and {Watanabe}, S. and {Yoon}, J.-H.
	},
  title = {{The impact of abrupt suspension of solar radiation management (termination effect) in experiment G2 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {geoengineering, termination, climate change, climate model, intercomparison, GeoMIP},
  year = 2013,
  month = sep,
  volume = 118,
  pages = {9743-9752},
  abstract = {{We have examined changes in climate which result from the sudden
termination of geoengineering after 50 years of offsetting a 1\% per
annum increase in CO$_{2}$ concentrations by a reduction of solar
radiation, as simulated by 11 different climate models in experiment G2
of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project. The models agree on
a rapid increase in global-mean temperature following termination
accompanied by increases in global-mean precipitation rate and decreases
in sea-ice cover. There is no agreement on the impact of geoengineering
termination on the rate of change of global-mean plant net primary
productivity. There is a considerable degree of consensus for the
geographical distribution of temperature change following termination,
with faster warming at high latitudes and over land. There is also
considerable agreement regarding the distribution of reductions in
Arctic sea-ice, but less so for the Antarctic. There is much less
agreement regarding the patterns of change in precipitation and net
primary productivity, with a greater degree of consensus at higher
latitudes.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/jgrd.50762},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.9743J},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013JCli...26.7060H,
  author = {{Hall}, N.~M.~J. and {Douville}, H. and {Li}, L.},
  title = {{Extratropical Summertime Response to Tropical Interannual Variability in an Idealized GCM}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2013,
  month = sep,
  volume = 26,
  pages = {7060-7079},
  doi = {10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00461.1},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JCli...26.7060H},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013JCli...26.6471R,
  author = {{Roehrig}, R. and {Bouniol}, D. and {Guichard}, F. and {Hourdin}, F. and 
	{Redelsperger}, J.-L.},
  title = {{The Present and Future of the West African Monsoon: A Process-Oriented Assessment of CMIP5 Simulations along the AMMA Transect}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2013,
  month = sep,
  volume = 26,
  pages = {6471-6505},
  doi = {10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00505.1},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JCli...26.6471R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013CliPa...9.2213R,
  author = {{Rousseau}, D.-D. and {Ghil}, M. and {Kukla}, G. and {Sima}, A. and 
	{Antoine}, P. and {Fuchs}, M. and {Hatté}, C. and {Lagroix}, F. and 
	{Debret}, M. and {Moine}, O.},
  title = {{Major dust events in Europe during marine isotope stage 5 (130-74 ka): a climatic interpretation of the ``markers''}},
  journal = {Climate of the Past},
  year = 2013,
  month = sep,
  volume = 9,
  pages = {2213-2230},
  abstract = {{At present, major dust storms are occurring at mid-latitudes in the
Middle East and Asia, as well as at low latitudes in Northern Africa and
in Australia. Western Europe, though, does not experience such dramatic
climate events, except for some African dust reaching it from the
Sahara. This modern situation is of particular interest, in the context
of future climate projections, since the present interglacial is usually
interpreted, in this context, as an analog of the warm Eemian interval.
European terrestrial records show, however, major dust events during the
penultimate interglacial and early glacial. These events are easily
observed in loess records by their whitish-color deposits, which lie
above and below dark chernozem paleosols in Central European records of
Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 age. 

We describe here the base of the Dolni Vestonice (DV) loess sequence, Czech Republic, as the reference of such records. The dust is deposited during intervals that are characterized by poor vegetation - manifested by high {$\delta$}$^{13}$C values and low magnetic susceptibility - while the fine sand and clay in the deposits shows grain sizes that are clearly different from the overlying pleniglacial loess deposits. Some of these dust events have been previously described as ``Markers'' or Marker Silts (MS) by one of us (G. Kukla), and are dated at about 111-109 ka and 93-92 ka, with a third and last one slightly visible at about 75-73 ka. Other events correspond to the loess material of Kukla's cycles, and are described as eolian silts (ES); they are observed in the same DV sequence and are dated at about 106-105 ka, 88-86 ka, and 78.5-77 ka. These dates are determined by considering the OSL ages with their errors measured on the studied sequence, and the comparison with Greenland ice-core and European speleothem chronologies.

The fine eolian deposits mentioned above, MS as well as ES, correspond to short events that lasted about 2 ka; they are synchronous with re-advances of the polar front over the North Atlantic, as observed in marine sediment cores. These deposits also correlate with important changes observed in European vegetation. Some ES and MS events appear to be coeval with significant dust peaks recorded in the Greenland ice cores, while others are not. This decoupling between the European eolian and Greenland dust depositions is of considerable interest, as it differs from the fully glacial situation, in which the Eurasian loess sedimentation mimics the Greenland dust record. Previous field observations supported an interpretation of MS events as caused by continental dust storms. We show here, by a comparison with speleothems of the same age found in the northern Alps, that different atmospheric-circulation modes seem to be responsible for the two categories of dust events, MS vs. ES. }}, doi = {10.5194/cp-9-2213-2013}, adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CliPa...9.2213R}, adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System} }
@article{2013CliPa...9.2173R,
  author = {{Risi}, C. and {Landais}, A. and {Winkler}, R. and {Vimeux}, F.
	},
  title = {{Can we determine what controls the spatio-temporal distribution of d-excess and $^{17}$O-excess in precipitation using the LMDZ general circulation model?}},
  journal = {Climate of the Past},
  year = 2013,
  month = sep,
  volume = 9,
  pages = {2173-2193},
  abstract = {{Combined measurements of the H$_{2}$$^{18}$O and HDO
isotopic ratios in precipitation, leading to second-order parameter
D-excess, have provided additional constraints on past climates compared
to the H$_{2}$$^{18}$O isotopic ratio alone. More recently,
measurements of H$_{2}$$^{17}$O have led to another
second-order parameter: $^{17}$O-excess. Recent studies suggest
that $^{17}$O-excess in polar ice may provide information on
evaporative conditions at the moisture source. However, the processes
controlling the spatio-temporal distribution of $^{17}$O-excess
are still far from being fully understood. We use the isotopic general
circulation model (GCM) LMDZ to better understand what controls d-excess
and $^{17}$O-excess in precipitation at present-day (PD) and
during the last glacial maximum (LGM). The simulation of D-excess and
$^{17}$O-excess is evaluated against measurements in meteoric
water, water vapor and polar ice cores. A set of sensitivity tests and
diagnostics are used to quantify the relative effects of evaporative
conditions (sea surface temperature and relative humidity), Rayleigh
distillation, mixing between vapors from different origins,
precipitation re-evaporation and supersaturation during condensation at
low temperature. In LMDZ, simulations suggest that in the tropics
convective processes and rain re-evaporation are important controls on
precipitation D-excess and $^{17}$O-excess. In higher latitudes,
the effect of distillation, mixing between vapors from different origins
and supersaturation are the most important controls. For example, the
lower d-excess and $^{17}$O-excess at LGM simulated at LGM are
mainly due to the supersaturation effect. The effect of supersaturation
is however very sensitive to a parameter whose tuning would require more
measurements and laboratory experiments. Evaporative conditions had
previously been suggested to be key controlling factors of d-excess and
$^{17}$O-excess, but LMDZ underestimates their role. More
generally, some shortcomings in the simulation of $^{17}$O-excess
by LMDZ suggest that general circulation models are not yet the perfect
tool to quantify with confidence all processes controlling
$^{17}$O-excess.
}},
  doi = {10.5194/cp-9-2173-2013},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CliPa...9.2173R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013ClDy...41.1419V,
  author = {{Vautard}, R. and {Noël}, T. and {Li}, L. and {Vrac}, M. and 
	{Martin}, E. and {Dandin}, P. and {Cattiaux}, J. and {Joussaume}, S.
	},
  title = {{Climate variability and trends in downscaled high-resolution simulations and projections over Metropolitan France}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 2013,
  month = sep,
  volume = 41,
  pages = {1419-1437},
  abstract = {{In order to fulfill the society demand for climate information at the
spatial scale allowing impact studies, long-term high-resolution climate
simulations are produced, over an area covering metropolitan France. One
of the major goals of this article is to investigate whether such
simulations appropriately simulate the spatial and temporal variability
of the current climate, using two simulation chains. These start from
the global IPSL-CM4 climate model, using two regional models (LMDz and
MM5) at moderate resolution (15-20 km), followed with a
statistical downscaling method in order to reach a target resolution of
8 km. The statistical downscaling technique includes a non-parametric
method that corrects the distribution by using high-resolution analyses
over France. First the uncorrected simulations are evaluated against a
set of high-resolution analyses, with a focus on temperature and
precipitation. Uncorrected downscaled temperatures suffer from a cold
bias that is present in the global model as well. Precipitations biases
have a season- and model-dependent behavior. Dynamical models
overestimate rainfall but with different patterns and amplitude, but
both have underestimations in the South-Eastern area (Cevennes
mountains) in winter. A variance decomposition shows that uncorrected
simulations fairly well capture observed variances from inter-annual to
high-frequency intra-seasonal time scales. After correction,
distributions match with analyses by construction, but it is shown that
spatial coherence, persistence properties of warm, cold and dry episodes
also match to a certain extent. Another aim of the article is to
describe the changes for future climate obtained using these simulations
under Scenario A1B. Results are presented on the changes between current
and mid-term future (2021-2050) averages and variability over
France. Interestingly, even though the same global climate model is used
at the boundaries, regional climate change responses from the two models
significantly differ.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-012-1621-8},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy...41.1419V},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013JGRD..118.8320K,
  author = {{Kravitz}, B. and {Caldeira}, K. and {Boucher}, O. and {Robock}, A. and 
	{Rasch}, P.~J. and {Alterskj{\ae}r}, K. and {Karam}, D.~B. and 
	{Cole}, J.~N.~S. and {Curry}, C.~L. and {Haywood}, J.~M. and 
	{Irvine}, P.~J. and {Ji}, D. and {Jones}, A. and {Kristj{\'a}nsson}, J.~E. and 
	{Lunt}, D.~J. and {Moore}, J.~C. and {Niemeier}, U. and {Schmidt}, H. and 
	{Schulz}, M. and {Singh}, B. and {Tilmes}, S. and {Watanabe}, S. and 
	{Yang}, S. and {Yoon}, J.-H.},
  title = {{Climate model response from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {geoengineering, model intercomparison},
  year = 2013,
  month = aug,
  volume = 118,
  pages = {8320-8332},
  abstract = {{geoengineering{\mdash}deliberate reduction in the amount of solar
radiation retained by the Earth{\mdash}has been proposed as a means of
counteracting some of the climatic effects of anthropogenic greenhouse
gas emissions. We present results from Experiment G1 of the
Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project, in which 12 climate models
have simulated the climate response to an abrupt quadrupling of
CO$_{2}$ from preindustrial concentrations brought into radiative
balance via a globally uniform reduction in insolation. Models show this
reduction largely offsets global mean surface temperature increases due
to quadrupled CO$_{2}$ concentrations and prevents 97\% of the
Arctic sea ice loss that would otherwise occur under high CO$_{2}$
levels but, compared to the preindustrial climate, leaves the tropics
cooler (-0.3 K) and the poles warmer (+0.8 K). Annual mean precipitation
minus evaporation anomalies for G1 are less than 0.2 mm day$^{-1}$
in magnitude over 92\% of the globe, but some tropical regions receive
less precipitation, in part due to increased moist static stability and
suppression of convection. Global average net primary productivity
increases by 120\% in G1 over simulated preindustrial levels, primarily
from CO$_{2}$ fertilization, but also in part due to reduced plant
heat stress compared to a high CO$_{2}$ world with no
geoengineering. All models show that uniform solar geoengineering in G1
cannot simultaneously return regional and global temperature and
hydrologic cycle intensity to preindustrial levels.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/jgrd.50646},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.8320K},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013GeoRL..40.4182S,
  author = {{Scanlon}, K.~E. and {Head}, J.~W. and {Madeleine}, J.-B. and 
	{Wordsworth}, R.~D. and {Forget}, F.},
  title = {{Orographic precipitation in valley network headwaters: Constraints on the ancient Martian atmosphere}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {orographic precipitation, valley networks, Noachian, atmospheric pressure},
  year = 2013,
  month = aug,
  volume = 40,
  pages = {4182-4187},
  abstract = {{We examine the Martian valley networks in the framework of topographic
influences on precipitation. We use an analytical model and the
Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) early Mars
global circulation model (GCM) to explore the local-scale distribution
of orographically forced precipitation as a function of atmospheric
pressure. In simulations with 500 mbar and 1 bar CO$_{2}$
atmospheres, orographic lifting results in enhanced snowfall upslope of
the observed valley network tributaries. Our framework also suggests
that a 2 bar atmosphere cannot create the observed valley pattern at the
highest-relief valley network, Warrego Valles. As in previous work, the
GCM does not generate temperatures warm enough for rain or significant
snowmelt in the highlands with CO$_{2}$ greenhouse warming alone.
Thus while transient periods of unusual warming are still required to
melt the deposits and carve the valleys, our model predicts snow
deposition in the correct locations.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/grl.50687},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.4182S},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013ClDy...41..977J,
  author = {{Jin}, X. and {Wu}, T. and {Li}, L.},
  title = {{The quasi-stationary feature of nocturnal precipitation in the Sichuan Basin and the role of the Tibetan Plateau}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Quasi-stationary, Diurnal cycle, Nocturnal precipitation, Sichuan Basin, Tibetan Plateau},
  year = 2013,
  month = aug,
  volume = 41,
  pages = {977-994},
  abstract = {{The nocturnal precipitation in the Sichuan Basin in summer has been
studied in many previous works. This paper expands the study on the
diurnal cycle of precipitation in the Sichuan Basin to the whole year.
Results show that the nocturnal precipitation has a specific
quasi-stationary feature in the basin. It occurs not only in summer but
also in other three seasons, even more remarkable in spring and autumn
than in summer. There is a prominent eastward timing delay in the
nocturnal precipitation, that is, the diurnal peak of precipitation
occurs at early-night in the western basin whereas at late-night in the
center and east of the basin. The Tibetan Plateau plays an essential
role in the formation of this quasi-stationary nocturnal precipitation.
The early-night peak of precipitation in the western basin is largely
due to strong ascending over the plateau and its eastern lee side. In
the central and eastern basin, three coexisting factors contribute to
the late-night peak of precipitation. One is the lower-tropospheric
southwesterly flow around the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau,
which creates a strong cyclonic rotation and ascendance in the basin at
late-night, as well as brings abundant water vapor. The second is the
descending motion downslope along the eastern lee side of the plateau,
together with an air mass accumulation caused by the warmer air mass
transport from the southeast of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, creating a
diabatic warming at low level of the troposphere in the central basin.
The third is a cold advection from the plateau to the basin at
late-night, which leads to a cooling in the middle troposphere over the
central basin. All these factors are responsible for precipitation to
occur at late-night in the central to eastern basin.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-012-1521-y},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy...41..977J},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013ClDy...41..937L,
  author = {{L'Hévéder}, B. and {Li}, L. and {Sevault}, F. and {Somot}, S.
	},
  title = {{Interannual variability of deep convection in the Northwestern Mediterranean simulated with a coupled AORCM}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Regional climate model, Mediterranean region, Gulf of Lion, Open ocean deep convection, Inter-annual variability},
  year = 2013,
  month = aug,
  volume = 41,
  pages = {937-960},
  abstract = {{A hindcast experiment of the Mediterranean present-day climate is
performed using a fully-coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Regional Climate Model
(AORCM) for the Mediterranean basin. The new model, called
LMDz-NEMO-Med, is composed of LMDz4-regional as atmospheric component
and of NEMOMED8 as oceanic component. This AORCM equilibrates freely,
without any flux adjustment, neither in fresh water nor in heat. At its
atmospheric lateral boundary conditions, it is driven by ERA-40 data
from 1958 to 2001, after a spin-up of 40 years in coupled configuration.
The model performance is assessed and compared with available
observational datasets. The model skill in reproducing mean state and
inter-annual variability of main atmospheric and oceanic surface fields
is in line with that of state-of-the-art AORCMs. Considering the ocean
behaviour, the inter-annual variations of the basin-scale heat content
are in very good agreement with the observations. The model results
concerning salt content could not be adequately validated. High
inter-annual variability of deep convection in the Gulf of Lion is
simulated, with 53 \% of convective winters, representative of the
present climate state. The role of different factors influencing the
deep convection and its inter-annual variability is examined, including
dynamic and hydrostatic ocean preconditioning and atmospheric surface
forcing. A conceptual framework is outlined and validated in linking the
occurrence of deep convection to the efficiency of the integrated
surface buoyancy fluxes along the winter season to mix the initially
stratified averaged water column down to the convective threshold depth.
This simple framework (based only on 2 independent variables) is able to
explain 60 \% (resp. 69 \%) of inter-annual variability of the deep water
formation rate (resp. maximum mixed layer depth) for the West
Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW) formation process.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-012-1527-5},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy...41..937L},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013ClDy...41..551R,
  author = {{Rojas}, M. and {Li}, L.~Z. and {Kanakidou}, M. and {Hatzianastassiou}, N. and 
	{Seze}, G. and {Le Treut}, H.},
  title = {{Winter weather regimes over the Mediterranean region: their role for the regional climate and projected changes in the twenty-first century}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Mediterranean, Winter weather regimes, Climate change, Coupled regional atmosphere-ocean simulation},
  year = 2013,
  month = aug,
  volume = 41,
  pages = {551-571},
  abstract = {{The winter time weather variability over the Mediterranean is studied in
relation to the prevailing weather regimes (WRs) over the region. Using
daily geopotential heights at 700 hPa from the ECMWF ERA40 Reanalysis
Project and Cluster Analysis, four WRs are identified, in increasing
order of frequency of occurrence, as cyclonic (22.0 \%), zonal (24.8 \%),
meridional (25.2 \%) and anticyclonic (28.0 \%). The surface climate,
cloud distribution and radiation patterns associated with these winter
WRs are deduced from satellite (ISCCP) and other observational (E-OBS,
ERA40) datasets. The LMDz atmosphere-ocean regional climate model is
able to simulate successfully the same four Mediterranean weather
regimes and reproduce the associated surface and atmospheric conditions
for the present climate (1961-1990). Both observational- and LMDz-based
computations show that the four Mediterranean weather regimes control
the region's weather and climate conditions during winter, exhibiting
significant differences between them as for temperature, precipitation,
cloudiness and radiation distributions within the region. Projections
(2021-2050) of the winter Mediterranean weather and climate are obtained
using the LMDz model and analysed in relation to the simulated changes
in the four WRs. According to the SRES A1B emission scenario, a
significant warming (between 2 and 4 {\deg}C) is projected to occur in
the region, along with a precipitation decrease by 10-20 \% in southern
Europe, Mediterranean Sea and North Africa, against a 10 \% precipitation
increase in northern European areas. The projected changes in
temperature and precipitation in the Mediterranean are explained by the
model-predicted changes in the frequency of occurrence as well as in the
intra-seasonal variability of the regional weather regimes. The
anticyclonic configuration is projected to become more recurrent,
contributing to the decreased precipitation over most of the basin,
while the cyclonic and zonal ones become more sporadic, resulting in
more days with below normal precipitation over most of the basin, and on
the eastern part of the region, respectively. The changes in frequency
and intra-seasonal variability highlights the usefulness of dynamics
versus statistical downscaling techniques for climate change studies.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-013-1823-8},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy...41..551R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013AtmEn..75..196R,
  author = {{Rossignol}, S. and {Rio}, C. and {Ustache}, A. and {Fable}, S. and 
	{Nicolle}, J. and {M{\^e}me}, A. and {D'Anna}, B. and {Nicolas}, M. and 
	{Leoz}, E. and {Chiappini}, L.},
  title = {{The use of a housecleaning product in an indoor environment leading to oxygenated polar compounds and SOA formation: Gas and particulate phase chemical characterization}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Environment},
  year = 2013,
  month = aug,
  volume = 75,
  pages = {196-205},
  abstract = {{This work investigates Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) formed by
limonene ozonolysis using a housecleaning product in indoor environment.
This study combines simulation chamber ozonolysis experiments and field
studies in an experimental house allowing different scenarios of
housecleaning product use in real conditions.

Chemical speciation has been performed using a new method based on
simultaneous sampling of both gas and particulate phases on sorbent
tubes and filters. This method allowed the identification and
quantification of about 35 products in the gas and particulate phases.
Among them, products known to be specific from limonene ozonolysis such
as limononaldehyde, ketolimonene and ketolimonic acid have been
detected. Some other compounds such as 2-methylbutanoic acid had never
been detected in previous limonene ozonolysis studies. Some compounds
like levulinic acid had already been detected but their formation
remained unexplained. Potential reaction pathways are proposed in this
study for these compounds. For each experiment, chemical data are
coupled together with physical characterization of formed particles:
mass and size and number distribution evolution which allowed the
observation of new particles formation (about
87,000 particle cm$^{-3}$). The chemical speciation
associated to aerosol size distribution results confirmed that limonene
emitted by the housecleaning product was responsible for SOA formation.
To our knowledge, this work provides the most comprehensive analytical
study of detected compounds in a single experiment for limonene
ozonolysis in both gaseous and particulate phases in real indoor
environment.
}},
  doi = {10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.03.045},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..75..196R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013WRR....49.4136R,
  author = {{Risi}, C. and {Noone}, D. and {Frankenberg}, C. and {Worden}, J.
	},
  title = {{Role of continental recycling in intraseasonal variations of continental moisture as deduced from model simulations and water vapor isotopic measurements}},
  journal = {Water Resources Research},
  keywords = {continental recycling, remote-sensing, water isotopes, moisture tracking},
  year = 2013,
  month = jul,
  volume = 49,
  pages = {4136-4156},
  abstract = {{Climate models suggest an important role for land-atmosphere feedbacks
on climate, but exhibit a large dispersion in the simulation of this
role. We focus here on the role of continental recycling in the
intraseasonal variability of continental moisture, and we explore the
possibility of using water isotopic measurements to observationally
constrain this role. Based on water tagging, we design a diagnostic,
named D1, to estimate the role of continental recycling on the
intraseasonal variability of continental moisture simulated by the
general circulation model LMDZ. In coastal regions, the intraseasonal
variability of continental moisture is mainly driven by the variability
in oceanic moisture convergence. More inland, the role of continental
recycling becomes important. The simulation of this role is sensitive to
model parameters modulating evapotranspiration. Then we show that
{$\delta$}D in the low-level water vapor is a good tracer for continental
recycling, due to the enriched signature of transpiration. Over tropical
land regions, the intraseasonal relationship between {$\delta$}D and
precipitable water, named D1\_iso, is a good observational proxy for D1.
We test the possibility of using D1\_iso for model evaluation using two
satellite data sets: GOSAT and TES. LMDZ captures well the spatial
patterns of D1\_iso, but underestimates its values. However, a more
accurate description of how atmospheric processes affect the isotopic
composition of water vapor is necessary before concluding with certitude
that LMDZ underestimates the role of continental recycling.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/wrcr.20312},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013WRR....49.4136R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013JCli...26.5028M,
  author = {{Muller}, C.},
  title = {{Impact of Convective Organization on the Response of Tropical Precipitation Extremes to Warming}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2013,
  month = jul,
  volume = 26,
  pages = {5028-5043},
  doi = {10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00655.1},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JCli...26.5028M},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013CliPa...9.1385S,
  author = {{Sima}, A. and {Kageyama}, M. and {Rousseau}, D.-D. and {Ramstein}, G. and 
	{Balkanski}, Y. and {Antoine}, P. and {Hatté}, C.},
  title = {{Modeling dust emission response to North Atlantic millennial-scale climate variations from the perspective of East European MIS 3 loess deposits}},
  journal = {Climate of the Past},
  year = 2013,
  month = jul,
  volume = 9,
  pages = {1385-1402},
  abstract = {{European loess sequences of the Marine Isotope Stage 3 (\~{}60-25 kyr BP)
show periods of strong dust accumulation alternating with episodes of
reduced sedimentation, favoring soil development. In the western part of
the loess belt centered around 50{\deg} N, these variations appear to
have been related to the North Atlantic rapid climate changes: the
Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) and Heinrich (H) events. It has been recently
suggested that the North Atlantic climate signal can be detected further
east, in loess deposits from Stayky (50{\deg}05.65' N, 30{\deg}53.92' E),
Ukraine. Here we use climate and dust emission modeling to investigate
this data interpretation. We focus on the areas north and northeast of
the Carpathians, where loess deposits can be found, and the
corresponding main dust sources must have been located as well. The
simulations were performed with the LMDZ atmospheric general circulation
model and the ORCHIDEE land surface model. They represent a reference
``Greenland stadial'' state and two perturbations, seen as sensitivity
tests with respect to changes in the North Atlantic surface conditions
between 30{\deg} and 63{\deg} N: a ``Greenland interstadial'' and an ``H
event''. The main source for the loess deposits in the studied area is
identified as a dust deflation band, with two very active spots located
west-northwest from our reference site. Emissions only occur between
February and June. Differences from one deflation spot to another, and
from one climate state to another, are explained by analyzing the
relevant meteorological and surface variables. Over most of the source
region, the annual emission fluxes in the ``interstadial'' experiment are
30 to 50\% lower than the ``stadial'' values; they would only be about 20\%
lower if the inhibition of dust uplift by the vegetation were not taken
into account. Assuming that lower emissions result in reduced dust
deposition leads us to the conclusion that the loess-paleosol
stratigraphic succession in the Stayky area reflects indeed North
Atlantic millennial variations. In the main deflation areas of Western
Europe, the vegetation effect alone determined most of the (\~{}50\% on
average) stadial-interstadial flux differences. Even if its impact in
Eastern Europe is less pronounced, this effect remains a key factor in
modulating aeolian emissions at the millennial timescale. Conditions
favorable to initiating particularly strong dust storms within a few
hundred kilometers upwind from our reference site, simulated in the
month of April of the H event experiment, support the correlation of H
events with peaks in grain size index in some very detailed loess
profiles, indicating increased coarse sedimentation.
}},
  doi = {10.5194/cp-9-1385-2013},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CliPa...9.1385S},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013ACP....13.6555H,
  author = {{Huneeus}, N. and {Boucher}, O. and {Chevallier}, F.},
  title = {{Atmospheric inversion of SO$_{2}$ and primary aerosol emissions for the year 2010}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2013,
  month = jul,
  volume = 13,
  pages = {6555-6573},
  abstract = {{Natural and anthropogenic emissions of primary aerosols and sulphur
dioxide (SO$_{2}$) are estimated for the year 2010 by assimilating
daily total and fine mode aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550 nm from the
Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite
instrument into a global aerosol model of intermediate complexity. The
system adjusts monthly emission fluxes over a set of predefined regions
tiling the globe. The resulting aerosol emissions improve the model
performance, as measured from usual skill scores, both against the
assimilated observations and a set of independent ground-based
measurements. The estimated emission fluxes are 67 Tg S yr$^{-1}$
for SO$_{2}$, 12 Tg yr$^{-1}$ for black carbon (BC), 87 Tg
yr$^{-1}$ for particulate organic matter (POM), 17 000 Tg
yr$^{-1}$ for sea salt (SS, estimated at 80 \% relative humidity)
and 1206 Tg yr$^{-1}$ for desert dust (DD). They represent a
difference of +53, +73, +72, +1 and -8\%, respectively, with respect to
the first guess (FG) values. Constant errors throughout the regions and
the year were assigned to the a priori emissions. The analysis errors
are reduced with respect to the a priori ones for all species and
throughout the year, they vary between 3 and 18\% for SO$_{2}$, 1
and 130\% for biomass burning, 21 and 90 \% for fossil fuel, 1 and 200\%
for DD and 1 and 5\% for SS. The maximum errors on the global-yearly
scale for the estimated fluxes (considering temporal error dependence)
are 3\% for SO$_{2}$, 14\% for BC, 11\% for POM, 14\% for DD and 2\%
for SS. These values represent a decrease as compared to the
global-yearly errors from the FG of 7\% for SO$_{2}$, 40\% for BC,
55\% for POM, 81\% for DD and 300\% for SS. The largest error reduction,
both monthly and yearly, is observed for SS and the smallest one for
SO$_{2}$. The sensitivity and robustness of the inversion system
to the choice of the first guess emission inventory is investigated by
using different combinations of inventories for industrial, fossil fuel
and biomass burning sources. The initial difference in the emissions
between the various set-ups is reduced after the inversion. Furthermore,
at the global scale, the inversion is sensitive to the choice of the BB
(biomass burning) inventory and not so much to the industrial and fossil
fuel inventory. At the regional scale, however, the choice of the
industrial and fossil fuel inventory can make a difference. The
estimated baseline emission fluxes for SO$_{2}$, BC and POM are
within the estimated uncertainties of the four experiments. The
resulting emissions were compared against projected emissions for the
year 2010 for SO$_{2}$, BC and POM. The new estimate presents
larger emissions than the projections for all three species, with larger
differences for SO$_{2}$ than POM and BC. These projected
SO$_{2}$ emissions are outside the uncertainties of the estimated
emission inventories.
}},
  doi = {10.5194/acp-13-6555-2013},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....13.6555H},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013PNAS..11017674W,
  author = {{Winkler}, R. and {Landais}, A. and {Risi}, C. and {Baroni}, M. and 
	{Ekaykin}, A. and {Jouzel}, J. and {Petit}, J.~R. and {Prie}, F. and 
	{Minster}, B. and {Falourd}, S.},
  title = {{Interannual variation of water isotopologues at Vostok indicates a contribution from stratospheric water vapor}},
  journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Science},
  year = 2013,
  month = oct,
  volume = 110,
  pages = {17674-17679},
  abstract = {{Combined measurements of water isotopologues of a snow pit at Vostok
over the past 60 y reveal a unique signature that cannot be explained
only by climatic features as usually done. Comparisons of the data using
a general circulation model and a simpler isotopic distillation model
reveal a stratospheric signature in the $^{17}$O-excess record at
Vostok. Our data and theoretical considerations indicate that
mass-independent fractionation imprints the isotopic signature of
stratospheric water vapor, which may allow for a distinction between
stratospheric and tropospheric influences at remote East Antarctic
sites.
}},
  doi = {10.1073/pnas.1215209110},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PNAS..11017674W},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013NatGe...6..447B,
  author = {{Bony}, S. and {Bellon}, G. and {Klocke}, D. and {Sherwood}, S. and 
	{Fermepin}, S. and {Denvil}, S.},
  title = {{Robust direct effect of carbon dioxide on tropical circulation and regional precipitation}},
  journal = {Nature Geoscience},
  year = 2013,
  month = jun,
  volume = 6,
  pages = {447-451},
  abstract = {{Predicting the response of tropical rainfall to climate change remains a
challenge. Rising concentrations of carbon dioxide are expected to
affect the hydrological cycle through increases in global mean
temperature and the water vapour content of the atmosphere. However,
regional precipitation changes also closely depend on the atmospheric
circulation, which is expected to weaken in a warmer world. Here, we
assess the effect of a rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations
on tropical circulation and precipitation by analysing results from a
suite of simulations from multiple state-of-the-art climate models, and
an operational numerical weather prediction model. In a scenario in
which humans continue to use fossil fuels unabated, about half the
tropical circulation change projected by the end of the twenty-first
century, and consequently a large fraction of the regional precipitation
change, is independent of global surface warming. Instead, these robust
circulation and precipitation changes are a consequence of the weaker
net radiative cooling of the atmosphere associated with higher
atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, which affects the strength of
atmospheric vertical motions. This implies that geo-engineering schemes
aimed at reducing global warming without removing carbon dioxide from
the atmosphere would fail to fully mitigate precipitation changes in the
tropics. Strategies that may help constrain rainfall projections are
suggested.
}},
  doi = {10.1038/ngeo1799},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatGe...6..447B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013NatGe...6..415O,
  author = {{Otto}, A. and {Otto}, F.~E.~L. and {Boucher}, O. and {Church}, J. and 
	{Hegerl}, G. and {Forster}, P.~M. and {Gillett}, N.~P. and {Gregory}, J. and 
	{Johnson}, G.~C. and {Knutti}, R. and {Lewis}, N. and {Lohmann}, U. and 
	{Marotzke}, J. and {Myhre}, G. and {Shindell}, D. and {Stevens}, B. and 
	{Allen}, M.~R.},
  title = {{Energy budget constraints on climate response}},
  journal = {Nature Geoscience},
  year = 2013,
  month = jun,
  volume = 6,
  pages = {415-416},
  doi = {10.1038/ngeo1836},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatGe...6..415O},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013Sci...340.1053S,
  author = {{Stevens}, B. and {Bony}, S.},
  title = {{What Are Climate Models Missing?}},
  journal = {Science},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 340,
  pages = {1053-1054},
  doi = {10.1126/science.1237554},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Sci...340.1053S},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013QSRv...67...59S,
  author = {{Sime}, L.~C. and {Risi}, C. and {Tindall}, J.~C. and {Sjolte}, J. and 
	{Wolff}, E.~W. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and {Capron}, E.},
  title = {{Warm climate isotopic simulations: what do we learn about interglacial signals in Greenland ice cores?}},
  journal = {Quaternary Science Reviews},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 67,
  pages = {59-80},
  abstract = {{Measurements of Last Interglacial stable water isotopes in ice cores
show that central Greenland {$\delta$}$^{18}$O increased by at least
3{\permil} compared to present day. Attempting to quantify the Greenland
interglacial temperature change from these ice core measurements rests
on our ability to interpret the stable water isotope content of
Greenland snow. Current orbitally driven interglacial simulations do not
show {$\delta$}$^{18}$O or temperature rises of the correct
magnitude, leading to difficulty in using only these experiments to
inform our understanding of higher interglacial {$\delta$}$^{18}$O.
Here, analysis of greenhouse gas warmed simulations from two
isotope-enabled general circulation models, in conjunction with a set of
Last Interglacial sea surface observations, indicates a possible
explanation for the interglacial {$\delta$}$^{18}$O rise. A reduction
in the winter time sea ice concentration around the northern half of
Greenland, together with an increase in sea surface temperatures over
the same region, is found to be sufficient to drive a $\gt$3{\permil}
interglacial enrichment in central Greenland snow. Warm climate
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O and {$\delta$}D in precipitation falling on Greenland
are shown to be strongly influenced by local sea surface condition
changes: local sea surface warming and a shrunken sea ice extent
increase the proportion of water vapour from local (isotopically
enriched) sources, compared to that from distal (isotopically depleted)
sources. Precipitation intermittency changes, under warmer conditions,
leads to geographical variability in the {$\delta$}$^{18}$O against
temperature gradients across Greenland. Little sea surface warming
around the northern areas of Greenland leads to low
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O against temperature gradients (0.1-0.3{\permil} per
{\deg}C), whilst large sea surface warmings in these regions leads to
higher gradients (0.3-0.7{\permil} per {\deg}C). These gradients imply a
wide possible range of present day to interglacial temperature increases
(4 to $\gt$10 {\deg}C). Thus, we find that uncertainty about local
interglacial sea surface conditions, rather than precipitation
intermittency changes, may lead to the largest uncertainties in
interpreting temperature from Greenland ice cores. We find that
interglacial sea surface change observational records are currently
insufficient to enable discrimination between these different
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O against temperature gradients. In conclusion,
further information on interglacial sea surface temperatures and sea ice
changes around northern Greenland should indicate whether +5 {\deg}C
during the Last Interglacial is sufficient to drive the observed ice
core {$\delta$}$^{18}$O increase, or whether a larger temperature
increases or ice sheet changes are also required to explain the ice core
observations.
}},
  doi = {10.1016/j.quascirev.2013.01.009},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013QSRv...67...59S},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013PNAS..110.8813E,
  author = {{Eagle}, R.~A. and {Risi}, C. and {Mitchell}, J.~L. and {Eiler}, J.~M. and 
	{Seibt}, U. and {Neelin}, J.~D. and {Li}, G. and {Tripati}, A.~K.
	},
  title = {{High regional climate sensitivity over continental China constrained by glacial-recent changes in temperature and the hydrological cycle}},
  journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Science},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 110,
  pages = {8813-8818},
  abstract = {{The East Asian monsoon is one of Earth's most
significant climatic phenomena, and numerous paleoclimate archives have
revealed that it exhibits variations on orbital and suborbital time
scales. Quantitative constraints on the climate changes associated with
these past variations are limited, yet are needed to constrain
sensitivity of the region to changes in greenhouse gas levels. Here, we
show central China is a region that experienced a much larger
temperature change since the Last Glacial Maximum than typically
simulated by climate models. We applied clumped isotope thermometry to
carbonates from the central Chinese Loess Plateau to reconstruct
temperature and water isotope shifts from the Last Glacial Maximum to
present. We find a summertime temperature change of
6-7 {\deg}C that is reproduced by climate model
simulations presented here. Proxy data reveal evidence for a shift to
lighter isotopic composition of meteoric waters in glacial times, which
is also captured by our model. Analysis of model outputs suggests that
glacial cooling over continental China is significantly amplified by the
influence of stationary waves, which, in turn, are enhanced by
continental ice sheets. These results not only support high regional
climate sensitivity in Central China but highlight the fundamental role
of planetary-scale atmospheric dynamics in the sensitivity of regional
climates to continental glaciation, changing greenhouse gas levels, and
insolation.
}},
  doi = {10.1073/pnas.1213366110},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PNAS..110.8813E},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013JGRE..118.1148C,
  author = {{Clancy}, R.~T. and {Sandor}, B.~J. and {Wolff}, M.~J. and {Smith}, M.~D. and 
	{LefèVre}, F. and {Madeleine}, J.-B. and {Forget}, F. and 
	{Murchie}, S.~L. and {Seelos}, F.~P. and {Seelos}, K.~D. and 
	{Nair}, H. and {Toigo}, A.~D. and {Humm}, D. and {Kass}, D.~M. and 
	{Kleinb{\"o}Hl}, A. and {Heavens}, N.},
  title = {{Correction to ``Extensive MRO CRISM observations of 1.27 {\micro}m O$_{2}$ airglow in Mars polar night and their comparison to MRO MCS temperature profiles and LMD GCM simulations''}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets)},
  keywords = {Correction, Mars, Nightglow, O2, Atmosphere, Photochemistry},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 118,
  pages = {1148-1154},
  doi = {10.1002/jgre.20073},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRE..118.1148C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013JGRD..118.4326W,
  author = {{Wu}, T. and {Li}, W. and {Ji}, J. and {Xin}, X. and {Li}, L. and 
	{Wang}, Z. and {Zhang}, Y. and {Li}, J. and {Zhang}, F. and 
	{Wei}, M. and {Shi}, X. and {Wu}, F. and {Zhang}, L. and {Chu}, M. and 
	{Jie}, W. and {Liu}, Y. and {Wang}, F. and {Liu}, X. and {Li}, Q. and 
	{Dong}, M. and {Liang}, X. and {Gao}, Y. and {Zhang}, J.},
  title = {{Global carbon budgets simulated by the Beijing Climate Center Climate System Model for the last century}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Global carbon budget, BCC-CSM, temperature-carbon feedback},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 118,
  pages = {4326-4347},
  abstract = {{The paper examines terrestrial and oceanic carbon budgets from
preindustrial time to present day in the version of Beijing Climate
Center Climate System Model (BCC\_CSM1.1) which is a global fully coupled
climate-carbon cycle model. Atmospheric CO$_{2}$ concentration is
calculated from a prognostic equation taking into account global
anthropogenic CO$_{2}$ emissions and the interactive
CO$_{2}$ exchanges of land-atmosphere and ocean-atmosphere. When
forced by prescribed historical emissions of CO$_{2}$ from
combustion of fossil fuels and land use change, BCC\_CSM1.1 can reproduce
the trends of observed atmospheric CO$_{2}$ concentration and
global surface air temperature from 1850 to 2005. Simulated interannual
variability and long-term trend of global carbon sources and sinks and
their spatial patterns generally agree with other model estimates and
observations, which shows the following: (1) Both land and ocean in the
last century act as net carbon sinks. The ability of carbon uptake by
land and ocean is enhanced at the end of last century. (2) Interannual
variability of the global atmospheric CO$_{2}$ concentration is
closely correlated with the El Ni{\~n}o-Southern Oscillation cycle,
in agreement with observations. (3) Interannual variation of the
land-to-atmosphere net carbon flux is positively correlated with surface
air temperature while negatively correlated with soil moisture over low
and midlatitudes. The relative contribution of soil moisture to the
interannual variation of land-atmosphere CO$_{2}$ exchange is more
important than that of air temperature over tropical regions, while
surface air temperature is more important than soil moisture over other
regions of the globe.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/jgrd.50320},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.4326W},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013CliPa...9.1001H,
  author = {{Hatté}, C. and {Gauthier}, C. and {Rousseau}, D.-D. and 
	{Antoine}, P. and {Fuchs}, M. and {Lagroix}, F. and {Markovi{\'c}}, S.~B. and 
	{Moine}, O. and {Sima}, A.},
  title = {{Excursions to C$_{4}$ vegetation recorded in the Upper Pleistocene loess of Surduk (Northern Serbia): an organic isotope geochemistry study}},
  journal = {Climate of the Past},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 9,
  pages = {1001-1014},
  abstract = {{Loess sequences have been intensively studied to characterize past
glacial climates of the 40-50{\deg} north and south latitude zones.
Combining different approaches of sedimentology, magnetism,
geochemistry, geochronology and malacology allows the general pattern of
the climate and environment of the last interglacial-glacial cycle in
Eurasia and America to be characterized. Previous studies performed in
Europe have highlighted the predominance (if not the sole occurrence) of
C$_{3}$ vegetation. The presence of C$_{3}$ plants suggests
a regular distribution of precipitation along the year. Therefore, even
if the mean annual precipitation remained very low during the most
extensive glacial times, free water was available for more than 2 months
per year. Contrarily, the {$\delta$}$^{13}$C record of Surduk
(Serbia) clearly shows the occurrence and dominance of C$_{4}$
plants during at least 4 episodes of the last glacial times at 28.0-26.0
kyr cal BP, 31.4-30.0 kyr cal BP, 53.4-44.5 kyr cal BP and 86.8-66.1
kyr. The C$_{4}$ plant development is interpreted as a specific
atmospheric circulation pattern that induces short and dry summer
conditions. As possible explanation, we propose that during
``C$_{4}$ episodes'', the Mediterranean Sea would have been under
the combined influence of the following: (i) a strong meridional
circulation unfavorable to water evaporation that reduced the
Mediterranean precipitation on the Balkans; and (ii) a high positive
North Atlantic Western Russian (NA/WR)-like atmospheric pattern that
favored northerlies over westerlies and reduced Atlantic precipitation
over the Balkans. This configuration would imply very dry summers that
did not allow C$_{3}$ plants to grow, thus supporting
C$_{4}$ development. The intra-``C$_{4}$ episode'' periods
would have occurred under less drastic oceanic and atmospheric patterns
that made the influence of westerlies on the Balkans possible.
}},
  doi = {10.5194/cp-9-1001-2013},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CliPa...9.1001H},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013ClDy...40.2415B,
  author = {{Brient}, F. and {Bony}, S.},
  title = {{Interpretation of the positive low-cloud feedback predicted by a climate model under global warming}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Low-level cloud feedbacks, Climate change, Hierarchy of models, Moist static energy budget},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 40,
  pages = {2415-2431},
  abstract = {{The response of low-level clouds to climate change has been identified
as a major contributor to the uncertainty in climate sensitivity
estimates among climate models. By analyzing the behaviour of low-level
clouds in a hierarchy of models (coupled ocean-atmosphere model,
atmospheric general circulation model, aqua-planet model, single-column
model) using the same physical parameterizations, this study proposes an
interpretation of the strong positive low-cloud feedback predicted by
the IPSL-CM5A climate model under climate change. In a warmer climate,
the model predicts an enhanced clear-sky radiative cooling, stronger
surface turbulent fluxes, a deepening and a drying of the planetary
boundary layer, and a decrease of tropical low-clouds in regimes of weak
subsidence. We show that the decrease of low-level clouds critically
depends on the change in the vertical advection of moist static energy
from the free troposphere to the boundary-layer. This change is
dominated by variations in the vertical gradient of moist static energy
between the surface and the free troposphere just above the
boundary-layer. In a warmer climate, the thermodynamical relationship of
Clausius-Clapeyron increases this vertical gradient, and then the import
by large-scale subsidence of low moist static energy and dry air into
the boundary layer. This results in a decrease of the low-level
cloudiness and in a weakening of the radiative cooling of the boundary
layer by low-level clouds. The energetic framework proposed in this
study might help to interpret inter-model differences in low-cloud
feedbacks under climate change.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-011-1279-7},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy...40.2415B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013ClDy...40.2293C,
  author = {{Cattiaux}, J. and {Quesada}, B. and {Arakélian}, A. and 
	{Codron}, F. and {Vautard}, R. and {Yiou}, P.},
  title = {{North-Atlantic dynamics and European temperature extremes in the IPSL model: sensitivity to atmospheric resolution}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Global climate model, Atmospheric resolution, Mid-latitudes jet stream, Weather regimes, European temperature extremes},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 40,
  pages = {2293-2310},
  abstract = {{The variability of the European climate is mostly controlled by the
unstable nature of the North-Atlantic dynamics, especially in
wintertime. The intra-seasonal to inter-annual fluctuations of
atmospheric circulations has often been described as the alternation
between a limited number of preferential weather regimes. Such discrete
description can be justified by the multi-modality of the latitudinal
position of the jet stream. In addition, seasonal extremes in European
temperatures are generally associated with an exceptional persistence
into one weather regime. Here we investigate the skill of the IPSL model
to both simulate North-Atlantic weather regimes and European temperature
extremes, including summer heat waves and winter cold spells. We use a
set of eight IPSL experiments, with six different horizontal resolutions
and the two versions used in CMIP3 and CMIP5. We find that despite a
substantial deficit in the simulated poleward peak of the jet stream,
the IPSL model represents weather regimes fairly well. A significant
improvement is found for all horizontal resolutions higher than the one
used in CMIP3, while the increase in vertical resolution included in the
CMIP5 version tends to improve the wintertime dynamics. In addition to a
recurrent cold bias over Europe, the IPSL model generally overestimates
(underestimates) the indices of winter cold spells (summer heat waves)
such as frequencies or durations. We find that the increase in
horizontal resolution almost always improves these statistics, while the
influence of vertical resolution is less clear. Overall, the CMIP5
version of the IPSL model appears to carry promising improvements in the
simulation of the European climate variability.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-012-1529-3},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy...40.2293C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013ClDy...40.2089M,
  author = {{Mignot}, J. and {Bony}, S.},
  title = {{Presentation and analysis of the IPSL and CNRM climate models used in CMIP5}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 40,
  pages = {2089-2089},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-013-1720-1},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy...40.2089M},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013AdAtS..30..699Z,
  author = {{Zhang}, J. and {Li}, L. and {Zhou}, T. and {Xin}, X.},
  title = {{Variation of surface temperature during the last millennium in a simulation with the FGOALS-gl climate system model}},
  journal = {Advances in Atmospheric Sciences},
  keywords = {last millennium, external forcing, surface temperature, cloud radiative forcing, climate system model},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 30,
  pages = {699-712},
  abstract = {{A reasonable past millennial climate simulation relies heavily on the
specified external forcings, including both natural and anthropogenic
forcing agents. In this paper, we examine the surface temperature
responses to specified external forcing agents in a millennium-scale
transient climate simulation with the fast version of LASG IAP Flexible
Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System model (FGOALS-gl) developed in the
State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and
Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics (LASG/IAP).
The model presents a reasonable performance in comparison with
reconstructions of surface temperature. Differentiated from significant
changes in the 20th century at the global scale, changes during the
natural-forcing-dominant period are mainly manifested in the Northern
Hemisphere. Seasonally, modeled significant changes are more pronounced
during the wintertime at higher latitudes. This may be a manifestation
of polar amplification associated with sea-ice-temperature positive
feedback. The climate responses to total external forcings can explain
about half of the climate variance during the whole millennium period,
especially at decadal timescales. Surface temperature in the Antarctic
shows heterogeneous and insignificant changes during the preindustrial
period and the climate response to external forcings is undetectable due
to the strong internal variability. The model response to specified
external forcings is modulated by cloud radiative forcing (CRF). The CRF
acts against the fluctuations of external forcings. Effects of clouds
are manifested in shortwave radiation by changes in cloud water during
the natural-forcing-dominant period, but mainly in longwave radiation by
a decrease in cloud amount in the anthropogenic-forcing-dominant period.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00376-013-2178-0},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdAtS..30..699Z},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013ACP....13.4815S,
  author = {{Steen-Larsen}, H.~C. and {Johnsen}, S.~J. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and 
	{Stenni}, B. and {Risi}, C. and {Sodemann}, H. and {Balslev-Clausen}, D. and 
	{Blunier}, T. and {Dahl-Jensen}, D. and {Elleh{\o}j}, M.~D. and 
	{Falourd}, S. and {Grindsted}, A. and {Gkinis}, V. and {Jouzel}, J. and 
	{Popp}, T. and {Sheldon}, S. and {Simonsen}, S.~B. and {Sjolte}, J. and 
	{Steffensen}, J.~P. and {Sperlich}, P. and {Sveinbj{\"o}rnsd{\'o}ttir}, A.~E. and 
	{Vinther}, B.~M. and {White}, J.~W.~C.},
  title = {{Continuous monitoring of summer surface water vapor isotopic composition above the Greenland Ice Sheet}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2013,
  month = may,
  volume = 13,
  pages = {4815-4828},
  abstract = {{We present here surface water vapor isotopic measurements conducted from
June to August 2010 at the NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Drilling
Project) camp, NW Greenland (77.45{\deg} N, 51.05{\deg} W, 2484 m a.s.l.).
Measurements were conducted at 9 different heights from 0.1 m to 13.5 m
above the snow surface using two different types of cavity-enhanced
near-infrared absorption spectroscopy analyzers. For each instrument
specific protocols were developed for calibration and drift corrections.
The inter-comparison of corrected results from different instruments
reveals excellent reproducibility, stability, and precision with a
standard deviations of \~{} 0.23{\permil} for {$\delta$}$^{18}$O and \~{}
1.4{\permil} for {$\delta$}D. Diurnal and intraseasonal variations show
strong relationships between changes in local surface humidity and water
vapor isotopic composition, and with local and synoptic weather
conditions. This variability probably results from the interplay between
local moisture fluxes, linked with firn-air exchanges, boundary layer
dynamics, and large-scale moisture advection. Particularly remarkable
are several episodes characterized by high ($\gt$ 40{\permil}) surface
water vapor deuterium excess. Air mass back-trajectory calculations from
atmospheric analyses and water tagging in the LMDZiso (Laboratory of
Meteorology Dynamics Zoom-isotopic) atmospheric model reveal that these
events are associated with predominant Arctic air mass origin. The
analysis suggests that high deuterium excess levels are a result of
strong kinetic fractionation during evaporation at the sea-ice margin.
}},
  doi = {10.5194/acp-13-4815-2013},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....13.4815S},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013JGRE..118..746S,
  author = {{Spiga}, A. and {Faure}, J. and {Madeleine}, J.-B. and {M{\"a}{\"a}tt{\"a}nen}, A. and 
	{Forget}, F.},
  title = {{Rocket dust storms and detached dust layers in the Martian atmosphere}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets)},
  archiveprefix = {arXiv},
  eprint = {1208.5030},
  primaryclass = {astro-ph.EP},
  keywords = {Mars, atmosphere, mesoscale, dust, convection, storm},
  year = 2013,
  month = apr,
  volume = 118,
  pages = {746-767},
  abstract = {{Airborne dust is the main climatic agent in the Martian environment.
Local dust storms play a key role in the dust cycle; yet their life
cycle is poorly known. Here we use mesoscale modeling that includes the
transport of radiatively active dust to predict the evolution of a local
dust storm monitored by OMEGA on board Mars Express. We show that the
evolution of this dust storm is governed by deep convective motions. The
supply of convective energy is provided by the absorption of incoming
sunlight by dust particles, rather than by latent heating as in moist
convection on Earth. We propose to use the terminology ``rocket dust
storm,'' or conio-cumulonimbus, to describe those storms in which rapid
and efficient vertical transport takes place, injecting dust particles
at high altitudes in the Martian troposphere (30-50 km). Combined to
horizontal transport by large-scale winds, rocket dust storms produce
detached layers of dust reminiscent of those observed with Mars Global
Surveyor and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Since nighttime sedimentation
is less efficient than daytime convective transport, and the detached
dust layers can convect during the daytime, these layers can be stable
for several days. The peak activity of rocket dust storms is expected in
low-latitude regions at clear seasons (late northern winter to late
northern summer), which accounts for the high-altitude tropical dust
maxima unveiled by Mars Climate Sounder. Dust-driven deep convection has
strong implications for the Martian dust cycle, thermal structure,
atmospheric dynamics, cloud microphysics, chemistry, and robotic and
human exploration.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/jgre.20046},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRE..118..746S},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013JGRD..118.2762S,
  author = {{Su}, H. and {Jiang}, J.~H. and {Zhai}, C. and {Perun}, V.~S. and 
	{Shen}, J.~T. and {Del Genio}, A. and {Nazarenko}, L.~S. and 
	{Donner}, L.~J. and {Horowitz}, L. and {Seman}, C. and {Morcrette}, C. and 
	{Petch}, J. and {Ringer}, M. and {Cole}, J. and {von Salzen}, K. and 
	{d S.~Mesquita}, M. and {Iversen}, T. and {Kristjansson}, J.~E. and 
	{Gettelman}, A. and {Rotstayn}, L. and {Jeffrey}, S. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and 
	{Watanabe}, M. and {Kawai}, H. and {Koshiro}, T. and {Wu}, T. and 
	{Volodin}, E.~M. and {L'Ecuyer}, T. and {Teixeira}, J. and {Stephens}, G.~L.
	},
  title = {{Diagnosis of regime-dependent cloud simulation errors in CMIP5 models using ``A-Train'' satellite observations and reanalysis data}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Clouds, Climate Model, Satellite Observation, CMIP5, A-Train, large-scale regimes, conditional sampling, model error diagnosis},
  year = 2013,
  month = apr,
  volume = 118,
  pages = {2762-2780},
  abstract = {{The vertical distributions of cloud water content (CWC) and cloud
fraction (CF) over the tropical oceans, produced by 13 coupled
atmosphere-ocean models submitted to the Phase 5 of Coupled Model
Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), are evaluated against CloudSat/CALIPSO
observations as a function of large-scale parameters. Available CALIPSO
simulator CF outputs are also examined. A diagnostic framework is
developed to decompose the cloud simulation errors into large-scale
errors, cloud parameterization errors and covariation errors. We find
that the cloud parameterization errors contribute predominantly to the
total errors for all models. The errors associated with large-scale
temperature and moisture structures are relatively greater than those
associated with large-scale midtropospheric vertical velocity and
lower-level divergence. All models capture the separation of deep and
shallow clouds in distinct large-scale regimes; however, the vertical
structures of high/low clouds and their variations with large-scale
parameters differ significantly from the observations. The CWCs
associated with deep convective clouds simulated in most models do not
reach as high in altitude as observed, and their magnitudes are
generally weaker than CloudSat total CWC, which includes the
contribution of precipitating condensates, but are close to CloudSat
nonprecipitating CWC. All models reproduce maximum CF associated with
convective detrainment, but CALIPSO simulator CFs generally agree better
with CloudSat/CALIPSO combined retrieval than the model CFs, especially
in the midtroposphere. Model simulated low clouds tend to have little
variation with large-scale parameters except lower-troposphere
stability, while the observed low cloud CWC, CF, and cloud top height
vary consistently in all large-scale regimes.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2012JD018575},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.2762S},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013TCry....7..537M,
  author = {{Ménégoz}, M. and {Krinner}, G. and {Balkanski}, Y. and 
	{Cozic}, A. and {Boucher}, O. and {Ciais}, P.},
  title = {{Boreal and temperate snow cover variations induced by black carbon emissions in the middle of the 21st century}},
  journal = {The Cryosphere},
  year = 2013,
  month = mar,
  volume = 7,
  pages = {537-554},
  abstract = {{We used a coupled climate-chemistry model to quantify the impacts of
aerosols on snow cover north of 30{\deg} N both for the present-day and
for the middle of the 21st century. Black carbon (BC) deposition over
continents induces a reduction in the mean number of days with snow at
the surface (MNDWS) that ranges from 0 to 10 days over large areas of
Eurasia and Northern America for the present-day relative to the
pre-industrial period. This is mainly due to BC deposition during the
spring, a period of the year when the remaining of snow accumulated
during the winter is exposed to both strong solar radiation and a large
amount of aerosol deposition induced themselves by a high level of
transport of particles from polluted areas. North of 30{\deg} N, this
deposition flux represents 222 Gg BC month$^{-1}$ on average from
April to June in our simulation. A large reduction in BC emissions is
expected in the future in all of the Representative Concentration
Pathway (RCP) scenarios. In particular, considering the RCP8.5 in our
simulation leads to a decrease in the spring BC deposition down to 110
Gg month$^{-1}$ in the 2050s. However, despite the reduction of
the aerosol impact on snow, the MNDWS is strongly reduced by 2050, with
a decrease ranging from 10 to 100 days from present-day values over
large parts of the Northern Hemisphere. This reduction is essentially
due to temperature increase, which is quite strong in the RCP8.5
scenario in the absence of climate mitigation policies. Moreover, the
projected sea-ice retreat in the next decades will open new routes for
shipping in the Arctic. However, a large increase in shipping emissions
in the Arctic by the mid-21st century does not lead to significant
changes of BC deposition over snow-covered areas in our simulation.
Therefore, the MNDWS is clearly not affected through snow darkening
effects associated with these Arctic ship emissions. In an experiment
without nudging toward atmospheric reanalyses, we simulated however some
changes of the MNDWS considering such aerosol ship emissions. These
changes are generally not statistically significant in boreal
continents, except in Quebec and in the West Siberian plains, where they
range between -5 and -10 days. They are induced both by radiative
forcings of the aerosols when they are in the snow and in the
atmosphere, and by all the atmospheric feedbacks. These experiments do
not take into account the feedbacks induced by the interactions between
ocean and atmosphere as they were conducted with prescribed sea surface
temperatures. Climate change by the mid-21st century could also cause
biomass burning activity (forest fires) to become more intense and occur
earlier in the season. In an idealised scenario in which forest fires
are 50\% stronger and occur 2 weeks earlier and later than at present, we
simulated an increase in spring BC deposition of 21 Gg BC
month$^{-1}$ over continents located north of 30{\deg} N. This BC
deposition does not impact directly the snow cover through snow
darkening effects. However, in an experiment considering all the aerosol
forcings and atmospheric feedbacks, except those induced by the
ocean-atmosphere interactions, enhanced fire activity induces a
significant decrease of the MNDWS reaching a dozen of days in Quebec and
in Eastern Siberia.
}},
  doi = {10.5194/tc-7-537-2013},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013TCry....7..537M},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013Icar..223..149K,
  author = {{Kerber}, L. and {Forget}, F. and {Madeleine}, J.-B. and {Wordsworth}, R. and 
	{Head}, J.~W. and {Wilson}, L.},
  title = {{The effect of atmospheric pressure on the dispersal of pyroclasts from martian volcanoes}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  year = 2013,
  month = mar,
  volume = 223,
  pages = {149-156},
  abstract = {{A planetary global circulation model developed by the Laboratoire de
Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) was used to simulate
explosive eruptions of ancient martian volcanoes into paleo-atmospheres
with higher atmospheric pressures than that of present-day Mars.
Atmospheric pressures in the model were varied between 50 mbar and 2
bars. In this way it was possible to investigate the sensitivity of the
volcanic plume dispersal model to atmospheric pressure. It was
determined that the model has a sensitivity to pressure that is similar
to its sensitivity to other atmospheric parameters such as planetary
obliquity and season of eruption. Higher pressure atmospheres allow
volcanic plumes to convect to higher levels, meaning that volcanic
pyroclasts have further to fall through the atmosphere. Changes in
atmospheric circulation due to pressure cause pyroclasts to be dispersed
in narrower latitudinal bands compared with pyroclasts in a modern
atmosphere. Atmospheric winds are generally slower under higher pressure
regimes; however, the final distance traveled by the pyroclasts depends
greatly on the location of the volcano and can either increase or
decrease with pressure. The directionality of the pyroclast transport,
however, remains dominantly east or west along lines of latitude.
Augmentation of the atmospheric pressure improves the fit between
possible ash sources Arsia and Pavonis Mons and the Medusae Fossae
Formation, a hypothesized ash deposit.
}},
  doi = {10.1016/j.icarus.2012.11.037},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Icar..223..149K},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013CliPa...9..871C,
  author = {{Casado}, M. and {Ortega}, P. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and 
	{Risi}, C. and {Swingedouw}, D. and {Daux}, V. and {Genty}, D. and 
	{Maignan}, F. and {Solomina}, O. and {Vinther}, B. and {Viovy}, N. and 
	{Yiou}, P.},
  title = {{Impact of precipitation intermittency on NAO-temperature signals in proxy records}},
  journal = {Climate of the Past},
  year = 2013,
  month = mar,
  volume = 9,
  pages = {871-886},
  abstract = {{In mid and high latitudes, the stable isotope ratio in precipitation is
driven by changes in temperature, which control atmospheric
distillation. This relationship forms the basis for many continental
paleoclimatic reconstructions using direct (e.g. ice cores) or indirect
(e.g. tree ring cellulose, speleothem calcite) archives of past
precipitation. However, the archiving process is inherently biased by
intermittency of precipitation. Here, we use two sets of atmospheric
reanalyses (NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) and
ERA-interim) to quantify this precipitation intermittency bias, by
comparing seasonal (winter and summer) temperatures estimated with and
without precipitation weighting. We show that this bias reaches up to 10
{\deg}C and has large interannual variability. We then assess the impact
of precipitation intermittency on the strength and stability of temporal
correlations between seasonal temperatures and the North Atlantic
Oscillation (NAO). Precipitation weighting reduces the correlation
between winter NAO and temperature in some areas (e.g. Québec,
South-East USA, East Greenland, East Siberia, Mediterranean sector) but
does not alter the main patterns of correlation. The correlations
between NAO, {$\delta$}$^{18}$O in precipitation, temperature and
precipitation weighted temperature are investigated using outputs of an
atmospheric general circulation model enabled with stable isotopes and
nudged using reanalyses (LMDZiso (Laboratoire de
Météorologie Dynamique Zoom)). In winter, LMDZiso shows
similar correlation values between the NAO and both the precipitation
weighted temperature and {$\delta$}$^{18}$O in precipitation, thus
suggesting limited impacts of moisture origin. Correlations of
comparable magnitude are obtained for the available observational
evidence (GNIP (Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation) and
Greenland ice core data). Our findings support the use of archives of
past {$\delta$}$^{18}$O for NAO reconstructions.
}},
  doi = {10.5194/cp-9-871-2013},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CliPa...9..871C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013CliPa...9..517C,
  author = {{Chavaillaz}, Y. and {Codron}, F. and {Kageyama}, M.},
  title = {{Southern westerlies in LGM and future (RCP4.5) climates}},
  journal = {Climate of the Past},
  year = 2013,
  month = mar,
  volume = 9,
  pages = {517-524},
  abstract = {{Mid-latitude westerlies are a major component of the atmospheric
circulation and understanding their behaviour under climate change is
important for understanding changes in precipitation, storms and
atmosphere-ocean momentum, heat and CO$_{2}$ exchanges. The
Southern Hemisphere westerlies have been particularly studied in terms
of the latter aspects, since the Southern Ocean is a key region for the
global oceanic circulation as well as for CO$_{2}$ uptake. In this
study, we analyse, mainly in terms of jet stream position, the behaviour
of the southern westerlies for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 000 yr
ago, which is the last past cold extreme) and for a future climate,
obtained after stabilisation of the RCP4.5 scenario. The a priori guess
would be that the behaviour of the westerly jet stream would be similar
when examining its changes from LGM to pre-industrial (PI) conditions
and from PI to RCP4.5, i.e. in both cases a poleward shift in response
to global warming. We show that this is in fact not the case, due to the
impact of altitude changes of the Antarctic ice sheet and/or to sea ice
cover changes.
}},
  doi = {10.5194/cp-9-517-2013},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CliPa...9..517C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013ACP....13.3245S,
  author = {{Stier}, P. and {Schutgens}, N.~A.~J. and {Bellouin}, N. and 
	{Bian}, H. and {Boucher}, O. and {Chin}, M. and {Ghan}, S. and 
	{Huneeus}, N. and {Kinne}, S. and {Lin}, G. and {Ma}, X. and 
	{Myhre}, G. and {Penner}, J.~E. and {Randles}, C.~A. and {Samset}, B. and 
	{Schulz}, M. and {Takemura}, T. and {Yu}, F. and {Yu}, H. and 
	{Zhou}, C.},
  title = {{Host model uncertainties in aerosol radiative forcing estimates: results from the AeroCom Prescribed intercomparison study}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2013,
  month = mar,
  volume = 13,
  pages = {3245-3270},
  abstract = {{Simulated multi-model ``diversity'' in aerosol direct radiative forcing
estimates is often perceived as a measure of aerosol uncertainty.
However, current models used for aerosol radiative forcing calculations
vary considerably in model components relevant for forcing calculations
and the associated ``host-model uncertainties'' are generally convoluted
with the actual aerosol uncertainty. In this AeroCom Prescribed
intercomparison study we systematically isolate and quantify host model
uncertainties on aerosol forcing experiments through prescription of
identical aerosol radiative properties in twelve participating models.


Even with prescribed aerosol radiative properties, simulated clear-sky and all-sky aerosol radiative forcings show significant diversity. For a purely scattering case with globally constant optical depth of 0.2, the global-mean all-sky top-of-atmosphere radiative forcing is -4.47 Wm$^{-2}$ and the inter-model standard deviation is 0.55 Wm$^{-2}$, corresponding to a relative standard deviation of 12\%. For a case with partially absorbing aerosol with an aerosol optical depth of 0.2 and single scattering albedo of 0.8, the forcing changes to 1.04 Wm$^{-2}$, and the standard deviation increases to 1.01 W$^{-2}$, corresponding to a significant relative standard deviation of 97\%. However, the top-of-atmosphere forcing variability owing to absorption (subtracting the scattering case from the case with scattering and absorption) is low, with absolute (relative) standard deviations of 0.45 Wm$^{-2}$ (8\%) clear-sky and 0.62 Wm$^{-2}$ (11\%) all-sky.

Scaling the forcing standard deviation for a purely scattering case to match the sulfate radiative forcing in the AeroCom Direct Effect experiment demonstrates that host model uncertainties could explain about 36\% of the overall sulfate forcing diversity of 0.11 Wm$^{-2}$ in the AeroCom Direct Radiative Effect experiment.

Host model errors in aerosol radiative forcing are largest in regions of uncertain host model components, such as stratocumulus cloud decks or areas with poorly constrained surface albedos, such as sea ice. Our results demonstrate that host model uncertainties are an important component of aerosol forcing uncertainty that require further attention. }}, doi = {10.5194/acp-13-3245-2013}, adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....13.3245S}, adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System} }
@article{2013ACP....13.2723W,
  author = {{Woodhouse}, M.~T. and {Mann}, G.~W. and {Carslaw}, K.~S. and 
	{Boucher}, O.},
  title = {{Sensitivity of cloud condensation nuclei to regional changes in dimethyl-sulphide emissions}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2013,
  month = mar,
  volume = 13,
  pages = {2723-2733},
  abstract = {{The atmospheric oxidation of dimethyl-sulphide (DMS) derived from marine
phytoplankton is a significant source of marine sulphate aerosol. DMS
has been proposed to regulate climate via changes in cloud properties,
though recent studies have shown that present-day global cloud
condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations have only a weak dependence on
the total emission flux of DMS. Here, we use a global aerosol
microphysics model to examine how efficiently CCN are produced when DMS
emissions are changed in different marine regions. We find that global
CCN production per unit mass of sulphur emitted varies by more than a
factor of 20 depending on where the change in oceanic DMS emission flux
is applied. The variation in CCN production efficiency depends upon
where CCN production processes (DMS oxidation, SO$_{2}$ oxidation,
nucleation and growth) are most efficient and removal processes
(deposition) least efficient. The analysis shows that the production of
aerosol sulphate through aqueous-phase oxidation of SO$_{2}$
limits the amount of H$_{2}$SO$_{4}$ available for
nucleation and condensational growth and therefore suppresses CCN
formation, leading to the weak response of CCN to changes in DMS
emission. Our results show that past and future changes in the spatial
distribution of DMS emissions (through changes in the phytoplankton
population or wind speed patterns) could exert a stronger control on
climate than net increases in biological productivity.
}},
  doi = {10.5194/acp-13-2723-2013},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....13.2723W},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013GeoRL..40..761F,
  author = {{Folland}, C.~K. and {Colman}, A.~W. and {Smith}, D.~M. and 
	{Boucher}, O. and {Parker}, D.~E. and {Vernier}, J.-P.},
  title = {{High predictive skill of global surface temperature a year ahead}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {prediction},
  year = 2013,
  month = feb,
  volume = 40,
  pages = {761-767},
  abstract = {{We discuss 13 real-time forecasts of global annual-mean surface
temperature issued by the United Kingdom Met Office for 1 year ahead for
2000-2012. These involve statistical, and since 2008, initialized
dynamical forecasts using the Met Office DePreSys system. For the period
when the statistical forecast system changed little, 2000-2010, issued
forecasts had a high correlation of 0.74 with observations and a root
mean square error of 0.07{\deg}C. However, the HadCRUT data sets against
which issued forecasts were verified were biased slightly cold,
especially from 2004, because of data gaps in the strongly warming
Arctic. This observational cold bias was mainly responsible for a
statistically significant warm bias in the 2000-2010 forecasts of
0.06{\deg}C. Climate forcing data sets used in the statistical method,
and verification data, have recently been modified, increasing hindcast
correlation skill to 0.80 with no significant bias. Dynamical hindcasts
for 2000-2011 have a similar correlation skill of 0.78 and skillfully
hindcast annual mean spatial global surface temperature patterns. Such
skill indicates that we have a good understanding of the main factors
influencing global mean surface temperature.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/grl.50169},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40..761F},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013ClDy...40..531K,
  author = {{K{\"o}rper}, J. and {H{\"o}schel}, I. and {Lowe}, J.~A. and 
	{Hewitt}, C.~D. and {Salas y Melia}, D. and {Roeckner}, E. and 
	{Huebener}, H. and {Royer}, J.-F. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and 
	{Pardaens}, A. and {Giorgetta}, M.~A. and {Sanderson}, M.~G. and 
	{Otter{\aa}}, O.~H. and {Tjiputra}, J. and {Denvil}, S.},
  title = {{The effects of aggressive mitigation on steric sea level rise and sea ice changes}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Climate, Projections, Stabilization, Sea level rise, Sea ice, Multi-model, ENSEMBLES, CMIP5, Mitigation},
  year = 2013,
  month = feb,
  volume = 40,
  pages = {531-550},
  abstract = {{With an increasing political focus on limiting global warming to less
than 2 {\deg}C above pre-industrial levels it is vital to understand the
consequences of these targets on key parts of the climate system. Here,
we focus on changes in sea level and sea ice, comparing twenty-first
century projections with increased greenhouse gas concentrations (using
the mid-range IPCC A1B emissions scenario) with those under a mitigation
scenario with large reductions in emissions (the E1 scenario). At the
end of the twenty-first century, the global mean steric sea level rise
is reduced by about a third in the mitigation scenario compared with the
A1B scenario. Changes in surface air temperature are found to be poorly
correlated with steric sea level changes. While the projected decreases
in sea ice extent during the first half of the twenty-first century are
independent of the season or scenario, especially in the Arctic, the
seasonal cycle of sea ice extent is amplified. By the end of the century
the Arctic becomes sea ice free in September in the A1B scenario in most
models. In the mitigation scenario the ice does not disappear in the
majority of models, but is reduced by 42 \% of the present September
extent. Results for Antarctic sea ice changes reveal large initial
biases in the models and a significant correlation between projected
changes and the initial extent. This latter result highlights the
necessity for further refinements in Antarctic sea ice modelling for
more reliable projections of future sea ice.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-012-1612-9},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy...40..531K},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013AMT.....6..263F,
  author = {{Frankenberg}, C. and {Wunch}, D. and {Toon}, G. and {Risi}, C. and 
	{Scheepmaker}, R. and {Lee}, J.-E. and {Wennberg}, P. and {Worden}, J.
	},
  title = {{Water vapor isotopologue retrievals from high-resolution GOSAT shortwave infrared spectra}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Measurement Techniques},
  year = 2013,
  month = feb,
  volume = 6,
  pages = {263-274},
  abstract = {{Remote sensing of the isotopic composition of water vapor can provide
valuable information on the hydrological cycle. Here, we demonstrate the
feasibility of retrievals of the relative abundance of HDO (the
HDO/H$_{2}$O ratio) from the Japanese GOSAT satellite. For this
purpose, we use high spectral resolution nadir radiances around 6400
cm$^{-1}$ (1.56 {$\mu$}m) to retrieve vertical column amounts of
H$_{2}$O and HDO. Retrievals of H$_{2}$O correlate well with
ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) integrated
profiles (r$^{2}$ = 0.96). Typical precision errors in the
retrieved column-averaged deuterium depletion ({$\delta$}D) are
20-40{\permil}. We compare {$\delta$}D against a TCCON (Total Carbon Column
Observing Network) ground-based station in Lamont, Oklahoma. Using
retrievals in very dry areas over Antarctica, we detect a small
systematic offset in retrieved H$_{2}$O and HDO column amounts and
take this into account for a bias correction of {$\delta$}D. Monthly
averages of {$\delta$}D in the June 2009 to September 2011 time frame are
well correlated with TCCON (r$^{2}$ = 0.79) and exhibit a slope of
0.98 (1.23 if not bias corrected). We also compare seasonal averages on
the global scale with results from the SCIAMACHY instrument in the
2003-2005 time frame. Despite the lack of temporal overlap, seasonal
averages in general agree well, with spatial correlations
(r$^{2}$) ranging from 0.62 in September through November to 0.83
in June through August. However, we observe higher variability in GOSAT
{$\delta$}D, indicated by fitted slopes between 1.2 and 1.46. The
discrepancies are likely related to differences in vertical
sensitivities but warrant further validation of both GOSAT and SCIAMACHY
and an extension of the validation dataset.
}},
  doi = {10.5194/amt-6-263-2013},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AMT.....6..263F},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013ACP....13.2045B,
  author = {{Bellouin}, N. and {Quaas}, J. and {Morcrette}, J.-J. and {Boucher}, O.
	},
  title = {{Estimates of aerosol radiative forcing from the MACC re-analysis}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2013,
  month = feb,
  volume = 13,
  pages = {2045-2062},
  abstract = {{The European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) provides
an aerosol re-analysis starting from year 2003 for the Monitoring
Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) project. The re-analysis
assimilates total aerosol optical depth retrieved by the Moderate
Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to correct for model
departures from observed aerosols. The re-analysis therefore combines
satellite retrievals with the full spatial coverage of a numerical
model. Re-analysed products are used here to estimate the shortwave
direct and first indirect radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols
over the period 2003-2010, using methods previously applied to satellite
retrievals of aerosols and clouds. The best estimate of
globally-averaged, all-sky direct radiative forcing is -0.7 {\plusmn} 0.3
Wm$^{-2}$. The standard deviation is obtained by a Monte-Carlo
analysis of uncertainties, which accounts for uncertainties in the
aerosol anthropogenic fraction, aerosol absorption, and cloudy-sky
effects. Further accounting for differences between the present-day
natural and pre-industrial aerosols provides a direct radiative forcing
estimate of -0.4 {\plusmn} 0.3 Wm$^{-2}$. The best estimate of
globally-averaged, all-sky first indirect radiative forcing is -0.6
{\plusmn} 0.4 Wm$^{-2}$. Its standard deviation accounts for
uncertainties in the aerosol anthropogenic fraction, and in cloud albedo
and cloud droplet number concentration susceptibilities to aerosol
changes. The distribution of first indirect radiative forcing is
asymmetric and is bounded by -0.1 and -2.0 Wm$^{-2}$. In order to
decrease uncertainty ranges, better observational constraints on aerosol
absorption and sensitivity of cloud droplet number concentrations to
aerosol changes are required.
}},
  doi = {10.5194/acp-13-2045-2013},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....13.2045B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013ACP....13.1607N,
  author = {{Noone}, D. and {Risi}, C. and {Bailey}, A. and {Berkelhammer}, M. and 
	{Brown}, D.~P. and {Buenning}, N. and {Gregory}, S. and {Nusbaumer}, J. and 
	{Schneider}, D. and {Sykes}, J. and {Vanderwende}, B. and {Wong}, J. and 
	{Meillier}, Y. and {Wolfe}, D.},
  title = {{Determining water sources in the boundary layer from tall tower profiles of water vapor and surface water isotope ratios after a snowstorm in Colorado}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2013,
  month = feb,
  volume = 13,
  pages = {1607-1623},
  abstract = {{The D/H isotope ratio is used to attribute boundary layer humidity
changes to the set of contributing fluxes for a case following a
snowstorm in which a snow pack of about 10 cm vanished. Profiles of
H$_{2}$O and CO$_{2}$ mixing ratio, D/H isotope ratio, and
several thermodynamic properties were measured from the surface to 300 m
every 15 min during four winter days near Boulder, Colorado. Coeval
analysis of the D/H ratios and CO$_{2}$ concentrations find these
two variables to be complementary with the former being sensitive to
daytime surface fluxes and the latter particularly indicative of
nocturnal surface sources. Together they capture evidence for strong
vertical mixing during the day, weaker mixing by turbulent bursts and
low level jets within the nocturnal stable boundary layer during the
night, and frost formation in the morning. The profiles are generally
not well described with a gradient mixing line analysis because D/H
ratios of the end members (i.e., surface fluxes and the free
troposphere) evolve throughout the day which leads to large
uncertainties in the estimate of the D/H ratio of surface water flux. A
mass balance model is constructed for the snow pack, and constrained
with observations to provide an optimal estimate of the partitioning of
the surface water flux into contributions from sublimation, evaporation
of melt water in the snow and evaporation from ponds. Results show that
while vapor measurements are important in constraining surface fluxes,
measurements of the source reservoirs (soil water, snow pack and
standing liquid) offer stronger constraint on the surface water balance.
Measurements of surface water are therefore essential in developing
observational programs that seek to use isotopic data for flux
attribution.
}},
  doi = {10.5194/acp-13-1607-2013},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....13.1607N},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013NatGe...6....4B,
  author = {{Boucher}, O. and {Quaas}, J.},
  title = {{Water vapour affects both rain and aerosol optical depth}},
  journal = {Nature Geoscience},
  year = 2013,
  month = jan,
  volume = 6,
  pages = {4-5},
  doi = {10.1038/ngeo1692},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatGe...6....4B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013Icar..222...81F,
  author = {{Forget}, F. and {Wordsworth}, R. and {Millour}, E. and {Madeleine}, J.-B. and 
	{Kerber}, L. and {Leconte}, J. and {Marcq}, E. and {Haberle}, R.~M.
	},
  title = {{3D modelling of the early martian climate under a denser CO$_{2}$ atmosphere: Temperatures and CO$_{2}$ ice clouds}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  archiveprefix = {arXiv},
  eprint = {1210.4216},
  primaryclass = {astro-ph.EP},
  year = 2013,
  month = jan,
  volume = 222,
  pages = {81-99},
  abstract = {{On the basis of geological evidence, it is often stated that the early
martian climate was warm enough for liquid water to flow on the surface
thanks to the greenhouse effect of a thick atmosphere. We present 3D
global climate simulations of the early martian climate performed
assuming a faint young Sun and a CO$_{2}$ atmosphere with surface
pressure between 0.1 and 7 bars. The model includes a detailed radiative
transfer model using revised CO$_{2}$ gas collision induced
absorption properties, and a parameterisation of the CO$_{2}$ ice
cloud microphysical and radiative properties. A wide range of possible
climates is explored using various values of obliquities, orbital
parameters, cloud microphysic parameters, atmospheric dust loading, and
surface properties. Unlike on present day Mars, for pressures higher
than a fraction of a bar, surface temperatures vary with altitude
because of the adiabatic cooling and warming of the atmosphere when it
moves vertically. In most simulations, CO$_{2}$ ice clouds cover a
major part of the planet. Previous studies had suggested that they could
have warmed the planet thanks to their scattering greenhouse effect.
However, even assuming parameters that maximize this effect, it does not
exceed +15 K. Combined with the revised CO$_{2}$ spectroscopy and
the impact of surface CO$_{2}$ ice on the planetary albedo, we
find that a CO$_{2}$ atmosphere could not have raised the annual
mean temperature above 0 {\deg}C anywhere on the planet. The collapse of
the atmosphere into permanent CO$_{2}$ ice caps is predicted for
pressures higher than 3 bar, or conversely at pressure lower than 1 bar
if the obliquity is low enough. Summertime diurnal mean surface
temperatures above 0 {\deg}C (a condition which could have allowed rivers
and lakes to form) are predicted for obliquity larger than 40{\deg} at
high latitudes but not in locations where most valley networks or
layered sedimentary units are observed. In the absence of other warming
mechanisms, our climate model results are thus consistent with a cold
early Mars scenario in which nonclimatic mechanisms must occur to
explain the evidence for liquid water. In a companion paper by
Wordsworth et al. we simulate the hydrological cycle on such a planet
and discuss how this could have happened in more detail.
}},
  doi = {10.1016/j.icarus.2012.10.019},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Icar..222...81F},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013Icar..222....1W,
  author = {{Wordsworth}, R. and {Forget}, F. and {Millour}, E. and {Head}, J.~W. and 
	{Madeleine}, J.-B. and {Charnay}, B.},
  title = {{Global modelling of the early martian climate under a denser CO$_{2}$ atmosphere: Water cycle and ice evolution}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  archiveprefix = {arXiv},
  eprint = {1207.3993},
  primaryclass = {astro-ph.EP},
  year = 2013,
  month = jan,
  volume = 222,
  pages = {1-19},
  abstract = {{We discuss 3D global simulations of the early martian climate that we
have performed assuming a faint young Sun and denser CO$_{2}$
atmosphere. We include a self-consistent representation of the water
cycle, with atmosphere-surface interactions, atmospheric transport, and
the radiative effects of CO$_{2}$ and H$_{2}$O gas and
clouds taken into account. We find that for atmospheric pressures
greater than a fraction of a bar, the adiabatic cooling effect causes
temperatures in the southern highland valley network regions to fall
significantly below the global average. Long-term climate evolution
simulations indicate that in these circumstances, water ice is
transported to the highlands from low-lying regions for a wide range of
orbital obliquities, regardless of the extent of the Tharsis bulge. In
addition, an extended water ice cap forms on the southern pole,
approximately corresponding to the location of the Noachian/Hesperian
era Dorsa Argentea Formation. Even for a multiple-bar CO$_{2}$
atmosphere, conditions are too cold to allow long-term surface liquid
water. Limited melting occurs on warm summer days in some locations, but
only for surface albedo and thermal inertia conditions that may be
unrealistic for water ice. Nonetheless, meteorite impacts and volcanism
could potentially cause intense episodic melting under such conditions.
Because ice migration to higher altitudes is a robust mechanism for
recharging highland water sources after such events, we suggest that
this globally sub-zero, 'icy highlands' scenario for the late Noachian
climate may be sufficient to explain most of the fluvial geology without
the need to invoke additional long-term warming mechanisms or an early
warm, wet Mars.
}},
  doi = {10.1016/j.icarus.2012.09.036},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Icar..222....1W},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2013PhT....66f..29S,
  author = {{Stevens}, B. and {Bony}, S.},
  title = {{Water in the atmosphere}},
  journal = {Physics Today},
  year = 2013,
  volume = 66,
  number = 6,
  pages = {29},
  doi = {10.1063/PT.3.2009},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhT....66f..29S},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}