lmd_EMC32015.bib

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@article{2015GMD.....8..129L,
  author = {{Locatelli}, R. and {Bousquet}, P. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Saunois}, M. and 
	{Cozic}, A. and {Couvreux}, F. and {Grandpeix}, J.-Y. and {Lefebvre}, M.-P. and 
	{Rio}, C. and {Bergamaschi}, P. and {Chambers}, S.~D. and {Karstens}, U. and 
	{Kazan}, V. and {van der Laan}, S. and {Meijer}, H.~A.~J. and 
	{Moncrieff}, J. and {Ramonet}, M. and {Scheeren}, H.~A. and 
	{Schlosser}, C. and {Schmidt}, M. and {Vermeulen}, A. and {Williams}, A.~G.
	},
  title = {{Atmospheric transport and chemistry of trace gases in LMDz5B: evaluation and implications for inverse modelling}},
  journal = {Geoscientific Model Development},
  year = 2015,
  month = feb,
  volume = 8,
  pages = {129-150},
  abstract = {{Representation of atmospheric transport is a major source of error in
the estimation of greenhouse gas sources and sinks by inverse modelling.
Here we assess the impact on trace gas mole fractions of the new
physical parameterizations recently implemented in the atmospheric
global climate model LMDz to improve vertical diffusion, mesoscale
mixing by thermal plumes in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), and deep
convection in the troposphere. At the same time, the horizontal and
vertical resolution of the model used in the inverse system has been
increased. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the impact of these
developments on the representation of trace gas transport and chemistry,
and to anticipate the implications for inversions of greenhouse gas
emissions using such an updated model. 

Comparison of a one-dimensional version of LMDz with large eddy simulations shows that the thermal scheme simulates shallow convective tracer transport in the PBL over land very efficiently, and much better than previous versions of the model. This result is confirmed in three-dimensional simulations, by a much improved reproduction of the radon-222 diurnal cycle. However, the enhanced dynamics of tracer concentrations induces a stronger sensitivity of the new LMDz configuration to external meteorological forcings. At larger scales, the inter-hemispheric exchange is slightly slower when using the new version of the model, bringing them closer to observations. The increase in the vertical resolution (from 19 to 39 layers) significantly improves the representation of stratosphere/troposphere exchange. Furthermore, changes in atmospheric thermodynamic variables, such as temperature, due to changes in the PBL mixing modify chemical reaction rates, which perturb chemical equilibriums of reactive trace gases.

One implication of LMDz model developments for future inversions of greenhouse gas emissions is the ability of the updated system to assimilate a larger amount of high-frequency data sampled at high-variability stations. Others implications are discussed at the end of the paper. }}, doi = {10.5194/gmd-8-129-2015}, adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GMD.....8..129L}, adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System} }
@article{2015GeoRL..4210885H,
  author = {{Hourdin}, F. and {G{\v a}inus{\v a}-Bogdan}, A. and {Braconnot}, P. and 
	{Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Traore}, A.-K. and {Rio}, C.},
  title = {{Air moisture control on ocean surface temperature, hidden key to the warm bias enigma}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {climate, modeling, warm bias, coupling},
  year = 2015,
  month = dec,
  volume = 42,
  pages = {10},
  abstract = {{The systematic overestimation by climate models of the surface
temperature over the eastern tropical oceans is generally attributed to
an insufficient oceanic cooling or to an underestimation of
stratocumulus clouds. We show that surface evaporation contributes as
much as clouds to the dispersion of the warm bias intensity in a
multimodel simulations ensemble. The models with the largest warm biases
are those with the highest surface heating by radiation and lowest
evaporative cooling in atmospheric simulations with prescribed sea
surface temperatures. Surface evaporation also controls the amplitude of
the surface temperature response to this overestimated heating, when the
atmosphere is coupled to an ocean. Evaporation increases with
temperature both because of increasing saturation humidity and of an
unexpected drying of the near-surface air. Both the origin of the bias
and this temperature adjustment point to the key role of near-surface
relative humidity and its control by the atmospheric model.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/2015GL066764},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..4210885H},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015GeoRL..42.7572A,
  author = {{A{\"i}t-Mesbah}, S. and {Dufresne}, J.~L. and {Cheruy}, F. and 
	{Hourdin}, F.},
  title = {{The role of thermal inertia in the representation of mean and diurnal range of surface temperature in semiarid and arid regions}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {surface atmosphere coupling, land surface processes, soil thermal inertia, surface temperature, surface energy balance, oil thermal properties},
  year = 2015,
  month = sep,
  volume = 42,
  pages = {7572-7580},
  abstract = {{In this article we show the possible role of thermal inertia in the
large spread of the simulated surface temperature over arid and semiarid
regions among climate models. The surface-atmosphere interactions are
investigated based on single-column simulations of the DIurnal
land-atmosphere Coupling Experiment and on global simulations. Low
values of the surface thermal inertia increase the diurnal temperature
range (DTR) and the daytime turbulent heat fluxes. The diurnal response
of surface temperature to the thermal inertia is asymmetric between
daytime and nighttime, inducing a change in the daily mean surface
temperature that can reach several degrees over large areas. This
asymmetrical response to thermal inertia is shown to be due to the
diurnal contrast of the stability state of the atmospheric boundary
layer. Thermal inertia in dry regions plays a critical role on both DTR
and surface mean temperature and needs to be carefully represented in
land surface models.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/2015GL065553},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.7572A},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015JGRD..12010619T,
  author = {{Tuinenburg}, O.~A. and {Risi}, C. and {Lacour}, J.~L. and {Schneider}, M. and 
	{Wiegele}, A. and {Worden}, J. and {Kurita}, N. and {Duvel}, J.~P. and 
	{Deutscher}, N. and {Bony}, S. and {Coheur}, P.~F. and {Clerbaux}, C.
	},
  title = {{Moist processes during MJO events as diagnosed from water isotopic measurements from the IASI satellite}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {water isotopes, MJO, IASI},
  year = 2015,
  month = oct,
  volume = 120,
  number = d9,
  pages = {10},
  abstract = {{This study aims to investigate some characteristics of the moist
processes of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), by making use of joint
HDO (or {$\delta$}D) and H$_{2}$O vapor measurements. The MJO is the
main intraseasonal mode of the tropical climate but is hard to properly
simulate in global atmospheric models. The joint use of
{$\delta$}D-H$_{2}$O diagnostics yields additional information
compared to sole humidity measurements. We use midtropospheric Infrared
Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) satellite {$\delta$}D and
H$_{2}$O measurements to determine the mean MJO humidity and
{$\delta$}D evolution. Moreover, by making use of high temporal resolution
data, we determine the variability in this evolution during about eight
MJO events from 2010 to 2012 (including those monitored during the
DYNAMO (the Dynamics of the MJO), CINDY (Cooperative Indian Ocean
Experiment in Y2011) campaign). These data have a higher spatiotemporal
coverage than previous {$\delta$}D measurements, enabling the sampling of
individual MJO events. IASI measurements over the Indian Ocean confirm
earlier findings that the moistening before the precipitation peak of an
MJO event is due to water vapor slightly enriched in HDO. There is then
a HDO depletion around the precipitation peak that also corresponds to
the moister environment. Most interevent variability determined in the
current study occurs 5 to 10 days after the MJO event. In 75\% of the
events, humidity decreases while the atmosphere remains depleted. In a
quarter of the events, humidity increases simultaneously with an
increase in {$\delta$}D. After this, the advection of relatively dry and
enriched air brings back the state to the mean. Over the maritime
continent, {$\delta$}D-H$_{2}$O cycles are more variable on time
scales shorter than the MJO and the interevent variability is larger
than over the Indian Ocean. The sequence of moistening and drying
processes as revealed by the q-{$\delta$}D cycles can be used as a
benchmark to evaluate the representation of moist processes in models.
This is done here by comparing observations to simulations of the
isotope enabled LMDZ (Laboratoire de Météorologie
Dynamique Zoom) global climate model nudged with reanalysis wind fields.
These simulations also give information to investigate possible physical
origins of the observed q-{$\delta$}D cycles.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/2015JD023461},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..12010619T},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015BAMS...96S.145A,
  author = {{Asrar}, G. and {Bony}, S. and {Boucher}, O. and {Busalacchi}, A. and 
	{Cazenave}, A. and {Dowell}, M. and {Flato}, G. and {Hegerl}, G. and 
	{K{\"a}llén}, E. and {Nakajima}, T. and {Ratier}, A. and 
	{Saunders}, R. and {Slingo}, J. and {Sohn}, B.-J. and {Schmetz}, J. and 
	{Stevens}, B. and {Zhang}, P. and {Zwiers}, F.},
  title = {{Climate Symposium 2014: Findings and Recommendations}},
  journal = {Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society},
  year = 2015,
  month = sep,
  volume = 96,
  pages = {ES145-ES147},
  doi = {10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00003.1},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BAMS...96S.145A},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015QJRMS.141.2220C,
  author = {{Couvreux}, F. and {Roehrig}, R. and {Rio}, C. and {Lefebvre}, M.-P. and 
	{Caian}, M. and {Komori}, T. and {Derbyshire}, S. and {Guichard}, F. and 
	{Favot}, F. and {D'Andrea}, F. and {Bechtold}, P. and {Gentine}, P.
	},
  title = {{Representation of daytime moist convection over the semi-arid Tropics by parametrizations used in climate and meteorological models}},
  journal = {Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society},
  year = 2015,
  month = jul,
  volume = 141,
  pages = {2220-2236},
  doi = {10.1002/qj.2517},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015QJRMS.141.2220C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015GeoRL..42.5626M,
  author = {{Muller}, C. and {Bony}, S.},
  title = {{What favors convective aggregation and why?}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {tropical convection, self-aggregation, radiative-convective equilibrium, radiative-convective instability, cloud-resolving model},
  year = 2015,
  month = jul,
  volume = 42,
  pages = {5626-5634},
  abstract = {{The organization of convection is ubiquitous, but its physical
understanding remains limited. One particular type of organization is
the spatial self-aggregation of convection, taking the form of cloud
clusters, or tropical cyclones in the presence of rotation. We show that
several physical processes can give rise to self-aggregation and
highlight the key features responsible for it, using idealized
simulations. Longwave radiative feedbacks yield a ``radiative
aggregation.'' In that case, sufficient spatial variability of radiative
cooling rates yields a low-level circulation, which induces the
upgradient energy transport and radiative-convective instability. Not
only do vertically integrated radiative budgets matter but the vertical
profile of cooling is also crucial. Convective aggregation is
facilitated when downdrafts below clouds are weak (``moisture-memory
aggregation''), and this is sufficient to trigger aggregation in the
absence of longwave radiative feedbacks. These results shed some light
on the sensitivity of self-aggregation to various parameters, including
resolution or domain size.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/2015GL064260},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.5626M},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015ACP....15.6775H,
  author = {{Hourdin}, F. and {Gueye}, M. and {Diallo}, B. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and 
	{Escribano}, J. and {Menut}, L. and {Marticoréna}, B. and 
	{Siour}, G. and {Guichard}, F.},
  title = {{Parameterization of convective transport in the boundary layer and its impact on the representation of the diurnal cycle of wind and dust emissions}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2015,
  month = jun,
  volume = 15,
  pages = {6775-6788},
  abstract = {{We investigate how the representation of the boundary layer in a climate
model impacts the representation of the near-surface wind and dust
emission, with a focus on the Sahel/Sahara region. We show that the
combination of vertical turbulent diffusion with a representation of the
thermal cells of the convective boundary layer by a mass flux scheme
leads to realistic representation of the diurnal cycle of wind in
spring, with a maximum near-surface wind in the morning. This maximum
occurs when the thermal plumes reach the low-level jet that forms during
the night at a few hundred meters above surface. The horizontal momentum
in the jet is transported downward to the surface by compensating
subsidence around thermal plumes in typically less than 1 h. This leads
to a rapid increase of wind speed at surface and therefore of dust
emissions owing to the strong nonlinearity of emission laws. The
numerical experiments are performed with a zoomed and nudged
configuration of the LMDZ general circulation model coupled to the
emission module of the CHIMERE chemistry transport model, in which winds
are relaxed toward that of the ERA-Interim reanalyses. The new set of
parameterizations leads to a strong improvement of the representation of
the diurnal cycle of wind when compared to a previous version of LMDZ as
well as to the reanalyses used for nudging themselves. It also generates
dust emissions in better agreement with current estimates, but the
aerosol optical thickness is still significantly underestimated.
}},
  doi = {10.5194/acp-15-6775-2015},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.6775H},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015JGRD..120.2190B,
  author = {{Benetti}, M. and {Aloisi}, G. and {Reverdin}, G. and {Risi}, C. and 
	{Sèze}, G.},
  title = {{Importance of boundary layer mixing for the isotopic composition of surface vapor over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {water isotopes, d-excess, kinetic effects, shallow convection, marine boundary layer, evaporation},
  year = 2015,
  month = mar,
  volume = 120,
  pages = {2190-2209},
  abstract = {{During the summer 2012, we carried out continuous measurements of the
isotopic composition ({$\delta$}) of water vapor over the near-surface
subtropical North Atlantic Ocean (STRASSE cruise). In this region of
excess evaporation, we investigate the control of evaporation and mixing
with a lower troposphere-derived, isotopically depleted air mass on the
near-surface {$\delta$}. We use a simple model to simulate the near-surface
{$\delta$} as the result of a two end-member mixing of the evaporative flux
with free tropospheric air. The evaporative flux {$\delta$} was estimated
by the Craig and Gordon equation while the {$\delta$} of the lower
troposphere was taken from the LMDZ-iso global atmospheric circulation
model. This simulation considers instantaneous mixing of lower
tropospheric air with the evaporated flux and neglects lateral
advection. Despite these simplifications, the simulations allow to
identify the controls on the near-surface {$\delta$}. The d-excess
variability is largely a consequence of varying kinetic effects during
evaporation, even during a convection event when the input of
tropospheric vapor was strong. Kinetic effects and mixing processes
affect simultaneously the near-surface {$\delta$} and result in the vapor
occupying distinct domains in the {$\delta$}$^{18}$O-{$\delta$}D space.
The relative humidity-d-excess relationship shows that the closure
assumption overestimates the d-excess variability at short time scales
(less than a day). We interpret this as due to an effect of the
residence time of the near-surface water vapor on the d-excess. Finally,
we highlight the importance of reproducing mixing processes in models
simulating isotopes over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean and
propose an extension of the closure assumption for use in initial
conditions of distillation calculations.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/2014JD021947},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.2190B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015BAMS...96..217S,
  author = {{Sherwood}, S.~C. and {Bony}, S. and {Boucher}, O. and {Bretherton}, C. and 
	{Forster}, P.~M. and {Gregory}, J.~M. and {Stevens}, B.},
  title = {{Adjustments in the Forcing-Feedback Framework for Understanding Climate Change}},
  journal = {Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society},
  year = 2015,
  month = feb,
  volume = 96,
  pages = {217-228},
  doi = {10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00167.1},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BAMS...96..217S},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015JAMES...7.2060C,
  author = {{Coppin}, D. and {Bony}, S.},
  title = {{Physical mechanisms controlling the initiation of convective self-aggregation in a General Circulation Model}},
  journal = {Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems},
  keywords = {self-aggregation, Radiative-Convective Equilibrium, convection, cloud-circulation coupling, low-cloud feedback, WISHE feedback},
  year = 2015,
  month = dec,
  volume = 7,
  pages = {2060-2078},
  abstract = {{Cloud-resolving models have shown that under certain conditions, the
Radiative-Convective Equilibrium (RCE) could become unstable and lead to
the spontaneous organization of the atmosphere into dry and wet areas,
and the aggregation of convection. In this study, we show that this
``self-aggregation'' behavior also occurs in nonrotating RCE simulations
performed with the IPSL-CM5A-LR General Circulation Model (GCM), and
that it exhibits a strong dependence on sea surface temperature (SST).
We investigate the physical mechanisms that control the initiation of
self-aggregation in this model, and their dependence on temperature. At
low SSTs, the onset of self-aggregation is primarily controlled by the
coupling between low-cloud radiative effects and shallow circulations
and the formation of ``radiatively driven cold pools'' in areas devoid of
deep convection, while at high SSTs it is primarily controlled by the
coupling between surface fluxes and circulation within convective areas.
At intermediate temperatures, the occurrence of self-aggregation is less
spontaneous and depends on initial conditions, but it can arise through
a combination of both mechanisms. Through their coupling to circulation
and surface fluxes, the radiative effects of low-level clouds play a
critical role in both initiation mechanisms, and the sensitivity of
boundary layer clouds to surface temperature explains to a large extent
the temperature dependence of convective self-aggregation. At any SST,
the presence of cloud-radiative effects in the free troposphere is
necessary to the initiation, growth, and maintenance of convective
aggregation.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/2015MS000571},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAMES...7.2060C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015IJCli..35.4829Z,
  author = {{Zhang}, J. and {Li}, L. and {Wu}, Z. and {Li}, X.},
  title = {{Prolonged dry spells in recent decades over north-central China and their association with a northward shift in planetary waves}},
  journal = {International Journal of Climatology},
  year = 2015,
  month = dec,
  volume = 35,
  pages = {4829-4842},
  doi = {10.1002/joc.4337},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJCli..35.4829Z},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015GeoRL..4210745W,
  author = {{Wang}, R. and {Balkanski}, Y. and {Bopp}, L. and {Aumont}, O. and 
	{Boucher}, O. and {Ciais}, P. and {Gehlen}, M. and {Pe{\~n}uelas}, J. and 
	{Ethé}, C. and {Hauglustaine}, D. and {Li}, B. and {Liu}, J. and 
	{Zhou}, F. and {Tao}, S.},
  title = {{Influence of anthropogenic aerosol deposition on the relationship between oceanic productivity and warming}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {ocean productivity, anthropogenic aerosols, nutrient limitation, ocean biogeochemical model},
  year = 2015,
  month = dec,
  volume = 42,
  pages = {10},
  abstract = {{Satellite data and models suggest that oceanic productivity is reduced
in response to less nutrient supply under warming. In contrast,
anthropogenic aerosols provide nutrients and exert a fertilizing effect,
but its contribution to evolution of oceanic productivity is unknown. We
simulate the response of oceanic biogeochemistry to anthropogenic
aerosols deposition under varying climate from 1850 to 2010. We find a
positive response of observed chlorophyll to deposition of anthropogenic
aerosols. Our results suggest that anthropogenic aerosols reduce the
sensitivity of oceanic productivity to warming from -15.2 {\plusmn} 1.8
to -13.3 {\plusmn} 1.6 Pg C yr$^{-1}$ {\deg}C$^{-1}$ in global
stratified oceans during 1948-2007. The reducing percentage over the
North Atlantic, North Pacific, and Indian Oceans reaches 40, 24, and
25\%, respectively. We hypothesize that inevitable reduction of aerosol
emissions in response to higher air quality standards in the future
might accelerate the decline of oceanic productivity per unit warming.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/2015GL066753},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..4210745W},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015ClDy...45.3275M,
  author = {{May}, W. and {Meier}, A. and {Rummukainen}, M. and {Berg}, A. and 
	{Chéruy}, F. and {Hagemann}, S.},
  title = {{Contributions of soil moisture interactions to climate change in the tropics in the GLACE-CMIP5 experiment}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Tropics, Climate change, Soil moisture, Soil moisture-temperature coupling, Soil moisture-precipitation coupling},
  year = 2015,
  month = dec,
  volume = 45,
  pages = {3275-3297},
  abstract = {{Contributions of changes in soil moisture to the projected climate
change in the tropics at the end of the twenty first century are
quantified using the simulations from five different global climate
models, which contributed to the GLACE-CMIP5 experiment. ``GLACE'' refers
to the Global Land Atmosphere Coupling Experiment and ``CMIP5'' to the
fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. This is done
by relating the overall projected changes in climate to those changes in
climate that are related to the projected changes in soil moisture. The
study focusses on two particular aspects of the interactions of the soil
moisture with climate, the soil moisture-temperature coupling and the
soil moisture-precipitation coupling. The simulations show distinct
future changes in soil moisture content in the tropics, with a general
tendency of increases in the central parts of the tropics and decreases
in the subtropics. These changes are associated with corresponding
changes in precipitation, with an overall tendency of an approximate 5 \%
change in soil moisture in response to a precipitation change of 1
mm/day. All five individual models are characterized by the same
qualitative behaviour, despite differences in the strength and in the
robustness of the coupling between soil moisture and precipitation. The
changes in soil moisture content are found to give important
contributions to the overall climate change in the tropics. This is in
particularly the case for latent and sensible heat flux, for which about
80 \% of the overall changes are related to soil moisture changes.
Similarly, about 80 \% of the overall near-surface temperature changes
(with the mean temperature changes in the tropics removed) are
associated with soil moisture changes. For precipitation, on the other
hand, about 30-40 \% of the overall change can be attributed to soil
moisture changes. The robustness of the contributions of the soil
moisture changes to the overall climate change varies between the
different meteorological variables, with a high degree of robustness for
the surface energy fluxes, a fair degree for near-surface temperature
and a low degree for precipitation. Similar to the coupling between soil
moisture and precipitation, the five individual models are characterized
by the same qualitative behaviour, albeit differences in the strength
and the robustness of the contributions of the soil moisture change.
This suggests that despite the regional differences in the projected
climate changes between the individual models, the basic physical
mechanisms governing the soil moisture-temperature coupling and the soil
moisture-precipitation coupling work similarly in these models. The
experiment confirms the conceptual models of the soil
moisture-temperature coupling and the soil moisture-precipitation
coupling described Seneviratne et al. (Earth-Sci Rev 99:125-161, 2010).
For the soil moisture-temperature coupling, decreases (increases) in
soil moisture lead to increasing (decreasing) sensible heat fluxes and
near-surface temperatures. The soil moisture-precipitation coupling is
part of a positive feedback loop, where increases (decreases) in
precipitation cause increases (decreases) in soil moisture content,
which, in turn, lead to increasing (decreasing) latent heat fluxes and
precipitation.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-015-2538-9},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...45.3275M},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015JCli...28.8603J,
  author = {{Jiang}, Z. and {Li}, W. and {Xu}, J. and {Li}, L.},
  title = {{Extreme Precipitation Indices over China in CMIP5 Models. Part I: Model Evaluation}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2015,
  month = nov,
  volume = 28,
  pages = {8603-8619},
  doi = {10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0099.1},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JCli...28.8603J},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015GMD.....8.3523E,
  author = {{Eskes}, H. and {Huijnen}, V. and {Arola}, A. and {Benedictow}, A. and 
	{Blechschmidt}, A.-M. and {Botek}, E. and {Boucher}, O. and 
	{Bouarar}, I. and {Chabrillat}, S. and {Cuevas}, E. and {Engelen}, R. and 
	{Flentje}, H. and {Gaudel}, A. and {Griesfeller}, J. and {Jones}, L. and 
	{Kapsomenakis}, J. and {Katragkou}, E. and {Kinne}, S. and {Langerock}, B. and 
	{Razinger}, M. and {Richter}, A. and {Schultz}, M. and {Schulz}, M. and 
	{Sudarchikova}, N. and {Thouret}, V. and {Vrekoussis}, M. and 
	{Wagner}, A. and {Zerefos}, C.},
  title = {{Validation of reactive gases and aerosols in the MACC global analysis and forecast system}},
  journal = {Geoscientific Model Development},
  year = 2015,
  month = nov,
  volume = 8,
  pages = {3523-3543},
  abstract = {{The European MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate)
project is preparing the operational Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring
Service (CAMS), one of the services of the European Copernicus Programme
on Earth observation and environmental services. MACC uses data
assimilation to combine in situ and remote sensing observations with
global and regional models of atmospheric reactive gases, aerosols, and
greenhouse gases, and is based on the Integrated Forecasting System of
the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The
global component of the MACC service has a dedicated validation activity
to document the quality of the atmospheric composition products. In this
paper we discuss the approach to validation that has been developed over
the past 3 years. Topics discussed are the validation requirements, the
operational aspects, the measurement data sets used, the structure of
the validation reports, the models and assimilation systems validated,
the procedure to introduce new upgrades, and the scoring methods. One
specific target of the MACC system concerns forecasting special events
with high-pollution concentrations. Such events receive extra attention
in the validation process. Finally, a summary is provided of the results
from the validation of the latest set of daily global analysis and
forecast products from the MACC system reported in November 2014.
}},
  doi = {10.5194/gmd-8-3523-2015},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GMD.....8.3523E},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015CliPa..11.1527R,
  author = {{Reutenauer}, C. and {Landais}, A. and {Blunier}, T. and {Bréant}, C. and 
	{Kageyama}, M. and {Woillez}, M.-N. and {Risi}, C. and {Mariotti}, V. and 
	{Braconnot}, P.},
  title = {{Quantifying molecular oxygen isotope variations during a Heinrich stadial}},
  journal = {Climate of the Past},
  year = 2015,
  month = nov,
  volume = 11,
  pages = {1527-1551},
  abstract = {{{$\delta$}$^{18}$O of atmospheric oxygen
({$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{atm}$) undergoes millennial-scale
variations during the last glacial period, and systematically increases
during Heinrich stadials (HSs). Changes in
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{atm}$ combine variations in biospheric and
water cycle processes. The identification of the main driver of the
millennial variability in {$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{atm}$ is thus
not straightforward. Here, we quantify the response of
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{atm}$ to such millennial events using a
freshwater hosing simulation performed under glacial boundary
conditions. Our global approach takes into account the latest estimates
of isotope fractionation factor for respiratory and photosynthetic
processes and make use of atmospheric water isotope and vegetation
changes. Our modeling approach allows to reproduce the main observed
features of a HS in terms of climatic conditions, vegetation
distribution and {$\delta$}$^{18}$O of precipitation. We use it to
decipher the relative importance of the different processes behind the
observed changes in {$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{atm}$. The results
highlight the dominant role of hydrology on
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{atm}$ and confirm that
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{atm}$ can be seen as a global integrator
of hydrological changes over vegetated areas.
}},
  doi = {10.5194/cp-11-1527-2015},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPa..11.1527R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015GMD.....8.3379K,
  author = {{Kravitz}, B. and {Robock}, A. and {Tilmes}, S. and {Boucher}, O. and 
	{English}, J.~M. and {Irvine}, P.~J. and {Jones}, A. and {Lawrence}, M.~G. and 
	{MacCracken}, M. and {Muri}, H. and {Moore}, J.~C. and {Niemeier}, U. and 
	{Phipps}, S.~J. and {Sillmann}, J. and {Storelvmo}, T. and {Wang}, H. and 
	{Watanabe}, S.},
  title = {{The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (GeoMIP6): simulation design and preliminary results}},
  journal = {Geoscientific Model Development},
  year = 2015,
  month = oct,
  volume = 8,
  pages = {3379-3392},
  abstract = {{We present a suite of new climate model experiment designs for the
Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). This set of
experiments, named GeoMIP6 (to be consistent with the Coupled Model
Intercomparison Project Phase 6), builds on the previous GeoMIP project
simulations, and has been expanded to address several further important
topics, including key uncertainties in extreme events, the use of
geoengineering as part of a portfolio of responses to climate change,
and the relatively new idea of cirrus cloud thinning to allow more
longwave radiation to escape to space. We discuss experiment designs, as
well as the rationale for those designs, showing preliminary results
from individual models when available. We also introduce a new feature,
called the GeoMIP Testbed, which provides a platform for simulations
that will be performed with a few models and subsequently assessed to
determine whether the proposed experiment designs will be adopted as
core (Tier 1) GeoMIP experiments. This is meant to encourage various
stakeholders to propose new targeted experiments that address their key
open science questions, with the goal of making GeoMIP more relevant to
a broader set of communities.
}},
  doi = {10.5194/gmd-8-3379-2015},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GMD.....8.3379K},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015GMD.....8.3131D,
  author = {{Dubos}, T. and {Dubey}, S. and {Tort}, M. and {Mittal}, R. and 
	{Meurdesoif}, Y. and {Hourdin}, F.},
  title = {{DYNAMICO-1.0, an icosahedral hydrostatic dynamical core designed for consistency and versatility}},
  journal = {Geoscientific Model Development},
  year = 2015,
  month = oct,
  volume = 8,
  pages = {3131-3150},
  abstract = {{The design of the icosahedral dynamical core DYNAMICO is presented.
DYNAMICO solves the multi-layer rotating shallow-water equations, a
compressible variant of the same equivalent to a discretization of the
hydrostatic primitive equations in a Lagrangian vertical coordinate, and
the primitive equations in a hybrid mass-based vertical coordinate. The
common Hamiltonian structure of these sets of equations is exploited to
formulate energy-conserving spatial discretizations in a unified way.


The horizontal mesh is a quasi-uniform icosahedral C-grid obtained by subdivision of a regular icosahedron. Control volumes for mass, tracers and entropy/potential temperature are the hexagonal cells of the Voronoi mesh to avoid the fast numerical modes of the triangular C-grid. The horizontal discretization is that of Ringler et al. (2010), whose discrete quasi-Hamiltonian structure is identified. The prognostic variables are arranged vertically on a Lorenz grid with all thermodynamical variables collocated with mass. The vertical discretization is obtained from the three-dimensional Hamiltonian formulation. Tracers are transported using a second-order finite-volume scheme with slope limiting for positivity. Explicit Runge-Kutta time integration is used for dynamics, and forward-in-time integration with horizontal/vertical splitting is used for tracers. Most of the model code is common to the three sets of equations solved, making it easier to develop and validate each piece of the model separately.

Representative three-dimensional test cases are run and analyzed, showing correctness of the model. The design permits to consider several extensions in the near future, from higher-order transport to more general dynamics, especially deep-atmosphere and non-hydrostatic equations. }}, doi = {10.5194/gmd-8-3131-2015}, adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GMD.....8.3131D}, adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System} }
@article{2015E&PSL.427..160C,
  author = {{Cauquoin}, A. and {Jean-Baptiste}, P. and {Risi}, C. and {Fourré}, {\'E}. and 
	{Stenni}, B. and {Landais}, A.},
  title = {{The global distribution of natural tritium in precipitation simulated with an Atmospheric General Circulation Model and comparison with observations}},
  journal = {Earth and Planetary Science Letters},
  keywords = {tritium, hydrological cycle, GCM, stratospheric air intrusions},
  year = 2015,
  month = oct,
  volume = 427,
  pages = {160-170},
  abstract = {{The description of the hydrological cycle in Atmospheric General
Circulation Models (GCMs) can be validated using water isotopes as
tracers. Many GCMs now simulate the movement of the stable isotopes of
water, but here we present the first GCM simulations modelling the
content of natural tritium in water. These simulations were obtained
using a version of the LMDZ General Circulation Model enhanced by water
isotopes diagnostics, LMDZ-iso. To avoid tritium generated by nuclear
bomb testing, the simulations have been evaluated against a compilation
of published tritium datasets dating from before 1950, or measured
recently. LMDZ-iso correctly captures the observed tritium enrichment in
precipitation as oceanic air moves inland (the so-called continental
effect) and the observed north-south variations due to the latitudinal
dependency of the cosmogenic tritium production rate. The seasonal
variability, linked to the stratospheric intrusions of air masses with
higher tritium content into the troposphere, is correctly reproduced for
Antarctica with a maximum in winter. LMDZ-iso reproduces the spring
maximum of tritium over Europe, but underestimates it and produces a
peak in winter that is not apparent in the data. This implementation of
tritium in a GCM promises to provide a better constraint on: (1) the
intrusions and transport of air masses from the stratosphere, and (2)
the dynamics of the modelled water cycle. The method complements the
existing approach of using stable water isotopes.
}},
  doi = {10.1016/j.epsl.2015.06.043},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.427..160C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015CliPa..11.1375J,
  author = {{Jasechko}, S. and {Lechler}, A. and {Pausata}, F.~S.~R. and 
	{Fawcett}, P.~J. and {Gleeson}, T. and {Cend{\'o}n}, D.~I. and 
	{Galewsky}, J. and {LeGrande}, A.~N. and {Risi}, C. and {Sharp}, Z.~D. and 
	{Welker}, J.~M. and {Werner}, M. and {Yoshimura}, K.},
  title = {{Late-glacial to late-Holocene shifts in global precipitation {$\delta$}$^{18}$O}},
  journal = {Climate of the Past},
  year = 2015,
  month = oct,
  volume = 11,
  pages = {1375-1393},
  abstract = {{Reconstructions of Quaternary climate are often based on the isotopic
content of paleo-precipitation preserved in proxy records. While many
paleo-precipitation isotope records are available, few studies have
synthesized these dispersed records to explore spatial patterns of
late-glacial precipitation {$\delta$}$^{18}$O. Here we present a
synthesis of 86 globally distributed groundwater (n = 59), cave calcite
(n = 15) and ice core (n = 12) isotope records spanning the late-glacial
(defined as \~{} 50 000 to \~{} 20 000 years ago) to the late-Holocene (within
the past \~{} 5000 years). We show that precipitation {$\delta$}$^{18}$O
changes from the late-glacial to the late-Holocene range from -7.1
{\permil} ({$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{late-Holocene}$ $\gt$
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{late-glacial}$) to +1.7 {\permil}
({$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{late-glacial}$ $\gt$
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{late-Holocene}$), with the majority (77 \%)
of records having lower late-glacial {$\delta$}$^{18}$O than
late-Holocene {$\delta$}$^{18}$O values. High-magnitude, negative
precipitation {$\delta$}$^{18}$O shifts are common at high latitudes,
high altitudes and continental interiors
({$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{late-Holocene}$ $\gt$
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{late-glacial}$ by more than 3 {\permil}).
Conversely, low-magnitude, positive precipitation {$\delta$}$^{18}$O
shifts are concentrated along tropical and subtropical coasts
({$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{late-glacial}$ $\gt$
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{late-Holocene}$ by less than 2 {\permil}).
Broad, global patterns of late-glacial to late-Holocene precipitation
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O shifts suggest that stronger-than-modern isotopic
distillation of air masses prevailed during the late-glacial, likely
impacted by larger global temperature differences between the tropics
and the poles. Further, to test how well general circulation models
reproduce global precipitation {$\delta$}$^{18}$O shifts, we compiled
simulated precipitation {$\delta$}$^{18}$O shifts from five
isotope-enabled general circulation models simulated under recent and
last glacial maximum climate states. Climate simulations generally show
better inter-model and model-measurement agreement in temperate regions
than in the tropics, highlighting a need for further research to better
understand how inter-model spread in convective rainout, seawater
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O and glacial topography parameterizations impact
simulated precipitation {$\delta$}$^{18}$O. Future research on
paleo-precipitation {$\delta$}$^{18}$O records can use the global
maps of measured and simulated late-glacial precipitation isotope
compositions to target and prioritize field sites.
}},
  doi = {10.5194/cp-11-1375-2015},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPa..11.1375J},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015JCli...28.7263L,
  author = {{Li}, Y. and {Thompson}, D.~W.~J. and {Bony}, S.},
  title = {{The Influence of Atmospheric Cloud Radiative Effects on the Large-Scale Atmospheric Circulation}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2015,
  month = sep,
  volume = 28,
  pages = {7263-7278},
  doi = {10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00825.1},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JCli...28.7263L},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015JCli...28.6608R,
  author = {{Rotstayn}, L.~D. and {Collier}, M.~A. and {Shindell}, D.~T. and 
	{Boucher}, O.},
  title = {{Why Does Aerosol Forcing Control Historical Global-Mean Surface Temperature Change in CMIP5 Models?}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2015,
  month = sep,
  volume = 28,
  pages = {6608-6625},
  doi = {10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00712.1},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JCli...28.6608R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015JAtS...72.3574L,
  author = {{Lahellec}, A. and {Reimer}, K.},
  title = {{A Formal Analysis of the Feedback Concept in Climate Models. Part III: Feedback Dynamics and the Seasonal Cycle in a Floquet Analysis}},
  journal = {Journal of Atmospheric Sciences},
  year = 2015,
  month = sep,
  volume = 72,
  pages = {3574-3596},
  doi = {10.1175/JAS-D-14-0364.1},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAtS...72.3574L},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015ACP....1510529S,
  author = {{Stohl}, A. and {Aamaas}, B. and {Amann}, M. and {Baker}, L.~H. and 
	{Bellouin}, N. and {Berntsen}, T.~K. and {Boucher}, O. and {Cherian}, R. and 
	{Collins}, W. and {Daskalakis}, N. and {Dusinska}, M. and {Eckhardt}, S. and 
	{Fuglestvedt}, J.~S. and {Harju}, M. and {Heyes}, C. and {Hodnebrog}, {\O}. and 
	{Hao}, J. and {Im}, U. and {Kanakidou}, M. and {Klimont}, Z. and 
	{Kupiainen}, K. and {Law}, K.~S. and {Lund}, M.~T. and {Maas}, R. and 
	{MacIntosh}, C.~R. and {Myhre}, G. and {Myriokefalitakis}, S. and 
	{Olivié}, D. and {Quaas}, J. and {Quennehen}, B. and {Raut}, J.-C. and 
	{Rumbold}, S.~T. and {Samset}, B.~H. and {Schulz}, M. and {Seland}, {\O}. and 
	{Shine}, K.~P. and {Skeie}, R.~B. and {Wang}, S. and {Yttri}, K.~E. and 
	{Zhu}, T.},
  title = {{Evaluating the climate and air quality impacts of short-lived pollutants}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2015,
  month = sep,
  volume = 15,
  pages = {10529-10566},
  abstract = {{This paper presents a summary of the work done within the European
Union's Seventh Framework Programme project ECLIPSE (Evaluating the
Climate and Air Quality Impacts of Short-Lived Pollutants). ECLIPSE had
a unique systematic concept for designing a realistic and effective
mitigation scenario for short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs; methane,
aerosols and ozone, and their precursor species) and quantifying its
climate and air quality impacts, and this paper presents the results in
the context of this overarching strategy. The first step in ECLIPSE was
to create a new emission inventory based on current legislation (CLE)
for the recent past and until 2050. Substantial progress compared to
previous work was made by including previously unaccounted types of
sources such as flaring of gas associated with oil production, and wick
lamps. These emission data were used for present-day reference
simulations with four advanced Earth system models (ESMs) and six
chemistry transport models (CTMs). The model simulations were compared
with a variety of ground-based and satellite observational data sets
from Asia, Europe and the Arctic. It was found that the models still
underestimate the measured seasonality of aerosols in the Arctic but to
a lesser extent than in previous studies. Problems likely related to the
emissions were identified for northern Russia and India, in particular.
To estimate the climate impacts of SLCPs, ECLIPSE followed two paths of
research: the first path calculated radiative forcing (RF) values for a
large matrix of SLCP species emissions, for different seasons and
regions independently. Based on these RF calculations, the Global
Temperature change Potential metric for a time horizon of 20 years
(GTP$_{20}$) was calculated for each SLCP emission type. This
climate metric was then used in an integrated assessment model to
identify all emission mitigation measures with a beneficial air quality
and short-term (20-year) climate impact. These measures together defined
a SLCP mitigation (MIT) scenario. Compared to CLE, the MIT scenario
would reduce global methane (CH$_{4}$) and black carbon (BC)
emissions by about 50 and 80 \%, respectively. For CH$_{4}$,
measures on shale gas production, waste management and coal mines were
most important. For non-CH$_{4}$ SLCPs, elimination of
high-emitting vehicles and wick lamps, as well as reducing emissions
from gas flaring, coal and biomass stoves, agricultural waste, solvents
and diesel engines were most important. These measures lead to large
reductions in calculated surface concentrations of ozone and particulate
matter. We estimate that in the EU, the loss of statistical life
expectancy due to air pollution was 7.5 months in 2010, which will be
reduced to 5.2 months by 2030 in the CLE scenario. The MIT scenario
would reduce this value by another 0.9 to 4.3 months. Substantially
larger reductions due to the mitigation are found for China (1.8 months)
and India (11-12 months). The climate metrics cannot fully quantify the
climate response. Therefore, a second research path was taken. Transient
climate ensemble simulations with the four ESMs were run for the CLE and
MIT scenarios, to determine the climate impacts of the mitigation. In
these simulations, the CLE scenario resulted in a surface temperature
increase of 0.70 {\plusmn} 0.14 K between the years 2006 and 2050. For
the decade 2041-2050, the warming was reduced by 0.22 {\plusmn} 0.07 K in
the MIT scenario, and this result was in almost exact agreement with the
response calculated based on the emission metrics (reduced warming of
0.22 {\plusmn} 0.09 K). The metrics calculations suggest that
non-CH$_{4}$ SLCPs contribute \~{} 22 \% to this response and
CH$_{4}$ 78 \%. This could not be fully confirmed by the transient
simulations, which attributed about 90 \% of the temperature response to
CH$_{4}$ reductions. Attribution of the observed temperature
response to non-CH$_{4}$ SLCP emission reductions and BC
specifically is hampered in the transient simulations by small forcing
and co-emitted species of the emission basket chosen. Nevertheless, an
important conclusion is that our mitigation basket as a whole would lead
to clear benefits for both air quality and climate. The climate response
from BC reductions in our study is smaller than reported previously,
possibly because our study is one of the first to use fully coupled
climate models, where unforced variability and sea ice responses cause
relatively strong temperature fluctuations that may counteract (and,
thus, mask) the impacts of small emission reductions. The temperature
responses to the mitigation were generally stronger over the continents
than over the oceans, and with a warming reduction of 0.44 K (0.39-0.49)
K the largest over the Arctic. Our calculations suggest particularly
beneficial climate responses in southern Europe, where surface warming
was reduced by about 0.3 K and precipitation rates were increased by
about 15 (6-21) mm yr$^{-1}$ (more than 4 \% of total
precipitation) from spring to autumn. Thus, the mitigation could help to
alleviate expected future drought and water shortages in the
Mediterranean area. We also report other important results of the
ECLIPSE project.
}},
  doi = {10.5194/acp-15-10529-2015},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....1510529S},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015TCry....9.1481M,
  author = {{Masson-Delmotte}, V. and {Steen-Larsen}, H.~C. and {Ortega}, P. and 
	{Swingedouw}, D. and {Popp}, T. and {Vinther}, B.~M. and {Oerter}, H. and 
	{Sveinbjornsdottir}, A.~E. and {Gudlaugsdottir}, H. and {Box}, J.~E. and 
	{Falourd}, S. and {Fettweis}, X. and {Gallée}, H. and {Garnier}, E. and 
	{Gkinis}, V. and {Jouzel}, J. and {Landais}, A. and {Minster}, B. and 
	{Paradis}, N. and {Orsi}, A. and {Risi}, C. and {Werner}, M. and 
	{White}, J.~W.~C.},
  title = {{Recent changes in north-west Greenland climate documented by NEEM shallow ice core data and simulations, and implications for past-temperature reconstructions}},
  journal = {The Cryosphere},
  year = 2015,
  month = aug,
  volume = 9,
  pages = {1481-1504},
  abstract = {{Combined records of snow accumulation rate, {$\delta$}$^{18}$O and
deuterium excess were produced from several shallow ice cores and snow
pits at NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling), covering the period
from 1724 to 2007. They are used to investigate recent climate
variability and characterise the isotope-temperature relationship. We
find that NEEM records are only weakly affected by inter-annual changes
in the North Atlantic Oscillation. Decadal {$\delta$}$^{18}$O and
accumulation variability is related to North Atlantic sea surface
temperature and is enhanced at the beginning of the 19th century. No
long-term trend is observed in the accumulation record. By contrast,
NEEM {$\delta$}$^{18}$O shows multidecadal increasing trends in the
late 19th century and since the 1980s. The strongest annual positive
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O values are recorded at NEEM in 1928 and 2010,
while maximum accumulation occurs in 1933. The last decade is the most
enriched in {$\delta$}$^{18}$O (warmest), while the 11-year periods
with the strongest depletion (coldest) are depicted at NEEM in 1815-1825
and 1836-1846, which are also the driest 11-year periods. The NEEM
accumulation and {$\delta$}$^{18}$O records are strongly correlated
with outputs from atmospheric models, nudged to atmospheric reanalyses.
Best performance is observed for ERA reanalyses. Gridded temperature
reconstructions, instrumental data and model outputs at NEEM are used to
estimate the multidecadal accumulation-temperature and
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O-temperature relationships for the strong warming
period in 1979-2007. The accumulation sensitivity to temperature is
estimated at 11 {\plusmn} 2 \% {\deg}C$^{-1}$ and the
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O-temperature slope at 1.1 {\plusmn} 0.2 {\permil}
{\deg}C$^{-1}$, about twice as large as previously used to estimate
last interglacial temperature change from the bottom part of the NEEM
deep ice core.
}},
  doi = {10.5194/tc-9-1481-2015},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TCry....9.1481M},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015IJCli..35.2849Z,
  author = {{Zhang}, J. and {Li}, L. and {Li}, D. and {Deng}, W.},
  title = {{Summer droughts in the northern Yellow River basin in association with recent Arctic ice loss}},
  journal = {International Journal of Climatology},
  year = 2015,
  month = aug,
  volume = 35,
  pages = {2849-2859},
  doi = {10.1002/joc.4177},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJCli..35.2849Z},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015ACP....15.9593A,
  author = {{Aswathy}, V.~N. and {Boucher}, O. and {Quaas}, M. and {Niemeier}, U. and 
	{Muri}, H. and {M{\"u}lmenst{\"a}dt}, J. and {Quaas}, J.},
  title = {{Climate extremes in multi-model simulations of stratospheric aerosol and marine cloud brightening climate engineering}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2015,
  month = aug,
  volume = 15,
  pages = {9593-9610},
  abstract = {{Simulations from a multi-model ensemble for the RCP4.5 climate change
scenario for the 21st century, and for two solar radiation management
(SRM) schemes (stratospheric sulfate injection (G3), SULF and marine
cloud brightening by sea salt emission SALT) have been analysed in terms
of changes in the mean and extremes of surface air temperature and
precipitation. The climate engineering and termination periods are
investigated. During the climate engineering period, both schemes, as
intended, offset temperature increases by about 60 \% globally, but are
more effective in the low latitudes and exhibit some residual warming in
the Arctic (especially in the case of SALT which is only applied in the
low latitudes). In both climate engineering scenarios, extreme
temperature changes are similar to the mean temperature changes over
much of the globe. The exceptions are the mid- and high latitudes in the
Northern Hemisphere, where high temperatures (90th percentile of the
distribution) of the climate engineering period compared to RCP4.5
control period rise less than the mean, and cold temperatures (10th
percentile), much more than the mean. This aspect of the SRM schemes is
also reflected in simulated reduction in the frost day frequency of
occurrence for both schemes. However, summer day frequency of occurrence
increases less in the SALT experiment than the SULF experiment,
especially over the tropics. Precipitation extremes in the two SRM
scenarios act differently - the SULF experiment more effectively
mitigates extreme precipitation increases over land compared to the SALT
experiment. A reduction in dry spell occurrence over land is observed in
the SALT experiment. The SULF experiment has a slight increase in the
length of dry spells. A strong termination effect is found for the two
climate engineering schemes, with large temperature increases especially
in the Arctic. Globally, SULF is more effective in reducing extreme
temperature increases over land than SALT. Extreme precipitation
increases over land is also more reduced in SULF than the SALT
experiment. However, globally SALT decreases the frequency of dry spell
length and reduces the occurrence of hot days compared to SULF.
}},
  doi = {10.5194/acp-15-9593-2015},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.9593A},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015JGRC..120.4760L,
  author = {{Lefauve}, A. and {Muller}, C. and {Melet}, A.},
  title = {{A three-dimensional map of tidal dissipation over abyssal hills}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Oceans)},
  keywords = {internal tide, energy dissipation, diapycnal mixing},
  year = 2015,
  month = jul,
  volume = 120,
  pages = {4760-4777},
  abstract = {{The breaking of internal tides is believed to provide a large part of
the power needed to mix the abyssal ocean and sustain the meridional
overturning circulation. Both the fraction of internal tide energy that
is dissipated locally and the resulting vertical mixing distribution are
crucial for the ocean state, but remain poorly quantified. Here we
present a first worldwide estimate of mixing due to internal tides
generated at small-scale abyssal hills. Our estimate is based on linear
wave theory, a nonlinear parameterization for wave breaking and uses
quasi-global small-scale abyssal hill bathymetry, stratification, and
tidal data. We show that a large fraction of abyssal-hill generated
internal tide energy is locally dissipated over mid-ocean ridges in the
Southern Hemisphere. Significant dissipation occurs above ridge crests,
and, upon rescaling by the local stratification, follows a monotonic
exponential decay with height off the bottom, with a nonuniform decay
scale. We however show that a substantial part of the dissipation occurs
over the smoother flanks of mid-ocean ridges, and exhibits a middepth
maximum due to the interplay of wave amplitude with stratification. We
link the three-dimensional map of dissipation to abyssal hills
characteristics, ocean stratification, and tidal forcing, and discuss
its potential implementation in time-evolving parameterizations for
global climate models. Current tidal parameterizations only account for
waves generated at large-scale satellite-resolved bathymetry. Our
results suggest that the presence of small-scale, mostly unresolved
abyssal hills could significantly enhance the spatial inhomogeneity of
tidal mixing, particularly above mid-ocean ridges in the Southern
Hemisphere.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/2014JC010598},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.4760L},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015GeoRL..42.5485P,
  author = {{Pincus}, R. and {Mlawer}, E.~J. and {Oreopoulos}, L. and {Ackerman}, A.~S. and 
	{Baek}, S. and {Brath}, M. and {Buehler}, S.~A. and {Cady-Pereira}, K.~E. and 
	{Cole}, J.~N.~S. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Kelley}, M. and 
	{Li}, J. and {Manners}, J. and {Paynter}, D.~J. and {Roehrig}, R. and 
	{Sekiguchi}, M. and {Schwarzkopf}, D.~M.},
  title = {{Radiative flux and forcing parameterization error in aerosol-free clear skies}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Radiation, Parameterization, Radiative forcing},
  year = 2015,
  month = jul,
  volume = 42,
  pages = {5485-5492},
  abstract = {{This article reports on the accuracy in aerosol- and cloud-free
conditions of the radiation parameterizations used in climate models.
Accuracy is assessed relative to observationally validated reference
models for fluxes under present-day conditions and forcing (flux
changes) from quadrupled concentrations of carbon dioxide. Agreement
among reference models is typically within 1 W/m$^{2}$, while
parameterized calculations are roughly half as accurate in the longwave
and even less accurate, and more variable, in the shortwave. Absorption
of shortwave radiation is underestimated by most parameterizations in
the present day and has relatively large errors in forcing. Error in
present-day conditions is essentially unrelated to error in forcing
calculations. Recent revisions to parameterizations have reduced error
in most cases. A dependence on atmospheric conditions, including
integrated water vapor, means that global estimates of parameterization
error relevant for the radiative forcing of climate change will require
much more ambitious calculations.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/2015GL064291},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.5485P},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015BoLMe.156..145R,
  author = {{Rysman}, J.-F. and {Verrier}, S. and {Lahellec}, A. and {Genthon}, C.
	},
  title = {{Analysis of Boundary-Layer Statistical Properties at Dome C, Antarctica}},
  journal = {Boundary-Layer Meteorology},
  keywords = {Atmospheric boundary layer, Dome C, Meteorological tower, Scaling, Statistical properties},
  year = 2015,
  month = jul,
  volume = 156,
  pages = {145-155},
  abstract = {{The atmospheric boundary layer over the Antarctic Plateau is unique on
account of its isolated location and extreme stability. Here we
investigate the characteristics of the boundary layer using wind and
temperature measurements from a 45-m high tower located at Dome C.
First, spectral analysis reveals that both fields have a scaling
behaviour from 30 min to 10 days (spectral slope ). Wind and temperature
time series also show a multifractal behaviour. Therefore, it is
possible to fit the moment-scaling function to the universal
multifractal model and obtain multifractal parameters for temperature ()
and wind speed (). The same analysis is repeated separately in winter
and summer at six different heights. The parameter shows a strong
stratification with height especially in summer, implying that
properties of turbulence change surprisingly rapidly from the ground to
the top of the tower.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s10546-015-0024-x},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BoLMe.156..145R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015JCli...28.4330D,
  author = {{Day}, J.~A. and {Fung}, I. and {Risi}, C.},
  title = {{Coupling of South and East Asian Monsoon Precipitation in July-August*}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2015,
  month = jun,
  volume = 28,
  pages = {4330-4356},
  doi = {10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00393.1},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JCli...28.4330D},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015ACP....15.6247W,
  author = {{Wang}, R. and {Balkanski}, Y. and {Boucher}, O. and {Bopp}, L. and 
	{Chappell}, A. and {Ciais}, P. and {Hauglustaine}, D. and {Pe{\~n}uelas}, J. and 
	{Tao}, S.},
  title = {{Sources, transport and deposition of iron in the global atmosphere}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2015,
  month = jun,
  volume = 15,
  pages = {6247-6270},
  abstract = {{Atmospheric deposition of iron (Fe) plays an important role in
controlling oceanic primary productivity. However, the sources of Fe in
the atmosphere are not well understood. In particular, the combustion
sources of Fe and the subsequent deposition to the oceans have been
accounted for in only few ocean biogeochemical models of the carbon
cycle. Here we used a mass-balance method to estimate the emissions of
Fe from the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass by accounting for the
Fe contents in fuel and the partitioning of Fe during combustion. The
emissions of Fe attached to aerosols from combustion sources were
estimated by particle size, and their uncertainties were quantified by a
Monte Carlo simulation. The emissions of Fe from mineral sources were
estimated using the latest soil mineralogical database to date. As a
result, the total Fe emissions from combustion averaged for 1960-2007
were estimated to be 5.3 Tg yr$^{-1}$ (90\% confidence of 2.3 to
12.1). Of these emissions, 1, 27 and 72\% were emitted in particles $\lt$
1 {$\mu$}m (PM$_{1}$), 1-10 {$\mu$}m (PM$_{1-10}$), and $\gt$ 10
{$\mu$}m (PM$_{> 10}$), respectively, compared to a total Fe
emission from mineral dust of 41.0 Tg yr$^{-1}$ in a log-normal
distribution with a mass median diameter of 2.5 {$\mu$}m and a geometric
standard deviation of 2. For combustion sources, different temporal
trends were found in fine and medium-to-coarse particles, with a notable
increase in Fe emissions in PM$_{1}$ since 2000 due to an increase
in Fe emission from motor vehicles (from 0.008 to 0.0103 Tg
yr$^{-1}$ in 2000 and 2007, respectively). These emissions have
been introduced in a global 3-D transport model run at a spatial
resolution of 0.94{\deg} latitude by 1.28{\deg} longitude to evaluate our
estimation of Fe emissions. The modelled Fe concentrations as monthly
means were compared with the monthly (57 sites) or daily (768 sites)
measured concentrations at a total of 825 sampling stations. The
deviation between modelled and observed Fe concentrations attached to
aerosols at the surface was within a factor of 2 at most sampling
stations, and the deviation was within a factor of 1.5 at sampling
stations dominated by combustion sources. We analysed the relative
contribution of combustion sources to total Fe concentrations over
different regions of the world. The new mineralogical database led to a
modest improvement in the simulation relative to station data even in
dust-dominated regions, but could provide useful information on the
chemical forms of Fe in dust for coupling with ocean biota models. We
estimated a total Fe deposition sink of 8.4 Tg yr$^{-1}$ over
global oceans, 7\% of which originated from the combustion sources. Our
central estimates of Fe emissions from fossil fuel combustion (mainly
from coal) are generally higher than those in previous studies, although
they are within the uncertainty range of our estimates. In particular,
the higher than previously estimated Fe emission from coal combustion
implies a larger atmospheric anthropogenic input of soluble Fe to the
northern Atlantic and northern Pacific Oceans, which is expected to
enhance the biological carbon pump in those regions.
}},
  doi = {10.5194/acp-15-6247-2015},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.6247W},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015JGRD..120.4878G,
  author = {{Gao}, J. and {Shen}, S.~S.~P. and {Yao}, T. and {Tafolla}, N. and 
	{Risi}, C. and {He}, Y.},
  title = {{Reconstruction of precipitation {$\delta$}$^{18}$O over the Tibetan Plateau since 1910}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {precipitation {$\delta$}18O, ice cores, reconstructed {$\delta$}18O data, Tibetan Plateau, {$\delta$}18O spectral optimal gridding},
  year = 2015,
  month = may,
  volume = 120,
  pages = {4878-4888},
  abstract = {{An accurate representation of the spatiotemporal variation of stable
isotopes in precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is critical
information for hydrological and ecological applications for the region.
This paper reconstructs annual {$\delta$}$^{18}$O data with 2.5{\deg}
{\times} 3.75{\deg} latitude-longitude resolutions over the TP since 1910
using the spectral optimal gridding (SOG) method. The SOG calculates
empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) from the Laboratoire de
Météorologie Dynamique isotopic version general
circulation model over the TP from 1978 to 2007 and regresses the
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O data of 10 ice cores over TP against the EOF basis
functions. The reconstructed data can effectively demonstrate
spatiotemporal characteristics of TP precipitation
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O. The spatial average interannual
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O anomalies agree well with the time series of
Guliya ice core {$\delta$}$^{18}$O, implying Guliya
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O's typical representation of the TP
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O temporal variation.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/2015JD023233},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.4878G},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015JGRD..120.3852H,
  author = {{He}, Y. and {Risi}, C. and {Gao}, J. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and 
	{Yao}, T. and {Lai}, C.-T. and {Ding}, Y. and {Worden}, J. and 
	{Frankenberg}, C. and {Chepfer}, H. and {Cesana}, G.},
  title = {{Impact of atmospheric convection on south Tibet summer precipitation isotopologue composition using a combination of in situ measurements, satellite data, and atmospheric general circulation modeling}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  year = 2015,
  month = may,
  volume = 120,
  pages = {3852-3871},
  abstract = {{Precipitation isotopologues recorded in natural archives from the
southern Tibetan Plateau may document past variations of Indian monsoon
intensity. The exact processes controlling the variability of
precipitation isotopologue composition must therefore first be
deciphered and understood. This study investigates how atmospheric
convection affects the summer variability of {$\delta$}18O in precipitation
({$\delta$}18Op) and {$\delta$}D in water vapor ({$\delta$}Dv) at the daily
scale. This is achieved using isotopic data from precipitation samples
at Lhasa, isotopic measurements of water vapor retrieved from satellites
(Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), GOSAT) and atmospheric
general circulation modeling. We reveal that both {$\delta$}18Op and
{$\delta$}Dv at Lhasa are well correlated with upstream convective
activity, especially above northern India. First, during days of strong
convection, northern India surface air contains large amounts of vapor
with relatively low {$\delta$}Dv. Second, when this low-{$\delta$}Dv moisture
is uplifted toward southern Tibet, this initial depletion in HDO is
further amplified by Rayleigh distillation as the vapor moves over the
Himalayan. The intraseasonal variability of the isotopologue composition
of vapor and precipitation over the southern Tibetan Plateau results
from these processes occurring during air mass transportation.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/2014JD022180},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.3852H},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015QJRMS.141.1244P,
  author = {{Pilon}, R. and {Grandpeix}, J.-Y. and {Heinrich}, P.},
  title = {{Representation of transport and scavenging of trace particlesin the Emanuel moist convection scheme}},
  journal = {Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society},
  year = 2015,
  month = apr,
  volume = 141,
  pages = {1244-1258},
  doi = {10.1002/qj.2431},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015QJRMS.141.1244P},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015QJRMS.141..774S,
  author = {{Sèze}, G. and {Pelon}, J. and {Derrien}, M. and {Le Gléau}, H. and 
	{Six}, B.},
  title = {{Evaluation against CALIPSO lidar observations of the multi-geostationary cloud cover and type dataset assembled in the framework of the Megha-Tropiques mission}},
  journal = {Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society},
  year = 2015,
  month = apr,
  volume = 141,
  pages = {774-797},
  doi = {10.1002/qj.2392},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015QJRMS.141..774S},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015NatGe...8..261B,
  author = {{Bony}, S. and {Stevens}, B. and {Frierson}, D.~M.~W. and {Jakob}, C. and 
	{Kageyama}, M. and {Pincus}, R. and {Shepherd}, T.~G. and {Sherwood}, S.~C. and 
	{Siebesma}, A.~P. and {Sobel}, A.~H. and {Watanabe}, M. and 
	{Webb}, M.~J.},
  title = {{Clouds, circulation and climate sensitivity}},
  journal = {Nature Geoscience},
  year = 2015,
  month = apr,
  volume = 8,
  pages = {261-268},
  abstract = {{Fundamental puzzles of climate science remain unsolved because of our
limited understanding of how clouds, circulation and climate interact.
One example is our inability to provide robust assessments of future
global and regional climate changes. However, ongoing advances in our
capacity to observe, simulate and conceptualize the climate system now
make it possible to fill gaps in our knowledge. We argue that progress
can be accelerated by focusing research on a handful of important
scientific questions that have become tractable as a result of recent
advances. We propose four such questions below; they involve
understanding the role of cloud feedbacks and convective organization in
climate, and the factors that control the position, the strength and the
variability of the tropical rain belts and the extratropical storm
tracks.
}},
  doi = {10.1038/ngeo2398},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatGe...8..261B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015JGRD..120.2970B,
  author = {{Bonne}, J.-L. and {Steen-Larsen}, H.~C. and {Risi}, C. and 
	{Werner}, M. and {Sodemann}, H. and {Lacour}, J.-L. and {Fettweis}, X. and 
	{Cesana}, G. and {Delmotte}, M. and {Cattani}, O. and {Vallelonga}, P. and 
	{Kj{\ae}r}, H.~A. and {Clerbaux}, C. and {Sveinbj{\"o}rnsd{\'o}ttir}, {\'A}.~E. and 
	{Masson-Delmotte}, V.},
  title = {{The summer 2012 Greenland heat wave: In situ and remote sensing observations of water vapor isotopic composition during an atmospheric river event}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {water isotopes, Greenland, atmospheric river},
  year = 2015,
  month = apr,
  volume = 120,
  pages = {2970-2989},
  abstract = {{During 7-12 July 2012, extreme moist and warm conditions occurred over
Greenland, leading to widespread surface melt. To investigate the
physical processes during the atmospheric moisture transport of this
event, we study the water vapor isotopic composition using surface in
situ observations in Bermuda Island, South Greenland coast (Ivittuut),
and northwest Greenland ice sheet (NEEM), as well as remote sensing
observations (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)
instrument on board MetOp-A), depicting propagation of similar surface
and midtropospheric humidity and {$\delta$}D signals. Simulations using
Lagrangian moisture source diagnostic and water tagging in a regional
model showed that Greenland was affected by an atmospheric river
transporting moisture from the western subtropical North Atlantic Ocean,
which is coherent with observations of snow pit impurities deposited at
NEEM. At Ivittuut, surface air temperature, humidity, and {$\delta$}D
increases are observed. At NEEM, similar temperature increase is
associated with a large and long-lasting {\tilde}100{\permil}{$\delta$}D
enrichment and {\tilde}15{\permil} deuterium excess decrease, thereby
reaching Ivittuut level. We assess the simulation of this event in two
isotope-enabled atmospheric general circulation models (LMDz-iso and
ECHAM5-wiso). LMDz-iso correctly captures the timing of propagation for
this event identified in IASI data but depict too gradual variations
when compared to surface data. Both models reproduce the surface
meteorological and isotopic values during the event but underestimate
the background deuterium excess at NEEM. Cloud liquid water content
parametrization in LMDz-iso poorly impacts the vapor isotopic
composition. Our data demonstrate that during this atmospheric river
event the deuterium excess signal is conserved from the moisture source
to northwest Greenland.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/2014JD022602},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.2970B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015JCli...28.2650L,
  author = {{L'Hévéder}, B. and {Codron}, F. and {Ghil}, M.},
  title = {{Impact of Anomalous Northward Oceanic Heat Transport on Global Climate in a Slab Ocean Setting}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2015,
  month = apr,
  volume = 28,
  pages = {2650-2664},
  doi = {10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00377.1},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JCli...28.2650L},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015ClDy...44.1957M,
  author = {{Medeiros}, B. and {Stevens}, B. and {Bony}, S.},
  title = {{Using aquaplanets to understand the robust responses of comprehensive climate models to forcing}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Climate change, Climate models, Cloud radiative effect, Aquaplanet, Tropospheric adjustment, Climate feedbacks},
  year = 2015,
  month = apr,
  volume = 44,
  pages = {1957-1977},
  abstract = {{Idealized climate change experiments using fixed sea-surface temperature
are investigated to determine whether zonally symmetric aquaplanet
configurations are useful for understanding climate feedbacks in more
realistic configurations. The aquaplanets capture many of the robust
responses of the large-scale circulation and hydrologic cycle to both
warming the sea-surface temperature and quadrupling atmospheric
CO$_{2}$. The cloud response to both perturbations varies across
models in both Earth-like and aquaplanet configurations, and this spread
arises primarily from regions of large-scale subsidence. Most models
produce a consistent cloud change across the subsidence regimes, and the
feedback in trade-wind cumulus regions dominates the tropical response.
It is shown that these trade-wind regions have similar cloud feedback in
Earth-like and aquaplanet warming experiments. The tropical average
cloud feedback of the Earth-like experiment is captured by five of eight
aquaplanets, and the three outliers are investigated to understand the
discrepancy. In two models, the discrepancy is due to warming induced
dissipation of stratocumulus decks in the Earth-like configuration which
are not represented in the aquaplanet. One model shows a circulation
response in the aquaplanet experiment accompanied by a cloud response
that differs from the Earth-like configuration. Quadrupling atmospheric
CO$_{2}$ in aquaplanets produces slightly greater adjusted forcing
than in Earth-like configurations, showing that land-surface effects
dampen the adjusted forcing. The analysis demonstrates how aquaplanets,
as part of a model hierarchy, help elucidate robust aspects of climate
change and develop understanding of the processes underlying them.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-014-2138-0},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...44.1957M},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015NatGe...8..181M,
  author = {{Myhre}, G. and {Boucher}, O. and {Bréon}, F.-M. and {Forster}, P. and 
	{Shindell}, D.},
  title = {{Declining uncertainty in transient climate response as CO$_{2}$ forcing dominates future climate change}},
  journal = {Nature Geoscience},
  year = 2015,
  month = mar,
  volume = 8,
  pages = {181-185},
  abstract = {{Carbon dioxide has exerted the largest portion of radiative forcing and
surface temperature change over the industrial era, but other
anthropogenic influences have also contributed. However, large
uncertainties in total forcing make it difficult to derive climate
sensitivity from historical observations. Anthropogenic forcing has
increased between the Fourth and Fifth Assessment Reports of the
Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC; refs , ), although its
relative uncertainty has decreased. Here we show, based on data from the
two reports, that this evolution towards lower uncertainty can be
expected to continue into the future. Because it is easier to reduce air
pollution than carbon dioxide emissions and because of the long lifetime
of carbon dioxide, the less uncertain carbon dioxide forcing is expected
to become increasingly dominant. Using a statistical model, we estimate
that the relative uncertainty in anthropogenic forcing of more than 40\%
quoted in the latest IPCC report for 2011 will be almost halved by 2030,
even without better scientific understanding. Absolute forcing
uncertainty will also decline for the first time, provided projected
decreases in aerosols occur. Other factors being equal, this stronger
constraint on forcing will bring a significant reduction in the
uncertainty of observation-based estimates of the transient climate
response, with a 50\% reduction in its uncertainty range expected by
2030.
}},
  doi = {10.1038/ngeo2371},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatGe...8..181M},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015NatCC...5..280G,
  author = {{Good}, P. and {Lowe}, J.~A. and {Andrews}, T. and {Wiltshire}, A. and 
	{Chadwick}, R. and {Ridley}, J.-K. and {Menary}, M.~B. and {Bouttes}, N. and 
	{Dufresne}, J.~L. and {Gregory}, J.~M. and {Schaller}, N. and 
	{Shiogama}, H.},
  title = {{Corrigendum: Nonlinear regional warming with increasing CO$_{2}$ concentrations}},
  journal = {Nature Climate Change},
  year = 2015,
  month = mar,
  volume = 5,
  pages = {280},
  doi = {10.1038/nclimate2546},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..280G},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015JAtS...72.1022J,
  author = {{Jiang}, J.~H. and {Su}, H. and {Zhai}, C. and {Janice Shen}, T. and 
	{Wu}, T. and {Zhang}, J. and {Cole}, J.~N.~S. and {von Salzen}, K. and 
	{Donner}, L.~J. and {Seman}, C. and {Del Genio}, A. and {Nazarenko}, L.~S. and 
	{Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Watanabe}, M. and {Morcrette}, C. and 
	{Koshiro}, T. and {Kawai}, H. and {Gettelman}, A. and {Mill{\'a}n}, L. and 
	{Read}, W.~G. and {Livesey}, N.~J. and {Kasai}, Y. and {Shiotani}, M.
	},
  title = {{Evaluating the Diurnal Cycle of Upper-Tropospheric Ice Clouds in Climate Models Using SMILES Observations}},
  journal = {Journal of Atmospheric Sciences},
  year = 2015,
  month = mar,
  volume = 72,
  pages = {1022-1044},
  doi = {10.1175/JAS-D-14-0124.1},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAtS...72.1022J},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015E&PSL.414..126P,
  author = {{Pang}, H. and {Hou}, S. and {Landais}, A. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and 
	{Prie}, F. and {Steen-Larsen}, H.~C. and {Risi}, C. and {Li}, Y. and 
	{Jouzel}, J. and {Wang}, Y. and {He}, J. and {Minster}, B. and 
	{Falourd}, S.},
  title = {{Spatial distribution of $^{17}$O-excess in surface snow along a traverse from Zhongshan station to Dome A, East Antarctica}},
  journal = {Earth and Planetary Science Letters},
  keywords = {water isotopologues, $^{17}$O-excess, Dome A, ice sheet, Antarctica},
  year = 2015,
  month = mar,
  volume = 414,
  pages = {126-133},
  abstract = {{The influence of temperature on the triple isotopic composition of
oxygen in water is still an open question and limits the interpretation
of water isotopic profiles in Antarctic ice cores. The main limitation
arises from the lack of $^{17}$O-excess measurements in surface
snow and especially for remote regions characterized by low temperature
and accumulation rate. In this study, we present new
$^{17}$O-excess measurements of surface snow along an East
Antarctic traverse, from the coastal Zhongshan station to the highest
point of the Antarctic ice sheet at Dome A. The $^{17}$O-excess
data significantly decrease inland, with a latitudinal gradient of -
1.33 {\plusmn} 0.41 per meg/degree, an altitudinal gradient of - 0.48
{\plusmn} 0.17 permeg / 100 m, and a temperature gradient of 0.35
{\plusmn} 0.11 permeg /{\deg}C. Theoretical calculations performed using a
Rayleigh model attribute this inland decrease to kinetic isotopic
fractionation occurring during condensation from vapor to ice under
supersaturation conditions at low temperatures. However, large
heterogeneity of $^{17}$O-excess in Antarctic precipitation cannot
only be explained by temperature at condensation and/or influences of
relative humidity in the moisture source region.
}},
  doi = {10.1016/j.epsl.2015.01.014},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.414..126P},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015ClDy...44.1419W,
  author = {{Webb}, M.~J. and {Lock}, A.~P. and {Bodas-Salcedo}, A. and 
	{Bony}, S. and {Cole}, J.~N.~S. and {Koshiro}, T. and {Kawai}, H. and 
	{Lacagnina}, C. and {Selten}, F.~M. and {Roehrig}, R. and {Stevens}, B.
	},
  title = {{The diurnal cycle of marine cloud feedback in climate models}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Diurnal cycle, Cloud feedback, Climate change},
  year = 2015,
  month = mar,
  volume = 44,
  pages = {1419-1436},
  abstract = {{We examine the diurnal cycle of marine cloud feedback using high
frequency outputs in CFMIP-2 idealised uniform +4 K SST perturbation
experiments from seven CMIP5 models. Most of the inter-model spread in
the diurnal mean marine shortwave cloud feedback can be explained by low
cloud responses, although these do not explain the model responses at
the neutral/weakly negative end of the feedback range, where changes in
mid and high level cloud properties are more important. All of the
models show reductions in marine low cloud fraction in the warmer
climate, and these are in almost all cases largest in the mornings when
more cloud is present in the control simulations. This results in
shortwave cloud feedbacks being slightly stronger and having the largest
inter-model spread at this time of day. The diurnal amplitudes of the
responses of marine cloud properties to the warming climate are however
small compared to the inter-model differences in their diurnally meaned
responses. This indicates that the diurnal cycle of cloud feedback is
not strongly relevant to understanding inter-model spread in overall
cloud feedback and climate sensitivity. A number of unusual behaviours
in individual models are highlighted for future investigation.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-014-2234-1},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...44.1419W},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015AMT.....8.1447L,
  author = {{Lacour}, J.-L. and {Clarisse}, L. and {Worden}, J. and {Schneider}, M. and 
	{Barthlott}, S. and {Hase}, F. and {Risi}, C. and {Clerbaux}, C. and 
	{Hurtmans}, D. and {Coheur}, P.-F.},
  title = {{Cross-validation of IASI/MetOp derived tropospheric {$\delta$}D with TES and ground-based FTIR observations}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Measurement Techniques},
  year = 2015,
  month = mar,
  volume = 8,
  pages = {1447-1466},
  abstract = {{The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) flying onboard
MetOpA and MetOpB is able to capture fine isotopic variations of the HDO
to H$_{2}$O ratio ({$\delta$}D) in the troposphere. Such observations
at the high spatio-temporal resolution of the sounder are of great
interest to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling
humidity in the troposphere. In this study we aim to empirically assess
the validity of our error estimation previously evaluated theoretically.
To achieve this, we compare IASI {$\delta$}D retrieved profiles with other
available profiles of {$\delta$}D, from the TES infrared sounder onboard
AURA and from three ground-based FTIR stations produced within the
MUSICA project: the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric
Composition Change) sites Kiruna and Iza{\~n}a, and the TCCON site
Karlsruhe, which in addition to near-infrared TCCON spectra also records
mid-infrared spectra. We describe the achievable level of agreement
between the different retrievals and show that these theoretical errors
are in good agreement with empirical differences. The comparisons are
made at different locations from tropical to Arctic latitudes, above sea
and above land. Generally IASI and TES are similarly sensitive to
{$\delta$}D in the free troposphere which allows one to compare their
measurements directly. At tropical latitudes where IASI's sensitivity is
lower than that of TES, we show that the agreement improves when taking
into account the sensitivity of IASI in the TES retrieval. For the
comparison IASI-FTIR only direct comparisons are performed because the
sensitivity profiles of the two observing systems do not allow to take
into account their differences of sensitivity. We identify a quasi
negligible bias in the free troposphere (-3{\permil}) between IASI
retrieved {$\delta$}D with the TES, which are bias corrected, but important
with the ground-based FTIR reaching -47{\permil}. We also suggest that
model-satellite observation comparisons could be optimized with IASI
thanks to its high spatial and temporal sampling.
}},
  doi = {10.5194/amt-8-1447-2015},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMT.....8.1447L},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015NatCC...5..138G,
  author = {{Good}, P. and {Lowe}, J.~A. and {Andrews}, T. and {Wiltshire}, A. and 
	{Chadwick}, R. and {Ridley}, J.~K. and {Menary}, M.~B. and {Bouttes}, N. and 
	{Dufresne}, J.~L. and {Gregory}, J.~M. and {Schaller}, N. and 
	{Shiogama}, H.},
  title = {{Nonlinear regional warming with increasing CO$_{2}$ concentrations}},
  journal = {Nature Climate Change},
  year = 2015,
  month = feb,
  volume = 5,
  pages = {138-142},
  abstract = {{When considering adaptation measures and global climate mitigation
goals, stakeholders need regional-scale climate projections, including
the range of plausible warming rates. To assist these stakeholders, it
is important to understand whether some locations may see
disproportionately high or low warming from additional forcing above
targets such as 2 K (ref. ). There is a need to narrow uncertainty in
this nonlinear warming, which requires understanding how climate changes
as forcings increase from medium to high levels. However, quantifying
and understanding regional nonlinear processes is challenging. Here we
show that regional-scale warming can be strongly superlinear to
successive CO$_{2}$ doublings, using five different climate
models. Ensemble-mean warming is superlinear over most land locations.
Further, the inter-model spread tends to be amplified at higher forcing
levels, as nonlinearities grow--especially when considering changes per
kelvin of global warming. Regional nonlinearities in surface warming
arise from nonlinearities in global-mean radiative balance, the Atlantic
meridional overturning circulation, surface snow/ice cover and
evapotranspiration. For robust adaptation and mitigation advice,
therefore, potentially avoidable climate change (the difference between
business-as-usual and mitigation scenarios) and unavoidable climate
change (change under strong mitigation scenarios) may need different
analysis methods.
}},
  doi = {10.1038/nclimate2498},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..138G},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015JGRC..120.1152O,
  author = {{Oerder}, V. and {Colas}, F. and {Echevin}, V. and {Codron}, F. and 
	{Tam}, J. and {Belmadani}, A.},
  title = {{Peru-Chile upwelling dynamics under climate change}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Oceans)},
  keywords = {regional climate change, Peru-Chile current system, dynamical downscaling, upwelling dynamics},
  year = 2015,
  month = feb,
  volume = 120,
  pages = {1152-1172},
  abstract = {{The consequences of global warming on the Peru-Chile Current System
(PCCS) ocean circulation are examined with a high-resolution,
eddy-resolving regional oceanic model. We performed a dynamical
downscaling of climate scenarios from the IPSL-CM4 Coupled General
Circulation Model (CGCM), corresponding to various levels of
CO$_{2}$ concentrations in the atmosphere. High-resolution
atmospheric forcing for the regional ocean model are obtained from the
IPSL atmospheric model run on a stretched grid with increased horizontal
resolution in the PCCS region. When comparing future scenarios to
preindustrial (PI) conditions, the circulation along the Peru and Chile
coasts is strongly modified by changes in surface winds and increased
stratification caused by the regional warming. While the coastal
poleward undercurrent is intensified, the surface equatorial coastal jet
shoals and the nearshore mesoscale activity are reinforced. Reduction in
alongshore wind stress and nearshore wind stress curl drive a year-round
reduction in upwelling intensity off Peru. Modifications in geostrophic
circulation mitigate this upwelling decrease in late austral summer. The
depth of the upwelling source waters becomes shallower in warmer
conditions, which may have a major impact on the system's biological
productivity.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/2014JC010299},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.1152O},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015JCli...28.1308B,
  author = {{Berg}, A. and {Lintner}, B.~R. and {Findell}, K. and {Seneviratne}, S.~I. and 
	{van den Hurk}, B. and {Ducharne}, A. and {Chéruy}, F. and 
	{Hagemann}, S. and {Lawrence}, D.~M. and {Malyshev}, S. and 
	{Meier}, A. and {Gentine}, P.},
  title = {{Interannual Coupling between Summertime Surface Temperature and Precipitation over Land: Processes and Implications for Climate Change*}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2015,
  month = feb,
  volume = 28,
  pages = {1308-1328},
  doi = {10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00324.1},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JCli...28.1308B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2015NatGe...8...48W,
  author = {{Wang}, R. and {Balkanski}, Y. and {Boucher}, O. and {Ciais}, P. and 
	{Pe{\~n}uelas}, J. and {Tao}, S.},
  title = {{Significant contribution of combustion-related emissions to the atmospheric phosphorus budget}},
  journal = {Nature Geoscience},
  year = 2015,
  month = jan,
  volume = 8,
  pages = {48-54},
  abstract = {{Atmospheric phosphorus fertilizes plants and contributes to Earth's
biogeochemical phosphorus cycle. However, calculations of the global
budget of atmospheric phosphorus have been unbalanced, with global
deposition exceeding estimated emissions from dust and sea-salt
transport, volcanic eruptions, biogenic sources and combustion of fossil
fuels, biofuels and biomass, the latter of which thought to contribute
about 5\% of total emissions. Here we use measurements of the phosphorus
content of various fuels and estimates of the partitioning of phosphorus
during combustion to calculate phosphorus emissions to the atmosphere
from all combustion sources. We estimate combustion-related emissions of
1.8 Tg P yr$^{-1}$, which represent over 50\% of global atmospheric
sources of phosphorus. Using these estimates in atmospheric transport
model simulations, we find that the total global emissions of
atmospheric phosphorus (3.5 Tg P yr$^{-1}$) translate to a
depositional sink of 2.7 Tg P yr$^{-1}$ over land and 0.8 Tg P
yr$^{-1}$ over the oceans. The modelled spatial patterns of
phosphorus deposition agree with observations from globally distributed
measurement stations, and indicate a near balance of the phosphorus
budget. Our finding suggests that the perturbation of the global
phosphorus cycle by anthropogenic emissions is larger thanpreviously
thought.
}},
  doi = {10.1038/ngeo2324},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatGe...8...48W},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}