lmd_EMC32016.bib

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@article{2016ClDy...47.2801O,
  author = {{Oueslati}, B. and {Bony}, S. and {Risi}, C. and {Dufresne}, J.-L.
	},
  title = {{Interpreting the inter-model spread in regional precipitation projections in the tropics: role of surface evaporation and cloud radiative effects}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Precipitation projections uncertainties, Evaporation, Cloud radiative effects},
  year = 2016,
  month = nov,
  volume = 47,
  pages = {2801-2815},
  abstract = {{In this study, we investigate and quantify different contributors to
inter-model differences in regional precipitation projections among
CMIP5 climate models. Contributors to the spread are very contrasted
between land and ocean. While circulation changes dominate the spread
over oceans and continental coasts, thermodynamic changes associated
with water vapor increase dominate over inland regions. The inter-model
spread in the dynamic component is associated with the change in
atmospheric radiative cooling with warming, which largely relates to
atmospheric cloud radiative effects. Differences in the thermodynamic
component result from the differences in the change in surface
evaporation that is explained by decreases in surface humidity and
limited surface water availability over land. Secondary contributions to
the inter-model spread in thermodynamic and dynamic components result
respectively from present-day climatology (owing to the
Clausius-Clapeyron scaling) and from the shape of the vertical velocity
profile associated with changes in surface temperature gradients.
Advancing the physical understanding of the cloud-circulation and
precipitation-evaporation couplings and improving their representation
in climate models may stand the best chance to reduce uncertainty in
regional precipitation projections.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-016-2998-6},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.2801O},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016ClDy...47.3387K,
  author = {{Konsta}, D. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Chepfer}, H. and {Idelkadi}, A. and 
	{Cesana}, G.},
  title = {{Erratum: Erratum to: Use of A-train satellite observations (CALIPSO-PARASOL) to evaluate tropical cloud properties in the LMDZ5 GCM}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 2016,
  month = nov,
  volume = 47,
  pages = {3387-3387},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-016-3050-6},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.3387K},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016ClDy...47.1263K,
  author = {{Konsta}, D. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Chepfer}, H. and {Idelkadi}, A. and 
	{Cesana}, G.},
  title = {{Use of A-train satellite observations (CALIPSO-PARASOL) to evaluate tropical cloud properties in the LMDZ5 GCM}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Clouds, A-train, LMDZ5 GCM},
  year = 2016,
  month = aug,
  volume = 47,
  pages = {1263-1284},
  abstract = {{The evaluation of key cloud properties such as cloud cover, vertical
profile and optical depth as well as the analysis of their
intercorrelation lead to greater confidence in climate change
projections. In addition, the comparison between observations and
parameterizations of clouds in climate models is improved by using
collocated and instantaneous data of cloud properties. Simultaneous and
independent observations of the cloud cover and its three-dimensional
structure at high spatial and temporal resolutions are made possible by
the new space-borne multi-instruments observations collected with the
A-train. The cloud cover and its vertical structure observed by CALIPSO
and the visible directional reflectance (a surrogate for the cloud
optical depth) observed by PARASOL, are used to evaluate the
representation of cloudiness in two versions of the atmospheric
component of the IPSL-CM5 climate model (LMDZ5). A model-to-satellite
approach, applying the CFMIP Observation Simulation Package (COSP), is
used to allow a quantitative comparison between model results and
observations. The representation of clouds in the two model versions is
first evaluated using monthly mean data. This classical approach reveals
biases of different magnitudes in the two model versions. These biases
consist of (1) an underestimation of cloud cover associated to an
overestimation of cloud optical depth, (2) an underestimation of low-
and mid-level tropical clouds and (3) an overestimation of high clouds.
The difference in the magnitude of these biases between the two model
versions clearly highlights the improvement of the amount of boundary
layer clouds, the improvement of the properties of high-level clouds,
and the improvement of the simulated mid-level clouds in the tropics in
LMDZ5B compared to LMDZ5A, due to the new convective, boundary layer,
and cloud parametrizations implemented in LMDZ5B. The correlation
between instantaneous cloud properties allows for a process-oriented
evaluation of tropical oceanic clouds. This process-oriented evaluation
shows that the cloud population characterized by intermediate values of
cloud cover and cloud reflectance can be split in two groups of clouds
when using monthly mean values of cloud cover and cloud reflectance: one
group with low to intermediate values of the cloud cover, and one group
with cloud cover close to one. The precise determination of cloud height
allows us to focus on specific types of clouds (i.e. boundary layer
clouds, high clouds, low-level clouds with no clouds above). For
low-level clouds over the tropical oceans, the relationship between
instantaneous values of the cloud cover and of the cloud reflectance
reveals a major bias in the simulated liquid water content for both
model versions. The origin of this bias is identified and possible
improvements, such as considering the sub-grid heterogeneity of cloud
properties, are investigated using sensitivity experiments. In summary,
the analysis of the relationship between different instantaneous and
collocated variables allows for process-oriented evaluations. These
evaluations may in turn help to improve model parameterizations, and may
also help to bridge the gap between model evaluation and model
development.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-015-2900-y},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.1263K},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016ClDy...47.1007K,
  author = {{Krishnan}, R. and {Sabin}, T.~P. and {Vellore}, R. and {Mujumdar}, M. and 
	{Sanjay}, J. and {Goswami}, B.~N. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and 
	{Terray}, P.},
  title = {{Deciphering the desiccation trend of the South Asian monsoon hydroclimate in a warming world}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Recent trends in the South Asian Monsoon, High-resolution model simulations, Regional hydroclimatic response to climate change},
  year = 2016,
  month = aug,
  volume = 47,
  pages = {1007-1027},
  abstract = {{Rising propensity of precipitation extremes and concomitant decline of
summer-monsoon rains are amongst the most distinctive hydroclimatic
signals that have emerged over South Asia since 1950s. A clear
understanding of the underlying causes driving these monsoon
hydroclimatic signals has remained elusive. Using a state-of-the-art
global climate model with high-resolution zooming over South Asia, we
demonstrate that a juxtaposition of regional land-use changes,
anthropogenic-aerosol forcing and the rapid warming signal of the
equatorial Indian Ocean is crucial to produce the observed monsoon
weakening in recent decades. Our findings also show that this monsoonal
weakening significantly enhances occurrence of localized intense
precipitation events, as compared to the global-warming response. A 21st
century climate projection using the same high-resolution model
indicates persistent decrease of monsoonal rains and prolongation of
soil drying. Critical value-additions from this study include (1)
realistic simulation of the mean and long-term historical trends in the
Indian monsoon rainfall (2) robust attributions of changes in moderate
and heavy precipitation events over Central India (3) a 21st century
projection of drying trend of the South Asian monsoon. The present
findings have profound bearing on the regional water-security, which is
already under severe hydrological-stress.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-015-2886-5},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.1007K},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016ClDy..tmp..122D,
  author = {{Drobinski}, P. and {Silva}, N.~D. and {Panthou}, G. and {Bastin}, S. and 
	{Muller}, C. and {Ahrens}, B. and {Borga}, M. and {Conte}, D. and 
	{Fosser}, G. and {Giorgi}, F. and {G{\"u}ttler}, I. and {Kotroni}, V. and 
	{Li}, L. and {Morin}, E. and {{\"O}nol}, B. and {Quintana-Segui}, P. and 
	{Romera}, R. and {Torma}, C.~Z.},
  title = {{Scaling precipitation extremes with temperature in the Mediterranean: past climate assessment and projection in anthropogenic scenarios}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Precipitation extremes, Clausius-Clapeyron scaling , Regional climate, Europe, Mediterranean, HyMeX, MED-CORDEX},
  year = 2016,
  month = mar,
  abstract = {{In this study we investigate the scaling of precipitation extremes with
temperature in the Mediterranean region by assessing against
observations the present day and future regional climate simulations
performed in the frame of the HyMeX and MED-CORDEX programs. Over the
1979-2008 period, despite differences in quantitative precipitation
simulation across the various models, the change in precipitation
extremes with respect to temperature is robust and consistent. The
spatial variability of the temperature-precipitation extremes
relationship displays a hook shape across the Mediterranean, with
negative slope at high temperatures and a slope following
Clausius-Clapeyron (CC)-scaling at low temperatures. The temperature at
which the slope of the temperature-precipitation extreme relation
sharply changes (or temperature break), ranges from about 20 {\deg}C in
the western Mediterranean to $\lt$10 {\deg}C in Greece. In addition, this
slope is always negative in the arid regions of the Mediterranean. The
scaling of the simulated precipitation extremes is insensitive to
ocean-atmosphere coupling, while it depends very weakly on the
resolution at high temperatures for short precipitation accumulation
times. In future climate scenario simulations covering the 2070-2100
period, the temperature break shifts to higher temperatures by a value
which is on average the mean regional temperature change due to global
warming. The slope of the simulated future temperature-precipitation
extremes relationship is close to CC-scaling at temperatures below the
temperature break, while at high temperatures, the negative slope is
close, but somewhat flatter or steeper, than in the current climate
depending on the model. Overall, models predict more intense
precipitation extremes in the future. Adjusting the
temperature-precipitation extremes relationship in the present climate
using the CC law and the temperature shift in the future allows the
recovery of the temperature-precipitation extremes relationship in the
future climate. This implies negligible regional changes of relative
humidity in the future despite the large warming and drying over the
Mediterranean. This suggests that the Mediterranean Sea is the primary
source of moisture which counteracts the drying and warming impacts on
relative humidity in parts of the Mediterranean region.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-016-3083-x},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..122D},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016GMD.....9..363W,
  author = {{Wang}, F. and {Cheruy}, F. and {Dufresne}, J.-L.},
  title = {{The improvement of soil thermodynamics and its effects on land surface meteorology in the IPSL climate model}},
  journal = {Geoscientific Model Development},
  year = 2016,
  month = jan,
  volume = 9,
  pages = {363-381},
  abstract = {{This paper describes the implementation of an improved soil
thermodynamics in the hydrological module of Earth system model (ESM)
developed at the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) and its effects on
land surface meteorology in the IPSL climate model. A common vertical
discretization scheme for the soil moisture and for the soil temperature
is adopted. In addition to the heat conduction process, the heat
transported by liquid water into the soil is modeled. The thermal
conductivity and the heat capacity are parameterized as a function of
the soil moisture and the texture. Preliminary tests are performed in an
idealized 1-D (one-dimensional) framework and the full model is then
evaluated in the coupled land-atmospheric module of the IPSL ESM. A
nudging approach is used in order to avoid the time-consuming long-term
simulations required to account for the natural variability of the
climate. Thanks to this nudging approach, the effects of the modified
parameterizations can be modeled. The dependence of the soil thermal
properties on moisture and texture lead to the most significant changes
in the surface energy budget and in the surface temperature, with the
strongest effects on the surface energy budget taking place over dry
areas and during the night. This has important consequences on the mean
surface temperature over dry areas and during the night and on its
short-term variability. The parameterization of the soil thermal
properties could therefore explain some of the temperature biases and
part of the dispersion over dry areas in simulations of extreme events
such as heat waves in state-of-the-art climate models.
}},
  doi = {10.5194/gmd-9-363-2016},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GMD.....9..363W},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016RvGeo..54..809G,
  author = {{Galewsky}, J. and {Steen-Larsen}, H.~C. and {Field}, R.~D. and 
	{Worden}, J. and {Risi}, C. and {Schneider}, M.},
  title = {{Stable isotopes in atmospheric water vapor and applications to the hydrologic cycle}},
  journal = {Reviews of Geophysics},
  keywords = {water vapor, stable isotopes, hydrologic cycle, remote sensing, general circulation modeling, cavity ringdown spectroscopy},
  year = 2016,
  month = dec,
  volume = 54,
  pages = {809-865},
  abstract = {{The measurement and simulation of water vapor isotopic composition has
matured rapidly over the last decade, with long-term data sets and
comprehensive modeling capabilities now available. Theories for water
vapor isotopic composition have been developed by extending the theories
that have been used for the isotopic composition of precipitation to
include a more nuanced understanding of evaporation, large-scale mixing,
deep convection, and kinetic fractionation. The technologies for in situ
and remote sensing measurements of water vapor isotopic composition have
developed especially rapidly over the last decade, with discrete water
vapor sampling methods, based on mass spectroscopy, giving way to laser
spectroscopic methods and satellite- and ground-based infrared
absorption techniques. The simulation of water vapor isotopic
composition has evolved from General Circulation Model (GCM) methods for
simulating precipitation isotopic composition to sophisticated
isotope-enabled microphysics schemes using higher-order moments for
water and ice size distributions. The incorporation of isotopes into
GCMs has enabled more detailed diagnostics of the water cycle and has
led to improvements in its simulation. The combination of improved
measurement and modeling of water vapor isotopic composition opens the
door to new advances in our understanding of the atmospheric water
cycle, in processes ranging from the marine boundary layer, through deep
convection and tropospheric mixing, and into the water cycle of the
stratosphere. Finally, studies of the processes governing modern water
vapor isotopic composition provide an improved framework for the
interpretation of paleoclimate proxy records of the hydrological cycle.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/2015RG000512},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RvGeo..54..809G},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016JCli...29.8989L,
  author = {{Li}, W. and {Jiang}, Z. and {Xu}, J. and {Li}, L.},
  title = {{Extreme Precipitation Indices over China in CMIP5 Models. Part II: Probabilistic Projection}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2016,
  month = dec,
  volume = 29,
  pages = {8989-9004},
  doi = {10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0377.1},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JCli...29.8989L},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016E&PSL.456..146Y,
  author = {{Yu}, W. and {Tian}, L. and {Risi}, C. and {Yao}, T. and {Ma}, Y. and 
	{Zhao}, H. and {Zhu}, H. and {He}, Y. and {Xu}, B. and {Zhang}, H. and 
	{Qu}, D.},
  title = {{{$\delta$}$^{18}$O records in water vapor and an ice core from the eastern Pamir Plateau: Implications for paleoclimate reconstructions}},
  journal = {Earth and Planetary Science Letters},
  keywords = {water vapor, ice core, {$\delta$}$^{18}$O, eastern Pamir Plateau},
  year = 2016,
  month = dec,
  volume = 456,
  pages = {146-156},
  abstract = {{This study is the first to examine {$\delta$}$^{18}$O in daily water
vapor at Taxkorgan on the eastern Pamir Plateau. The results show that
changes in observed and simulated {$\delta$}$^{18}$O values in water
vapor/precipitation at the event scale (using a LMDZ-iso model) were
mainly affected by temperature. The influences of humidity,
precipitation amount, and different moisture sources, such as the
westerlies, local evaporated moisture, and polar air masses, on
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O values are comparatively weak. The combination of
the {$\delta$}$^{18}$O record from the Muztagata ice core, 58 km away
from the study area, and the LMDZ-iso simulated annual
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O pattern in precipitation at Taxkorgan also
demonstrated that temperature, and particularly the temperature of the
regions over which the southern branch of the westerlies flows, is the
most important factor controlling {$\delta$}$^{18}$O variations. The
results from this study area, which is dominated by the westerlies
throughout the year, are markedly different from those derived from
parts of the Tibetan Plateau that are dominated by the combined
influences of the westerlies in winter and the Indian monsoon in summer.
The results suggested that the eastern Pamir Plateau is an ideal
location to reconstruct past temperature variations and that the
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O records preserved in ice cores from the region are
a suitable and robust proxy for temperature.
}},
  doi = {10.1016/j.epsl.2016.10.001},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.456..146Y},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016JGRD..12112612C,
  author = {{Cauquoin}, A. and {Jean-Baptiste}, P. and {Risi}, C. and {Fourré}, {\'E}. and 
	{Landais}, A.},
  title = {{Modeling the global bomb tritium transient signal with the AGCM LMDZ-iso: A method to evaluate aspects of the hydrological cycle}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {tritium, AGCM, hydrological cycle, stratosphere, nuclear bomb tests},
  year = 2016,
  month = nov,
  volume = 121,
  number = d10,
  pages = {12},
  abstract = {{Improving the representation of the hydrological cycle in atmospheric
general circulation models (AGCMs) is one of the main challenges in
modeling the Earth's climate system. One way to evaluate model
performance is to simulate the transport of water isotopes. Among those
available, tritium is an extremely valuable tracer, because its content
in the different reservoirs involved in the water cycle (stratosphere,
troposphere, and ocean) varies by order of magnitude. Previous work
incorporated natural tritium into Laboratoire de
Météorologie Dynamique Zoom (LMDZ)-iso, a version of the
LMDZ general circulation model enhanced by water isotope diagnostics.
Here for the first time, the anthropogenic tritium injected by each of
the atmospheric nuclear bomb tests between 1945 and 1980 has been first
estimated and further implemented in the model; it creates an
opportunity to evaluate certain aspects of LDMZ over several decades by
following the bomb tritium transient signal through the hydrological
cycle. Simulations of tritium in water vapor and precipitation for the
period 1950-2008, with both natural and anthropogenic components, are
presented in this study. LMDZ-iso satisfactorily reproduces the general
shape of the temporal evolution of tritium. However, LMDZ-iso simulates
too high a bomb tritium peak followed by too strong a decrease of
tritium in precipitation. The too diffusive vertical advection in AGCMs
crucially affects the residence time of tritium in the stratosphere.
This insight into model performance demonstrates that the implementation
of tritium in an AGCM provides a new and valuable test of the modeled
atmospheric transport, complementing water stable isotope modeling.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/2016JD025484},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..12112612C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016JAtS...73.4311R,
  author = {{Rivière}, G. and {Robert}, L. and {Codron}, F.},
  title = {{A Short-Term Negative Eddy Feedback on Midlatitude Jet Variability due to Planetary Wave Reflection}},
  journal = {Journal of Atmospheric Sciences},
  year = 2016,
  month = nov,
  volume = 73,
  pages = {4311-4328},
  doi = {10.1175/JAS-D-16-0079.1},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAtS...73.4311R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016GMD.....9.4019G,
  author = {{Good}, P. and {Andrews}, T. and {Chadwick}, R. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and 
	{Gregory}, J.~M. and {Lowe}, J.~A. and {Schaller}, N. and {Shiogama}, H.
	},
  title = {{nonlinMIP contribution to CMIP6: model intercomparison project for non-linear mechanisms: physical basis, experimental design and analysis principles (v1.0)}},
  journal = {Geoscientific Model Development},
  year = 2016,
  month = nov,
  volume = 9,
  pages = {4019-4028},
  abstract = {{nonlinMIP provides experiments that account for state-dependent regional
and global climate responses. The experiments have two main
applications: (1) to focus understanding of responses to CO$_{2}$
forcing on states relevant to specific policy or scientific questions
(e.g. change under low-forcing scenarios, the benefits of mitigation, or
from past cold climates to the present day), or (2) to understand the
state dependence (non-linearity) of climate change - i.e. why doubling
the forcing may not double the response. State dependence
(non-linearity) of responses can be large at regional scales, with
important implications for understanding mechanisms and for general
circulation model (GCM) emulation techniques (e.g. energy balance models
and pattern-scaling methods). However, these processes are hard to
explore using traditional experiments, which explains why they have had
so little attention in previous studies. Some single model studies have
established novel analysis principles and some physical mechanisms.
There is now a need to explore robustness and uncertainty in such
mechanisms across a range of models (point 2 above), and, more broadly,
to focus work on understanding the response to CO$_{2}$ on climate
states relevant to specific policy/science questions (point 1).

nonlinMIP addresses this using a simple, small set of CO$_{2}$-forced experiments that are able to separate linear and non-linear mechanisms cleanly, with a good signal-to-noise ratio - while being demonstrably traceable to realistic transient scenarios. The design builds on the CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) and CMIP6 DECK (Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima) protocols, and is centred around a suite of instantaneous atmospheric CO$_{2}$ change experiments, with a ramp-up-ramp-down experiment to test traceability to gradual forcing scenarios. In all cases the models are intended to be used with CO$_{2}$ concentrations rather than CO$_{2}$ emissions as the input. The understanding gained will help interpret the spread in policy-relevant scenario projections.

Here we outline the basic physical principles behind nonlinMIP, and the method of establishing traceability from abruptCO$_{2}$ to gradual forcing experiments, before detailing the experimental design, and finally some analysis principles. The test of traceability from abruptCO$_{2}$ to transient experiments is recommended as a standard analysis within the CMIP5 and CMIP6 DECK protocols. }}, doi = {10.5194/gmd-9-4019-2016}, adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GMD.....9.4019G}, adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System} }
@article{2016EaFut...4..512S,
  author = {{Stevens}, B. and {Sherwood}, S.~C. and {Bony}, S. and {Webb}, M.~J.
	},
  title = {{Prospects for narrowing bounds on Earth's equilibrium climate sensitivity}},
  journal = {Earth's Future},
  keywords = {Climate sensitivity, Climate change},
  year = 2016,
  month = nov,
  volume = 4,
  pages = {512-522},
  abstract = {{The concept of Earth's Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity (ECS) is
reviewed. A particular problem in quantifying plausible bounds for ECS
has been how to account for all of the diverse lines of relevant
scientific evidence. It is argued that developing and refuting physical
storylines (hypotheses) for values outside any proposed range has the
potential to better constrain these bounds and to help articulate the
science needed to narrow the range further. A careful reassessment of
all important lines of evidence supporting these storylines, their
limitations, and the assumptions required to combine them is therefore
required urgently.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/2016EF000376},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EaFut...4..512S},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016ClDy...47.3235Y,
  author = {{Yang}, H. and {Jiang}, Z. and {Li}, L.},
  title = {{Biases and improvements in three dynamical downscaling climate simulations over China}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 2016,
  month = nov,
  volume = 47,
  pages = {3235-3251},
  abstract = {{A dynamical downscaling is performed to improve the regional climate
simulation in China. It consists of using a variable resolution model
LMDZ4 nested into three global climate models (GCMs): BCC-csm1-1-m,
FGOALS-g2 and IPSL-CM5A-MR, respectively. The regional climate from
different simulations is assessed in terms of surface air temperature
and rainfalls through a comparison to observations (both station data
and gridded data). The comparison includes climatic trends during the
last 40 years, statistical distribution of sub-regional climate, and the
seasonal cycle. For surface air temperature, a significant part of the
improvement provided by LMDZ4 is related to the effect of surface
elevation which is more realistic in high-resolution simulations; the
rest is related to changes in regional or local atmospheric general
circulation. All GCMs and the downscaling model LMDZ4 are, more or less,
able to describe the spatial distribution of surface air temperature and
precipitation in China. LMDZ4 does show its superiority, compared to
GCMs, in depicting a good regional terrain including the Tibetan
Plateau, the Sichuan Basin and the Qilian Mountains.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-016-3023-9},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.3235Y},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016TCry...10.2415S,
  author = {{Stenni}, B. and {Scarchilli}, C. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and 
	{Schlosser}, E. and {Ciardini}, V. and {Dreossi}, G. and {Grigioni}, P. and 
	{Bonazza}, M. and {Cagnati}, A. and {Karlicek}, D. and {Risi}, C. and 
	{Udisti}, R. and {Valt}, M.},
  title = {{Three-year monitoring of stable isotopes of precipitation at Concordia Station, East Antarctica}},
  journal = {The Cryosphere},
  year = 2016,
  month = oct,
  volume = 10,
  pages = {2415-2428},
  abstract = {{Past temperature reconstructions from Antarctic ice cores require a good
quantification and understanding of the relationship between snow
isotopic composition and 2 m air or inversion (condensation)
temperature. Here, we focus on the French-Italian Concordia Station,
central East Antarctic plateau, where the European Project for Ice
Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) Dome C ice cores were drilled. We provide a
multi-year record of daily precipitation types identified from crystal
morphologies, daily precipitation amounts and isotopic composition. Our
sampling period (2008-2010) encompasses a warmer year (2009, +1.2 {\deg}C
with respect to 2 m air temperature long-term average 1996-2010), with
larger total precipitation and snowfall amounts (14 and 76 \% above
sampling period average, respectively), and a colder and drier year
(2010, -1.8 {\deg}C, 4 \% below long-term and sampling period averages,
respectively) with larger diamond dust amounts (49 \% above sampling
period average). Relationships between local meteorological data and
precipitation isotopic composition are investigated at daily, monthly
and inter-annual scale, and for the different types of precipitation.
Water stable isotopes are more closely related to 2 m air temperature
than to inversion temperature at all timescales (e.g. R$^{2}$ =
0.63 and 0.44, respectively for daily values). The slope of the temporal
relationship between daily {$\delta$}$^{18}$O and 2 m air temperature
is approximately 2 times smaller (0.49 {\permil} {\deg}C$^{-1}$)
than the average Antarctic spatial (0.8 {\permil} {\deg}C$^{-1}$)
relationship initially used for the interpretation of EPICA Dome C
records. In accordance with results from precipitation monitoring at
Vostok and Dome F, deuterium excess is anti-correlated with
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O at daily and monthly scales, reaching maximum
values in winter. Hoar frost precipitation samples have a specific
fingerprint with more depleted {$\delta$}$^{18}$O (about 5 {\permil}
below average) and higher deuterium excess (about 8 {\permil} above
average) values than other precipitation types. These datasets provide a
basis for comparison with shallow ice core records, to investigate
post-deposition effects. A preliminary comparison between observations
and precipitation from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather
Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis and the simulated water stable isotopes
from the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique Zoom
atmospheric general circulation model (LMDZiso) shows that models do
correctly capture the amount of precipitation as well as more than 50 \%
of the variance of the observed {$\delta$}$^{18}$O, driven by
large-scale weather patterns. Despite a warm bias and an underestimation
of the variance in water stable isotopes, LMDZiso correctly captures
these relationships between {$\delta$}$^{18}$O, 2 m air temperature
and deuterium excess. Our dataset is therefore available for further
in-depth model evaluation at the synoptic scale.
}},
  doi = {10.5194/tc-10-2415-2016},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016TCry...10.2415S},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016ClDy..tmp..422H,
  author = {{Harzallah}, A. and {Jord{\`a}}, G. and {Dubois}, C. and {Sannino}, G. and 
	{Carillo}, A. and {Li}, L. and {Arsouze}, T. and {Cavicchia}, L. and 
	{Beuvier}, J. and {Akhtar}, N.},
  title = {{Long term evolution of heat budget in the Mediterranean Sea from Med-CORDEX forced and coupled simulations}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Mediterranean Sea, Heat budget, Heat content, Strait of Gibraltar, Regional climate models},
  year = 2016,
  month = oct,
  abstract = {{This study evaluates the Mediterranean Sea heat budget components from a
set of forced and coupled simulations performed in the frame of the
Med-CORDEX project. The simulations use regional climate system models
(RCSMs) dedicated to the Mediterranean area and driven by the
ERA40/ERA-Interim reanalyses. The study focuses on the period 1980-2010.
Interannual variations of the average net heat flux at the sea surface
are consistent among models but the spread in the mean values is large
(from -4.8 to +2.2 Wm$^{-2}$) with the coupled models showing the
lowest heat loss from the sea. For the heat flux at the Strait of
Gibraltar both interannual variations and mean values show a large
intermodel spread. The basin average temperature shows positive trends
with highest values in the coupled models; it also shows interannual
variations that are in good agreement with observations. The heat
content rate is calculated based on the derivative of the average
temperature and is found to be significantly correlated for most models
with the net heat flux at the sea surface (average correlation \~{}0.5) but
not with the net heat flux through the Strait of Gibraltar (average
correlation \~{}0.2), suggesting that in the considered RCSMs the
interannual variability of the heat content rate is mainly driven by the
surface heat fluxes. The resemblance between the simulated and observed
heat content rates is stronger in the forced models than in the coupled
ones. This is explained by the stronger constraint applied to the forced
models by the use of the surface temperature relaxation to observations.
The temperature of the outflowing water through the Strait of Gibraltar
shows positive and significant trends, also higher in the coupled
models. It is suggested that the Mediterranean Sea warming found in most
models and in particular in the coupled ones, induces a change of the
hydrographic conditions that affects the Strait of Gibraltar.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-016-3363-5},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..422H},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016NatCC...6..869B,
  author = {{Berg}, A. and {Findell}, K. and {Lintner}, B. and {Giannini}, A. and 
	{Seneviratne}, S.~I. and {van den Hurk}, B. and {Lorenz}, R. and 
	{Pitman}, A. and {Hagemann}, S. and {Meier}, A. and {Cheruy}, F. and 
	{Ducharne}, A. and {Malyshev}, S. and {Milly}, P.~C.~D.},
  title = {{Land-atmosphere feedbacks amplify aridity increase over land under global warming}},
  journal = {Nature Climate Change},
  year = 2016,
  month = sep,
  volume = 6,
  pages = {869-874},
  abstract = {{The response of the terrestrial water cycle to global warming is central
to issues including water resources, agriculture and ecosystem health.
Recent studies indicate that aridity, defined in terms of atmospheric
supply (precipitation, P) and demand (potential evapotranspiration,
E$_{p}$) of water at the land surface, will increase globally in a
warmer world. Recently proposed mechanisms for this response emphasize
the driving role of oceanic warming and associated atmospheric
processes. Here we show that the aridity response is substantially
amplified by land-atmosphere feedbacks associated with the land
surface's response to climate and CO$_{2}$ change. Using
simulations from the Global Land Atmosphere Coupling Experiment
(GLACE)-CMIP5 experiment, we show that global aridity is enhanced by the
feedbacks of projected soil moisture decrease on land surface
temperature, relative humidity and precipitation. The physiological
impact of increasing atmospheric CO$_{2}$ on vegetation exerts a
qualitatively similar control on aridity. We reconcile these findings
with previously proposed mechanisms by showing that the moist enthalpy
change over land is unaffected by the land hydrological response. Thus,
although oceanic warming constrains the combined moisture and
temperature changes over land, land hydrology modulates the partitioning
of this enthalpy increase towards increased aridity.
}},
  doi = {10.1038/nclimate3029},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..869B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016PNAS..113.8927B,
  author = {{Bony}, S. and {Stevens}, B. and {Coppin}, D. and {Becker}, T. and 
	{Reed}, K.~A. and {Voigt}, A. and {Medeiros}, B.},
  title = {{Thermodynamic control of anvil cloud amount}},
  journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Science},
  keywords = {anvil cloud, cloud feedback, convective aggregation, large-scale circulation, climate sensitivity},
  year = 2016,
  month = aug,
  volume = 113,
  pages = {8927-8932},
  abstract = {{General circulation models show that as the surface temperature
increases, the convective anvil clouds shrink. By analyzing
radiative-convective equilibrium simulations, we show that this
behavior is rooted in basic energetic and thermodynamic properties of
the atmosphere: As the climate warms, the clouds rise and remain at
nearly the same temperature, but find themselves in a more stable
atmosphere; this enhanced stability reduces the convective outflow in
the upper troposphere and decreases the anvil cloud fraction. By warming
the troposphere and increasing the upper-tropospheric stability, the
clustering of deep convection also reduces the convective outflow and
the anvil cloud fraction. When clouds are radiatively active, this
robust coupling between temperature, high clouds, and circulation exerts
a positive feedback on convective aggregation and favors the maintenance
of strongly aggregated atmospheric states at high temperatures. This
stability iris mechanism likely contributes to the narrowing of rainy
areas as the climate warms. Whether or not it influences climate
sensitivity requires further investigation.
}},
  doi = {10.1073/pnas.1601472113},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PNAS..113.8927B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016JGRB..121.5761M,
  author = {{Moor}, J.~M. and {Aiuppa}, A. and {Avard}, G. and {Wehrmann}, H. and 
	{Dunbar}, N. and {Muller}, C. and {Tamburello}, G. and {Giudice}, G. and 
	{Liuzzo}, M. and {Moretti}, R. and {Conde}, V. and {Galle}, B.
	},
  title = {{Turmoil at Turrialba Volcano (Costa Rica): Degassing and eruptive processes inferred from high-frequency gas monitoring}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Solid Earth)},
  keywords = {volcano monitoring, volcanic gases, explosive eruption, phreatic eruption, phreatomagmatic eruption, hydrothermal system},
  year = 2016,
  month = aug,
  volume = 121,
  pages = {5761-5775},
  abstract = {{Eruptive activity at Turrialba Volcano (Costa Rica) has escalated
significantly since 2014, causing airport and school closures in the
capital city of San José. Whether or not new magma is involved in
the current unrest seems probable but remains a matter of debate as ash
deposits are dominated by hydrothermal material. Here we use
high-frequency gas monitoring to track the behavior of the volcano
between 2014 and 2015 and to decipher magmatic versus hydrothermal
contributions to the eruptions. Pulses of deeply derived
CO$_{2}$-rich gas (CO$_{2}$/S$_{total}$ $\gt$ 4.5)
precede explosive activity, providing a clear precursor to eruptive
periods that occurs up to 2 weeks before eruptions, which are
accompanied by shallowly derived sulfur-rich magmatic gas emissions.
Degassing modeling suggests that the deep magmatic reservoir is \~{}8-10 km
deep, whereas the shallow magmatic gas source is at \~{}3-5 km. Two cycles
of degassing and eruption are observed, each attributed to pulses of
magma ascending through the deep reservoir to shallow crustal levels.
The magmatic degassing signals were overprinted by a fluid contribution
from the shallow hydrothermal system, modifying the gas compositions,
contributing volatiles to the emissions, and reflecting complex
processes of scrubbing, displacement, and volatilization.
H$_{2}$S/SO$_{2}$ varies over 2 orders of magnitude through
the monitoring period and demonstrates that the first eruptive episode
involved hydrothermal gases, whereas the second did not. Massive
degassing ($\gt$3000 T/d SO$_{2}$ and H$_{2}$S/SO$_{2}$
$\gt$ 1) followed, suggesting boiling off of the hydrothermal system. The
gas emissions show a remarkable shift to purely magmatic composition
(H$_{2}$S/SO$_{2}$ $\lt$ 0.05) during the second eruptive
period, reflecting the depletion of the hydrothermal system or the
establishment of high-temperature conduits bypassing remnant
hydrothermal reservoirs, and the transition from phreatic to
phreatomagmatic eruptive activity.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/2016JB013150},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.5761M},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016JGRB..121.5761D,
  author = {{de Moor}, J.~M. and {Aiuppa}, A. and {Avard}, G. and {Wehrmann}, H. and 
	{Dunbar}, N. and {Muller}, C. and {Tamburello}, G. and {Giudice}, G. and 
	{Liuzzo}, M. and {Moretti}, R. and {Conde}, V. and {Galle}, B.
	},
  title = {{Turmoil at Turrialba Volcano (Costa Rica): Degassing and eruptive processes inferred from high-frequency gas monitoring}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Solid Earth)},
  keywords = {volcano monitoring, volcanic gases, explosive eruption, phreatic eruption, phreatomagmatic eruption, hydrothermal system},
  year = 2016,
  month = aug,
  volume = 121,
  pages = {5761-5775},
  abstract = {{Eruptive activity at Turrialba Volcano (Costa Rica) has escalated
significantly since 2014, causing airport and school closures in the
capital city of San José. Whether or not new magma is involved in
the current unrest seems probable but remains a matter of debate as ash
deposits are dominated by hydrothermal material. Here we use
high-frequency gas monitoring to track the behavior of the volcano
between 2014 and 2015 and to decipher magmatic versus hydrothermal
contributions to the eruptions. Pulses of deeply derived
CO$_{2}$-rich gas (CO$_{2}$/S$_{total}$ $\gt$ 4.5)
precede explosive activity, providing a clear precursor to eruptive
periods that occurs up to 2 weeks before eruptions, which are
accompanied by shallowly derived sulfur-rich magmatic gas emissions.
Degassing modeling suggests that the deep magmatic reservoir is  8-10 km
deep, whereas the shallow magmatic gas source is at  3-5 km. Two cycles
of degassing and eruption are observed, each attributed to pulses of
magma ascending through the deep reservoir to shallow crustal levels.
The magmatic degassing signals were overprinted by a fluid contribution
from the shallow hydrothermal system, modifying the gas compositions,
contributing volatiles to the emissions, and reflecting complex
processes of scrubbing, displacement, and volatilization.
H$_{2}$S/SO$_{2}$ varies over 2 orders of magnitude through
the monitoring period and demonstrates that the first eruptive episode
involved hydrothermal gases, whereas the second did not. Massive
degassing ($\gt$3000 T/d SO$_{2}$ and H$_{2}$S/SO$_{2}$
$\gt$ 1) followed, suggesting boiling off of the hydrothermal system. The
gas emissions show a remarkable shift to purely magmatic composition
(H$_{2}$S/SO$_{2}$ $\lt$ 0.05) during the second eruptive
period, reflecting the depletion of the hydrothermal system or the
establishment of high-temperature conduits bypassing remnant
hydrothermal reservoirs, and the transition from phreatic to
phreatomagmatic eruptive activity.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/2016JB013150},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.5761D},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016GMD.....9.2809V,
  author = {{van den Hurk}, B. and {Kim}, H. and {Krinner}, G. and {Seneviratne}, S.~I. and 
	{Derksen}, C. and {Oki}, T. and {Douville}, H. and {Colin}, J. and 
	{Ducharne}, A. and {Cheruy}, F. and {Viovy}, N. and {Puma}, M.~J. and 
	{Wada}, Y. and {Li}, W. and {Jia}, B. and {Alessandri}, A. and 
	{Lawrence}, D.~M. and {Weedon}, G.~P. and {Ellis}, R. and {Hagemann}, S. and 
	{Mao}, J. and {Flanner}, M.~G. and {Zampieri}, M. and {Materia}, S. and 
	{Law}, R.~M. and {Sheffield}, J.},
  title = {{LS3MIP (v1.0) contribution to CMIP6: the Land Surface, Snow and Soil moisture Model Intercomparison Project - aims, setup and expected outcome}},
  journal = {Geoscientific Model Development},
  year = 2016,
  month = aug,
  volume = 9,
  pages = {2809-2832},
  abstract = {{The Land Surface, Snow and Soil Moisture Model Intercomparison Project
(LS3MIP) is designed to provide a comprehensive assessment of land
surface, snow and soil moisture feedbacks on climate variability and
climate change, and to diagnose systematic biases in the land modules of
current Earth system models (ESMs). The solid and liquid water stored at
the land surface has a large influence on the regional climate, its
variability and predictability, including effects on the energy, water
and carbon cycles. Notably, snow and soil moisture affect surface
radiation and flux partitioning properties, moisture storage and land
surface memory. They both strongly affect atmospheric conditions, in
particular surface air temperature and precipitation, but also
large-scale circulation patterns. However, models show divergent
responses and representations of these feedbacks as well as systematic
biases in the underlying processes. LS3MIP will provide the means to
quantify the associated uncertainties and better constrain climate
change projections, which is of particular interest for highly
vulnerable regions (densely populated areas, agricultural regions, the
Arctic, semi-arid and other sensitive terrestrial ecosystems). 

The experiments are subdivided in two components, the first addressing systematic land biases in offline mode (``LMIP'', building upon the 3rd phase of Global Soil Wetness Project; GSWP3) and the second addressing land feedbacks attributed to soil moisture and snow in an integrated framework (``LFMIP'', building upon the GLACE-CMIP blueprint). }}, doi = {10.5194/gmd-9-2809-2016}, adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GMD.....9.2809V}, adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System} }
@article{2016CliPa..12.1693B,
  author = {{Bolliet}, T. and {Brockmann}, P. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and 
	{Bassinot}, F. and {Daux}, V. and {Genty}, D. and {Landais}, A. and 
	{Lavrieux}, M. and {Michel}, E. and {Ortega}, P. and {Risi}, C. and 
	{Roche}, D.~M. and {Vimeux}, F. and {Waelbroeck}, C.},
  title = {{Water and carbon stable isotope records from natural archives: a new database and interactive online platform for data browsing, visualizing and downloading}},
  journal = {Climate of the Past},
  year = 2016,
  month = aug,
  volume = 12,
  pages = {1693-1719},
  abstract = {{Past climate is an important benchmark to assess the ability of climate
models to simulate key processes and feedbacks. Numerous proxy records
exist for stable isotopes of water and/or carbon, which are also
implemented inside the components of a growing number of Earth system
model. Model-data comparisons can help to constrain the uncertainties
associated with transfer functions. This motivates the need of producing
a comprehensive compilation of different proxy sources. We have put
together a global database of proxy records of oxygen
({$\delta$}$^{18}$O), hydrogen ({$\delta$}D) and carbon
({$\delta$}$^{13}$C) stable isotopes from different archives: ocean
and lake sediments, corals, ice cores, speleothems and tree-ring
cellulose. Source records were obtained from the georeferenced open
access PANGAEA and NOAA libraries, complemented by additional data
obtained from a literature survey. About 3000 source records were
screened for chronological information and temporal resolution of proxy
records. Altogether, this database consists of hundreds of dated
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O, {$\delta$}$^{13}$C and {$\delta$}D records in a
standardized simple text format, complemented with a metadata Excel
catalog. A quality control flag was implemented to describe age markers
and inform on chronological uncertainty. This compilation effort
highlights the need to homogenize and structure the format of datasets
and chronological information as well as enhance the distribution of
published datasets that are currently highly fragmented and scattered.
We also provide an online portal based on the records included in this
database with an intuitive and interactive platform ($\lt$a
href=``http://climateproxiesfinder.ipsl.fr/''
target=``\_blank''$\gt$http://climateproxiesfinder.ipsl.fr/$\lt$/a$\gt$),
allowing one to easily select, visualize and download subsets of the
homogeneously formatted records that constitute this database, following
a choice of search criteria, and to upload new datasets. In the last
part, we illustrate the type of application allowed by our database by
comparing several key periods highly investigated by the paleoclimate
community. For coherency with the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison
Project (PMIP), we focus on records spanning the past 200 years, the
mid-Holocene (MH, 5.5-6.5 ka; calendar kiloyears before 1950), the Last
Glacial Maximum (LGM, 19-23 ka), and those spanning the last
interglacial period (LIG, 115-130 ka). Basic statistics have been
applied to characterize anomalies between these different periods. Most
changes from the MH to present day and from LIG to MH appear
statistically insignificant. Significant global differences are reported
from LGM to MH with regional discrepancies in signals from different
archives and complex patterns.
}},
  doi = {10.5194/cp-12-1693-2016},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CliPa..12.1693B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016ClDy...47..951C,
  author = {{Chavaillaz}, Y. and {Joussaume}, S. and {Bony}, S. and {Braconnot}, P.
	},
  title = {{Spatial stabilization and intensification of moistening and drying rate patterns under future climate change}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Climate change, CMIP5 simulations, Persistent rate patterns, Rate of precipitation change, Spatial stabilization},
  year = 2016,
  month = aug,
  volume = 47,
  pages = {951-965},
  abstract = {{Precipitation projections are usually presented as the change in
precipitation between a fixed current baseline and a particular time in
the future. However, upcoming generations will be affected in a way
probably more related to the moving trend in precipitation patterns,
i.e. to the rate and the persistence of regional precipitation changes
from one generation to the next, than to changes relative to a fixed
current baseline. In this perspective, we propose an alternative
characterization of the future precipitation changes predicted by
general circulation models, focusing on the precipitation difference
between two subsequent 20-year periods. We show that in a
business-as-usual emission pathway, the moistening and drying rates
increase by 30-40 \%, both over land and ocean. As we move further over
the twenty-first century, more regions exhibit a significant rate of
precipitation change, while the patterns become geographically
stationary and the trends persistent. The stabilization of the
geographical rate patterns that occurs despite the acceleration of
global warming can be physically explained: it results from the
increasing contribution of thermodynamic processes compared to dynamic
processes in the control of precipitation change. We show that such an
evolution is already noticeable over the last decades, and that it could
be reversed if strong mitigation policies were quickly implemented. The
combination of intensification and increasing persistence of
precipitation rate patterns may affect the way human societies and
natural ecosystems adapt to climate change, especially in the
Mediterranean basin, in Central America, in South Asia and in the
Arctic.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-015-2882-9},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47..951C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016BoLMe.160..363R,
  author = {{Rysman}, J.-F. and {Lahellec}, A. and {Vignon}, E. and {Genthon}, C. and 
	{Verrier}, S.},
  title = {{Characterization of Atmospheric Ekman Spirals at Dome C, Antarctica}},
  journal = {Boundary-Layer Meteorology},
  keywords = {Atmospheric boundary layer, Dome C, Ekman spiral , Meteorological tower},
  year = 2016,
  month = aug,
  volume = 160,
  pages = {363-373},
  abstract = {{We use wind speed and temperature measurements taken along a 45-m
meteorological tower located at Dome C, Antarctica (75.06{\deg}S,
123.19{\deg}E) to highlight and characterize the Ekman spiral. Firstly,
temperature records reveal that the atmospheric boundary layer at Dome C
is stable during winter and summer nights (i.e., $\gt$85 \% of the time).
The wind vector, in both speed and direction, also shows a strong
dependence with elevation. An Ekman model was then fitted to the
measurements. Results show that the wind vector follows the Ekman spiral
structure for more than 20 \% of the year (2009). Most Ekman spirals have
been detected during summer nights, that is, when the boundary layer is
slightly stratified. During these episodes, the boundary-layer height
ranged from 25 to 100 m, the eddy viscosity from 0.004 to 0.06 m\^{}2
s\^{}$\{$-1$\}$, and the Richardson number from zero to 1.6.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s10546-016-0144-y},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BoLMe.160..363R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016AMT.....9.3921S,
  author = {{Scheepmaker}, R.~A. and {aan de Brugh}, J. and {Hu}, H. and 
	{Borsdorff}, T. and {Frankenberg}, C. and {Risi}, C. and {Hasekamp}, O. and 
	{Aben}, I. and {Landgraf}, J.},
  title = {{HDO and H$_{2}$O total column retrievals from TROPOMI shortwave infrared measurements}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Measurement Techniques},
  year = 2016,
  month = aug,
  volume = 9,
  pages = {3921-3937},
  abstract = {{The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) on board the European
Space Agency Sentinel-5 Precursor mission is scheduled for launch in the
last quarter of 2016. As part of its operational processing the mission
will provide CH$_{4}$ and CO total columns using backscattered
sunlight in the shortwave infrared band (2.3 {\micro}m). By adapting the
CO retrieval algorithm, we have developed a non-scattering algorithm to
retrieve total column HDO and H$_{2}$O from the same measurements
under clear-sky conditions. The isotopologue ratio HDO / H$_{2}$O
is a powerful diagnostic in the efforts to improve our understanding of
the hydrological cycle and its role in climate change, as it provides an
insight into the source and transport history of water vapour, nature's
strongest greenhouse gas. Due to the weak reflectivity over water
surfaces, we need to restrict the retrieval to cloud-free scenes over
land. We exploit a novel 2-band filter technique, using strong vs. weak
water or methane absorption bands, to prefilter scenes with
medium-to-high-level clouds, cirrus or aerosol and to significantly
reduce processing time. Scenes with cloud top heights {\lsim}1 km, very
low fractions of high-level clouds or an aerosol layer above a high
surface albedo are not filtered out. We use an ensemble of realistic
measurement simulations for various conditions to show the efficiency of
the cloud filter and to quantify the performance of the retrieval. The
single-measurement precision in terms of {$\delta$}D is better than 15-25
{\permil} for even the lowest surface albedo (2-4 {\permil} for high
albedos), while a small bias remains possible of up to {\tilde} 20
{\permil} due to remaining aerosol or up to {\tilde} 70 {\permil} due to
remaining cloud contamination. We also present an analysis of the
sensitivity towards prior assumptions, which shows that the retrieval
has a small but significant sensitivity to the a priori assumption of
the atmospheric trace gas profiles. Averaging multiple measurements over
time and space, however, will reduce these errors, due to the
quasi-random nature of the profile uncertainties. The sensitivity of the
retrieval with respect to instrumental parameters within the expected
instrument performance is $\lt$ 3 {\permil}, which represents only a small
contribution to the overall error budget. Spectroscopic uncertainties of
the water lines, however, can have a larger and more systematic impact
on the performance of the retrieval and warrant further reassessment of
the water line parameters. With TROPOMI's high radiometric sensitivity,
wide swath (resulting in daily global coverage) and efficient cloud
filtering, in combination with a spatial resolution of 7 {\times} 7
km$^{2}$, we will greatly increase the amount of useful data on
HDO, H$_{2}$O and their ratio HDO / H$_{2}$O. We showcase
the overall performance of the retrieval algorithm and cloud filter with
an accurate simulation of TROPOMI measurements from a single overpass
over parts of the USA and Mexico, based on MODIS satellite data and
realistic conditions for the surface, atmosphere and chemistry
(including isotopologues). This shows that TROPOMI will pave the way for
new studies of the hydrological cycle, both globally and locally, on
timescales of mere days and weeks instead of seasons and years and will
greatly extend the HDO / H$_{2}$O datasets from the SCIAMACHY and
GOSAT missions.
}},
  doi = {10.5194/amt-9-3921-2016},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AMT.....9.3921S},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016TCry...10.1647R,
  author = {{Ritter}, F. and {Steen-Larsen}, H.~C. and {Werner}, M. and 
	{Masson-Delmotte}, V. and {Orsi}, A. and {Behrens}, M. and {Birnbaum}, G. and 
	{Freitag}, J. and {Risi}, C. and {Kipfstuhl}, S.},
  title = {{Isotopic exchange on the diurnal scale between near-surface snow and lower atmospheric water vapor at Kohnen station, East Antarctica}},
  journal = {The Cryosphere},
  year = 2016,
  month = jul,
  volume = 10,
  pages = {1647-1663},
  abstract = {{Quantifying the magnitude of post-depositional processes affecting the
isotopic composition of surface snow is essential for a more accurate
interpretation of ice core data. To achieve this, high temporal
resolution measurements of both lower atmospheric water vapor and
surface snow isotopic composition are required. This study presents
continuous measurements of water vapor isotopes performed in East
Antarctica (Kohnen station) from December 2013 to January 2014 using a
laser spectrometer. Observations have been compared with the outputs of
two atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) equipped with water
vapor isotopes: ECHAM5-wiso and LMDZ5Aiso. During our monitoring period,
the signals in the 2 m air temperature T, humidity mixing ratio q and
both water vapor isotopes {$\delta$}D and {$\delta$}$^{18}$O are
dominated by the presence of diurnal cycles. Both AGCMs simulate similar
diurnal cycles with a mean amplitude 30 to 70 \% lower than observed,
possibly due to an incorrect simulation of the surface energy balance
and the boundary layer dynamics. In parallel, snow surface samples were
collected each hour over 35 h, with a sampling depth of 2-5 mm. A
diurnal cycle in the isotopic composition of the snow surface is
observed in phase with the water vapor, reaching a peak-to-peak
amplitude of 3 {\permil} for {$\delta$}D over 24 h (compared to 36 {\permil}
for {$\delta$}D in the water vapor). A simple box model treated as a closed
system has been developed to study the exchange of water molecules
between an air and a snow reservoir. In the vapor, the box model
simulations show too much isotopic depletion compared to the
observations. Mixing with other sources (advection, free troposphere)
has to be included in order to fit the observations. At the snow
surface, the simulated isotopic values are close to the observations
with a snow reservoir of {\tilde}{\amp}thinsp;5 mm depth (range of the
snow sample depth). Our analysis suggests that fractionation occurs
during sublimation and that vapor-snow exchanges can no longer be
considered insignificant for the isotopic composition of near-surface
snow in polar regions.
}},
  doi = {10.5194/tc-10-1647-2016},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016TCry...10.1647R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016JGRD..121.8549E,
  author = {{Escribano}, J. and {Boucher}, O. and {Chevallier}, F. and {Huneeus}, N.
	},
  title = {{Subregional inversion of North African dust sources}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {dust, AOD, aerosol data assimilation, emission},
  year = 2016,
  month = jul,
  volume = 121,
  pages = {8549-8566},
  abstract = {{The emission of mineral dust aerosols in arid and semiarid regions is a
complex process whose representation in atmospheric models remains
crude, due to insufficient knowledge about the aerosol lifting process
itself, the lack of global data on soil characteristics, and the
impossibility for the models to resolve the fine-scale variability in
the wind field that drives some of the dust events. As a result, there
are large uncertainties in the total emission flux of mineral dust, its
natural variability at various timescales, and the possible contribution
from anthropogenic land use changes. This work aims for estimating dust
emissions and reduces their uncertainty over the Sahara desert and the
Arabian Peninsula{\mdash}the largest dust source region of the globe. We
use a data assimilation approach to constrain dust emission fluxes at a
monthly resolution for 18 subregions. The Moderate Resolution Imaging
Spectroradiometer satellite-derived aerosol optical depth is assimilated
in a regional configuration of a general circulation model coupled to an
aerosol model. We describe this data assimilation system and apply it
for 1 year, resulting in a total mineral dust emissions flux estimate of
2900 Tg yr$^{-1}$ over the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula
for the year 2006. The analysis field of aerosol optical depth shows an
improved fit relative to independent Aerosol Robotic Network
measurements as compared to the model prior field.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/2016JD025020},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.8549E},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016ClDy...47..433B,
  author = {{Brient}, F. and {Schneider}, T. and {Tan}, Z. and {Bony}, S. and 
	{Qu}, X. and {Hall}, A.},
  title = {{Shallowness of tropical low clouds as a predictor of climate models' response to warming}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Low-clouds, Climate sensitivity, Tropics, Convection, Turbulence},
  year = 2016,
  month = jul,
  volume = 47,
  pages = {433-449},
  abstract = {{How tropical low clouds change with climate remains the dominant source
of uncertainty in global warming projections. An analysis of an ensemble
of CMIP5 climate models reveals that a significant part of the spread in
the models' climate sensitivity can be accounted by differences in the
climatological shallowness of tropical low clouds in weak-subsidence
regimes: models with shallower low clouds in weak-subsidence regimes
tend to have a higher climate sensitivity than models with deeper low
clouds. The dynamical mechanisms responsible for the model differences
are analyzed. Competing effects of parameterized boundary-layer
turbulence and shallow convection are found to be essential.
Boundary-layer turbulence and shallow convection are typically
represented by distinct parameterization schemes in current
models{\mdash}parameterization schemes that often produce opposing
effects on low clouds. Convective drying of the boundary layer tends to
deepen low clouds and reduce the cloud fraction at the lowest levels;
turbulent moistening tends to make low clouds more shallow but affects
the low-cloud fraction less. The relative importance different models
assign to these opposing mechanisms contributes to the spread of the
climatological shallowness of low clouds and thus to the spread of
low-cloud changes under global warming.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-015-2846-0},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47..433B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016CliPa..12.1401B,
  author = {{Botsyun}, S. and {Sepulchre}, P. and {Risi}, C. and {Donnadieu}, Y.
	},
  title = {{Impacts of Tibetan Plateau uplift on atmospheric dynamics and associated precipitation {$\delta$}$^{18}$O}},
  journal = {Climate of the Past},
  year = 2016,
  month = jun,
  volume = 12,
  pages = {1401-1420},
  abstract = {{Palaeoelevation reconstructions of mountain belts have become a focus of
modern science since surface elevation provides crucial information for
understanding both geodynamic mechanisms of Earth's interior and the
influence of mountain growth on climate. Stable oxygen isotopes
palaeoaltimetry is one of the most popular techniques nowadays, and
relies on the difference between {$\delta$}$^{18}$O of
palaeo-precipitation reconstructed using the natural archives, and
modern measured values for the point of interest. Our goal is to
understand where and how complex climatic changes linked with the growth
of mountains affect {$\delta$}$^{18}$O in precipitation. For this
purpose, we develop a theoretical expression for the precipitation
composition based on the Rayleigh distillation and the isotope-equipped
atmospheric general circulation model LMDZ-iso outputs. Experiments with
reduced height over the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas have been
designed. Our results show that the isotopic composition of
precipitation is very sensitive to climate changes related to the growth
of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. Specifically our simulations
suggest that only 40 \% of sampled sites for palaeoaltimetry depict a
full topographic signal, and that uplift-related changes in relative
humidity (northern region) and precipitation amount (southern region)
could explain absolute deviations of up to 2.5 {\permil} of the isotopic
signal, thereby creating biases in palaeoelevation reconstructions.
}},
  doi = {10.5194/cp-12-1401-2016},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CliPa..12.1401B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016ClDy..tmp..290C,
  author = {{Cavicchia}, L. and {Scoccimarro}, E. and {Gualdi}, S. and {Marson}, P. and 
	{Ahrens}, B. and {Berthou}, S. and {Conte}, D. and {Dell'Aquila}, A. and 
	{Drobinski}, P. and {Djurdjevic}, V. and {Dubois}, C. and {Gallardo}, C. and 
	{Li}, L. and {Oddo}, P. and {Sanna}, A. and {Torma}, C.},
  title = {{Mediterranean extreme precipitation: a multi-model assessment}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Extreme precipitation, Mediterranean climate, Regional climate modelling},
  year = 2016,
  month = jun,
  abstract = {{Exploiting the added value of the ensemble of high-resolution model
simulations provided by the Med-CORDEX coordinated initiative, an
updated assessment of Mediterranean extreme precipitation events as
represented in different observational, reanalysis and modelling
datasets is presented. A spatiotemporal characterisation of the
long-term statistics of extreme precipitation is performed, using a
number of different diagnostic indices. Employing a novel approach based
on the timing of extreme precipitation events a number of physically
consistent subregions are defined. The comparison of different
diagnostics over the Mediterranean domain and physically homogeneous
sub-domains is presented and discussed, focussing on the relative impact
of several model configuration features (resolution, coupling, physical
parameterisations) on the performance in reproducing extreme
precipitation events. It is found that the agreement between the
observed and modelled long-term statistics of extreme precipitation is
more sensitive to the model physics, in particular convective
parameterisation, than to other model configurations such as resolution
and coupling.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-016-3245-x},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..290C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016ACP....16.6841S,
  author = {{Sellitto}, P. and {di Sarra}, A. and {Corradini}, S. and {Boichu}, M. and 
	{Herbin}, H. and {Dubuisson}, P. and {Sèze}, G. and {Meloni}, D. and 
	{Monteleone}, F. and {Merucci}, L. and {Rusalem}, J. and {Salerno}, G. and 
	{Briole}, P. and {Legras}, B.},
  title = {{Synergistic use of Lagrangian dispersion and radiative transfer modelling with satellite and surface remote sensing measurements for the investigation of volcanic plumes: the Mount Etna eruption of 25-27 October 2013}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2016,
  month = jun,
  volume = 16,
  pages = {6841-6861},
  abstract = {{In this paper we combine SO$_{2}$ and ash plume dispersion
modelling with satellite and surface remote sensing observations to
study the regional influence of a relatively weak volcanic eruption from
Mount Etna on the optical and micro-physical properties of Mediterranean
aerosols. We analyse the Mount Etna eruption episode of 25-27 October
2013. The evolution of the plume along the trajectory is investigated by
means of the FLEXible PARTicle Lagrangian dispersion (FLEXPART) model.
The satellite data set includes true colour images, retrieved values of
volcanic SO$_{2}$ and ash, estimates of SO$_{2}$ and ash
emission rates derived from MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging
Spectroradiometer) observations and estimates of cloud top pressure from
SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager). Surface remote
sensing measurements of aerosol and SO$_{2}$ made at the ENEA
Station for Climate Observations (35.52{\deg} N, 12.63{\deg} E; 50 m
a.s.l.) on the island of Lampedusa are used in the analysis. The
combination of these different data sets suggests that SO$_{2}$
and ash, despite the initial injection at about 7.0 km altitude, reached
altitudes around 10-12 km and influenced the column average aerosol
particle size distribution at a distance of more than 350 km downwind.
This study indicates that even a relatively weak volcanic eruption may
produce an observable effect on the aerosol properties at the regional
scale. The impact of secondary sulfate particles on the aerosol size
distribution at Lampedusa is discussed and estimates of the clear-sky
direct aerosol radiative forcing are derived. Daily shortwave radiative
forcing efficiencies, i.e. radiative forcing per unit AOD (aerosol
optical depth), are calculated with the LibRadtran model. They are
estimated between -39 and -48 W m$^{-2}$ AOD$^{-1}$ at the
top of the atmosphere and between -66 and -49 W m$^{-2}$
AOD$^{-1}$ at the surface, with the variability in the estimates
mainly depending on the aerosol single scattering albedo. These results
suggest that sulfate particles played a large role in the transported
plume composition and radiative forcing, while the contribution by ash
particles was small in the volcanic plume arriving at Lampedusa during
this event.
}},
  doi = {10.5194/acp-16-6841-2016},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.6841S},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016JCli...29.3767G,
  author = {{Gastineau}, G. and {L'Hévéder}, B. and {Codron}, F. and 
	{Frankignoul}, C.},
  title = {{Mechanisms Determining the Winter Atmospheric Response to the Atlantic Overturning Circulation}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2016,
  month = may,
  volume = 29,
  pages = {3767-3785},
  doi = {10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0326.1},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JCli...29.3767G},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016Icar..269...98G,
  author = {{G{\'o}mez-Leal}, I. and {Codron}, F. and {Selsis}, F.},
  title = {{Thermal light curves of Earth-like planets: 1. Varying surface and rotation on planets in a terrestrial orbit}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  keywords = {Extra-solar planets, Terrestrial planets, Earth, Atmospheres, dynamics, Photometry},
  year = 2016,
  month = may,
  volume = 269,
  pages = {98-110},
  abstract = {{The integrated thermal emission of an exoplanet and its variations along
the orbital motion can carry information about the climatic conditions
and the rotation of the planet. In this study, we use the LMDZ 3D Global
Climate Model (GCM) to simulate the climate of a synthetic Earth and
three quasi-Earth configurations: a slowly rotating Earth, an
ocean-covered Earth and its snowball counterpart. We also generate the
time-dependent broadband thermal emission of the planet from these
simulations. In a first step, we validate the model by comparing the
synthetic Earth emission with the actual emission of our planet as
constrained by observations. Then, we determine the main properties of
the climate and emission of the three Earth-like planets and compare
them to those of the Earth. We show that planets with an uneven
distribution of continents exhibit a maximum of emission during the
summer of the hemisphere with larger continental masses, and they may
exhibit a maximum of emission at apastron. Large convective clouds might
form over the continents of slow rotating planets, having an important
effect over their climate and their emission. We also show that, in all
the modeled cases, the equilibrium temperature, the Bond albedo and the
rotation period can in theory be retrieved from the light curve by a
distant observer. The values obtained at transiting geometries have a
low deviation from the global values for cases with an axis tilt similar
to that of the Earth, and we are able to distinguish between the four
planets presented here by the data obtained from their light curves.
However, this might not be the case under different conditions.
}},
  doi = {10.1016/j.icarus.2015.12.050},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Icar..269...98G},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016GMD.....9.1937E,
  author = {{Eyring}, V. and {Bony}, S. and {Meehl}, G.~A. and {Senior}, C.~A. and 
	{Stevens}, B. and {Stouffer}, R.~J. and {Taylor}, K.~E.},
  title = {{Overview of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) experimental design and organization}},
  journal = {Geoscientific Model Development},
  year = 2016,
  month = may,
  volume = 9,
  pages = {1937-1958},
  abstract = {{By coordinating the design and distribution of global climate model
simulations of the past, current, and future climate, the Coupled Model
Intercomparison Project (CMIP) has become one of the foundational
elements of climate science. However, the need to address an
ever-expanding range of scientific questions arising from more and more
research communities has made it necessary to revise the organization of
CMIP. After a long and wide community consultation, a new and more
federated structure has been put in place. It consists of three major
elements: (1) a handful of common experiments, the DECK (Diagnostic,
Evaluation and Characterization of Klima) and CMIP historical
simulations (1850-near present) that will maintain continuity and help
document basic characteristics of models across different phases of
CMIP; (2) common standards, coordination, infrastructure, and
documentation that will facilitate the distribution of model outputs and
the characterization of the model ensemble; and (3) an ensemble of
CMIP-Endorsed Model Intercomparison Projects (MIPs) that will be
specific to a particular phase of CMIP (now CMIP6) and that will build
on the DECK and CMIP historical simulations to address a large range of
specific questions and fill the scientific gaps of the previous CMIP
phases. The DECK and CMIP historical simulations, together with the use
of CMIP data standards, will be the entry cards for models participating
in CMIP. Participation in CMIP6-Endorsed MIPs by individual modelling
groups will be at their own discretion and will depend on their
scientific interests and priorities. With the Grand Science Challenges
of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) as its scientific
backdrop, CMIP6 will address three broad questions: 

- How does the Earth system respond to forcing?

- What are the origins and consequences of systematic model biases?

- How can we assess future climate changes given internal climate variability, predictability, and uncertainties in scenarios?

This CMIP6 overview paper presents the background and rationale for the new structure of CMIP, provides a detailed description of the DECK and CMIP6 historical simulations, and includes a brief introduction to the 21 CMIP6-Endorsed MIPs. }}, doi = {10.5194/gmd-9-1937-2016}, adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GMD.....9.1937E}, adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System} }
@article{2016GMD.....9.1747E,
  author = {{Eyring}, V. and {Righi}, M. and {Lauer}, A. and {Evaldsson}, M. and 
	{Wenzel}, S. and {Jones}, C. and {Anav}, A. and {Andrews}, O. and 
	{Cionni}, I. and {Davin}, E.~L. and {Deser}, C. and {Ehbrecht}, C. and 
	{Friedlingstein}, P. and {Gleckler}, P. and {Gottschaldt}, K.-D. and 
	{Hagemann}, S. and {Juckes}, M. and {Kindermann}, S. and {Krasting}, J. and 
	{Kunert}, D. and {Levine}, R. and {Loew}, A. and {M{\"a}kel{\"a}}, J. and 
	{Martin}, G. and {Mason}, E. and {Phillips}, A.~S. and {Read}, S. and 
	{Rio}, C. and {Roehrig}, R. and {Senftleben}, D. and {Sterl}, A. and 
	{van Ulft}, L.~H. and {Walton}, J. and {Wang}, S. and {Williams}, K.~D.
	},
  title = {{ESMValTool (v1.0) - a community diagnostic and performance metrics tool for routine evaluation of Earth system models in CMIP}},
  journal = {Geoscientific Model Development},
  year = 2016,
  month = may,
  volume = 9,
  pages = {1747-1802},
  abstract = {{A community diagnostics and performance metrics tool for the evaluation
of Earth system models (ESMs) has been developed that allows for routine
comparison of single or multiple models, either against predecessor
versions or against observations. The priority of the effort so far has
been to target specific scientific themes focusing on selected essential
climate variables (ECVs), a range of known systematic biases common to
ESMs, such as coupled tropical climate variability, monsoons, Southern
Ocean processes, continental dry biases, and soil hydrology-climate
interactions, as well as atmospheric CO$_{2}$ budgets,
tropospheric and stratospheric ozone, and tropospheric aerosols. The
tool is being developed in such a way that additional analyses can
easily be added. A set of standard namelists for each scientific topic
reproduces specific sets of diagnostics or performance metrics that have
demonstrated their importance in ESM evaluation in the peer-reviewed
literature. The Earth System Model Evaluation Tool (ESMValTool) is a
community effort open to both users and developers encouraging open
exchange of diagnostic source code and evaluation results from the
Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) ensemble. This will
facilitate and improve ESM evaluation beyond the state-of-the-art and
aims at supporting such activities within CMIP and at individual
modelling centres. Ultimately, we envisage running the ESMValTool
alongside the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) as part of a more
routine evaluation of CMIP model simulations while utilizing
observations available in standard formats (obs4MIPs) or provided by the
user.
}},
  doi = {10.5194/gmd-9-1747-2016},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GMD.....9.1747E},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016BAMS...97..755D,
  author = {{Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Saint-Lu}, M.},
  title = {{Positive Feedback in Climate: Stabilization or Runaway, Illustrated by a Simple Experiment}},
  journal = {Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society},
  year = 2016,
  month = may,
  volume = 97,
  pages = {755-765},
  doi = {10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00022.1},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BAMS...97..755D},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016TCry...10..837T,
  author = {{Touzeau}, A. and {Landais}, A. and {Stenni}, B. and {Uemura}, R. and 
	{Fukui}, K. and {Fujita}, S. and {Guilbaud}, S. and {Ekaykin}, A. and 
	{Casado}, M. and {Barkan}, E. and {Luz}, B. and {Magand}, O. and 
	{Teste}, G. and {Le Meur}, E. and {Baroni}, M. and {Savarino}, J. and 
	{Bourgeois}, I. and {Risi}, C.},
  title = {{Acquisition of isotopic composition for surface snow in East Antarctica and the links to climatic parameters}},
  journal = {The Cryosphere},
  year = 2016,
  month = apr,
  volume = 10,
  pages = {837-852},
  abstract = {{The isotopic compositions of oxygen and hydrogen in ice cores are
invaluable tools for the reconstruction of past climate variations. Used
alone, they give insights into the variations of the local temperature,
whereas taken together they can provide information on the climatic
conditions at the point of origin of the moisture. However, recent
analyses of snow from shallow pits indicate that the climatic signal can
become erased in very low accumulation regions, due to local processes
of snow reworking. The signal-to-noise ratio decreases and the climatic
signal can then only be retrieved using stacks of several snow pits.
Obviously, the signal is not completely lost at this stage, otherwise it
would be impossible to extract valuable climate information from ice
cores as has been done, for instance, for the last glaciation. To better
understand how the climatic signal is passed from the precipitation to
the snow, we present here results from varied snow samples from East
Antarctica. First, we look at the relationship between isotopes and
temperature from a geographical point of view, using results from three
traverses across Antarctica, to see how the relationship is built up
through the distillation process. We also take advantage of these
measures to see how second-order parameters (d-excess and
$^{17}$O-excess) are related to {$\delta$}$^{18}$O and how they
are controlled. d-excess increases in the interior of the continent
(i.e., when {$\delta$}$^{18}$O decreases), due to the distillation
process, whereas $^{17}$O-excess decreases in remote areas, due to
kinetic fractionation at low temperature. In both cases, these changes
are associated with the loss of original information regarding the
source. Then, we look at the same relationships in precipitation samples
collected over 1 year at Dome C and Vostok, as well as in surface snow
at Dome C. We note that the slope of the {$\delta$}$^{18}$O vs.
temperature (T) relationship decreases in these samples compared to
those from the traverses, and thus caution is advocated when using
spatial slopes for past climate reconstruction. The second-order
parameters behave in the same way in the precipitation as in the surface
snow from traverses, indicating that similar processes are active and
that their interpretation in terms of source climatic parameters is
strongly complicated by local temperature effects in East Antarctica.
Finally we check if the same relationships between {$\delta$}$^{18}$O
and second-order parameters are also found in the snow from four snow
pits. While the d-excess remains opposed to {$\delta$}$^{18}$O in
most snow pits, the $^{17}$O-excess is no longer positively
correlated to {$\delta$}$^{18}$O and even shows anti-correlation to
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O at Vostok. This may be due to a stratospheric
influence at this site and/or to post-deposition processes.
}},
  doi = {10.5194/tc-10-837-2016},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016TCry...10..837T},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016JGRD..121.3100D,
  author = {{Drobinski}, P. and {Alonzo}, B. and {Bastin}, S. and {Silva}, N.~D. and 
	{Muller}, C.},
  title = {{Scaling of precipitation extremes with temperature in the French Mediterranean region: What explains the hook shape?}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {precipitation extremes, water vapor saturation, precipitation efficiency, Clausius-Clapeyron relationship, regional climate, Mediterranean},
  year = 2016,
  month = apr,
  volume = 121,
  pages = {3100-3119},
  abstract = {{Expected changes to future extreme precipitation remain a key
uncertainty associated with anthropogenic climate change. Extreme
precipitation has been proposed to scale with the precipitable water
content in the atmosphere. Assuming constant relative humidity, this
implies an increase of precipitation extremes at a rate of about 7\%
{\deg}C$^{-1}$ globally as indicated by the Clausius-Clapeyron
relationship. Increases faster and slower than Clausius-Clapeyron have
also been reported. In this work, we examine the scaling between
precipitation extremes and temperature in the present climate using
simulations and measurements from surface weather stations collected in
the frame of the HyMeX and MED-CORDEX programs in Southern France. Of
particular interest are departures from the Clausius-Clapeyron
thermodynamic expectation, their spatial and temporal distribution, and
their origin. Looking at the scaling of precipitation extreme with
temperature, two regimes emerge which form a hook shape: one at low
temperatures (cooler than around 15{\deg}C) with rates of increase close
to the Clausius-Clapeyron rate and one at high temperatures (warmer than
about 15{\deg}C) with sub-Clausius-Clapeyron rates and most often
negative rates. On average, the region of focus does not seem to exhibit
super Clausius-Clapeyron behavior except at some stations, in contrast
to earlier studies. Many factors can contribute to departure from
Clausius-Clapeyron scaling: time and spatial averaging, choice of
scaling temperature (surface versus condensation level), and
precipitation efficiency and vertical velocity in updrafts that are not
necessarily constant with temperature. But most importantly, the
dynamical contribution of orography to precipitation in the fall over
this area during the so-called ``Cevenoles'' events, explains the hook
shape of the scaling of precipitation extremes.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/2015JD023497},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.3100D},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016ClDy..tmp..101O,
  author = {{Obermann}, A. and {Bastin}, S. and {Belamari}, S. and {Conte}, D. and 
	{Gaertner}, M.~A. and {Li}, L. and {Ahrens}, B.},
  title = {{Mistral and Tramontane wind speed and wind direction patterns in regional climate simulations}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Regional climate models, Evaluation, Model intercomparison, Mistral, Tramontane, Bayesian network},
  year = 2016,
  month = mar,
  abstract = {{The Mistral and Tramontane are important wind phenomena that occur over
southern France and the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Both winds
travel through constricting valleys before flowing out towards the
Mediterranean Sea. The Mistral and Tramontane are thus interesting
phenomena, and represent an opportunity to study channeling effects, as
well as the interactions between the atmosphere and land/ocean surfaces.
This study investigates Mistral and Tramontane simulations using five
regional climate models with grid spacing of about 50 km and smaller.
All simulations are driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis data. Spatial
patterns of surface wind, as well as wind development and error
propagation along the wind tracks from inland France to offshore during
Mistral and Tramontane events, are presented and discussed. To
disentangle the results from large-scale error sources in Mistral and
Tramontane simulations, only days with well simulated large-scale sea
level pressure field patterns are evaluated. Comparisons with the
observations show that the large-scale pressure patterns are well
simulated by the considered models, but the orographic modifications to
the wind systems are not well simulated by the coarse-grid simulations
(with a grid spacing of about 50 km), and are reproduced slightly better
by the higher resolution simulations. On days with Mistral and/or
Tramontane events, most simulations underestimate (by 13 \% on average)
the wind speed over the Mediterranean Sea. This effect is strongest at
the lateral borders of the main flow{\mdash}the flow width is
underestimated. All simulations of this study show a clockwise wind
direction bias over the sea during Mistral and Tramontane events.
Simulations with smaller grid spacing show smaller biases than their
coarse-grid counterparts.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-016-3053-3},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..101O},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016JGRD..121..607L,
  author = {{Lorenz}, R. and {Arg{\"u}eso}, D. and {Donat}, M.~G. and {Pitman}, A.~J. and 
	{van den Hurk}, B. and {Berg}, A. and {Lawrence}, D.~M. and 
	{Chéruy}, F. and {Ducharne}, A. and {Hagemann}, S. and {Meier}, A. and 
	{Milly}, P.~C.~D. and {Seneviratne}, S.~I.},
  title = {{Influence of land-atmosphere feedbacks on temperature and precipitation extremes in the GLACE-CMIP5 ensemble}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {temperature extremes, soil moisture variability, soil moisture trend, land-atmosphere feedbacks, GLACE-CMIP5, precipitation extremes},
  year = 2016,
  month = jan,
  volume = 121,
  pages = {607-623},
  abstract = {{We examine how soil moisture variability and trends affect the
simulation of temperature and precipitation extremes in six global
climate models using the experimental protocol of the Global
Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment of the Coupled Model Intercomparison
Project, Phase 5 (GLACE-CMIP5). This protocol enables separate
examinations of the influences of soil moisture variability and trends
on the intensity, frequency, and duration of climate extremes by the end
of the 21st century under a business-as-usual (Representative
Concentration Pathway 8.5) emission scenario. Removing soil moisture
variability significantly reduces temperature extremes over most
continental surfaces, while wet precipitation extremes are enhanced in
the tropics. Projected drying trends in soil moisture lead to increases
in intensity, frequency, and duration of temperature extremes by the end
of the 21st century. Wet precipitation extremes are decreased in the
tropics with soil moisture trends in the simulations, while dry extremes
are enhanced in some regions, in particular the Mediterranean and
Australia. However, the ensemble results mask considerable differences
in the soil moisture trends simulated by the six climate models. We find
that the large differences between the models in soil moisture trends,
which are related to an unknown combination of differences in
atmospheric forcing (precipitation, net radiation), flux partitioning at
the land surface, and how soil moisture is parameterized, imply
considerable uncertainty in future changes in climate extremes.
}},
  doi = {10.1002/2015JD024053},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121..607L},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016Icar..264..465M,
  author = {{Mulholland}, D.~P. and {Lewis}, S.~R. and {Read}, P.~L. and 
	{Madeleine}, J.-B. and {Forget}, F.},
  title = {{The solsticial pause on Mars: 2 modelling and investigation of causes}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  keywords = {Mars, atmosphere, climate, Atmospheres, dynamics},
  year = 2016,
  month = jan,
  volume = 264,
  pages = {465-477},
  abstract = {{The martian solsticial pause, presented in a companion paper (Lewis et
al., 2016), was investigated further through a series of model runs
using the UK version of the LMD/UK Mars Global Climate Model. It was
found that the pause could not be adequately reproduced if radiatively
active water ice clouds were omitted from the model. When clouds were
used, along with a realistic time-dependent dust opacity distribution, a
substantial minimum in near-surface transient eddy activity formed
around solstice in both hemispheres. The net effect of the clouds in the
model is, by altering the thermal structure of the atmosphere, to
decrease the vertical shear of the westerly jet near the surface around
solstice, and thus reduce baroclinic growth rates. A similar effect was
seen under conditions of large dust loading, implying that northern
midlatitude eddy activity will tend to become suppressed after a period
of intense flushing storm formation around the northern cap edge.
Suppression of baroclinic eddy generation by the barotropic component of
the flow and via diabatic eddy dissipation were also investigated as
possible mechanisms leading to the formation of the solsticial pause but
were found not to make major contributions. Zonal variations in
topography were found to be important, as their presence results in
weakened transient eddies around winter solstice in both hemispheres,
through modification of the near-surface flow. The zonal topographic
asymmetry appears to be the primary reason for the weakness of eddy
activity in the southern hemisphere relative to the northern hemisphere,
and the ultimate cause of the solsticial pause in both hemispheres. The
meridional topographic gradient was found to exert a much weaker
influence on near-surface transient eddies.
}},
  doi = {10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.038},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Icar..264..465M},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2016ClDy...46..291G,
  author = {{Gao}, J. and {Risi}, C. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and {He}, Y. and 
	{Xu}, B.},
  title = {{Southern Tibetan Plateau ice core {$\delta$}$^{18}$O reflects abrupt shifts in atmospheric circulation in the late 1970s}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 2016,
  month = jan,
  volume = 46,
  pages = {291-302},
  abstract = {{Ice cores from the Tibetan Plateau provide high-resolution records of
changes in the snow and ice isotopic composition. In the monsoon sector
of southern Tibetan Plateau, their climatic interpretation has been
controversial. Here, we present a new high-resolution
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O record obtained from 2206 measurements performed
at 2-3 cm depth resolution along a 55.1 m depth ice core retrieved from
the Noijinkansang glacier (NK, 5950 m a.s.l.) that spans the period from
1864 to 2006 AD. The data are characterized by high
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O values in the nineteenth century, 1910s and 1960s,
followed by a drop in the late 1970s and a recent increasing trend. The
comparison with regional meteorological data and with a simulation
performed with the LMDZiso general circulation model leads to the
attribution of the abrupt shift in the late 1970s predominantly to
changes in regional atmospheric circulation, together with the impact of
atmospheric temperature change. Correlation analyses suggest that the
large-scale modes of variability (PDO and ENSO, i.e. Pacific Decadal
Oscillation and El Nino-Southern Oscillation) play important roles in
modulating NK {$\delta$}$^{18}$O changes. The NK
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O minimum at the end of the 1970s coincides with a
PDO phase shift, an inflexion point of the zonal index (representing the
overall intensity of the surface westerly anomalies over middle
latitudes) as well as ENSO, implying interdecadal modulation of the
influence of the PDO/ENSO on the Indian monsoon on southern TP
precipitation {$\delta$}$^{18}$O. While convective activity above
North India controls the intra-seasonal variability of precipitation
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O in southern TP, other processes associated with
changes in large-scale atmospheric circulation act at the inter-annual
scale.
}},
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-015-2584-3},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...46..291G},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}