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  author = {{Vignon}, E. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Genthon}, C. and {Gallée}, H. and 
	{Bazile}, E. and {Lefebvre}, M.-P. and {Madeleine}, J.-B. and 
	{Van de Wiel}, B.~J.~H.},
  title = {{Antarctic boundary layer parametrization in a general circulation model: 1-D simulations facing summer observations at Dome C}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {physical parametrizations, Antarctic Plateau, GABLS4, atmospheric boundary layer, general circulation model},
  year = 2017,
  month = jul,
  volume = 122,
  pages = {6818-6843},
  abstract = {{The parametrization of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is critical
over the Antarctic Plateau for climate modelling since it affects the
climatological temperature inversion and the negatively buoyant
near-surface flow over the ice-sheet. This study challenges
state-of-the-art parametrizations used in general circulation models to
represent the clear-sky summertime diurnal cycle of the ABL at Dome C,
Antarctic Plateau. The Laboratoire de Météorologie
Dynamique-Zoom model is run in a 1-D configuration on the fourth Global
Energy and Water Cycle Exchanges Project Atmospheric Boundary Layers
Study case. Simulations are analyzed and compared to observations,
giving insights into the sensitivity of one model that participates to
the intercomparison exercise. Snow albedo and thermal inertia are
calibrated leading to better surface temperatures. Using the so-called
``thermal plume model'' improves the momentum mixing in the diurnal ABL.
In stable conditions, four turbulence schemes are tested. Best
simulations are those in which the turbulence cuts off above 35 m in the
middle of the night, highlighting the contribution of the longwave
radiation in the ABL heat budget. However, the nocturnal surface layer
is not stable enough to distinguish between surface fluxes computed with
different stability functions. The absence of subsidence in the forcings
and an underestimation of downward longwave radiation are identified to
be likely responsible for a cold bias in the nocturnal ABL. Apart from
model-specific improvements, the paper clarifies on which are the
critical aspects to improve in general circulation models to correctly
represent the summertime ABL over the Antarctic Plateau.
  doi = {10.1002/2017JD026802},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122.6818V},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Martin}, G.~M. and {Peyrillé}, P. and {Roehrig}, R. and 
	{Rio}, C. and {Caian}, M. and {Bellon}, G. and {Codron}, F. and 
	{Lafore}, J.-P. and {Poan}, D.~E. and {Idelkadi}, A.},
  title = {{Understanding the West African Monsoon from the analysis of diabatic heating distributions as simulated by climate models}},
  journal = {Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems},
  keywords = {diabatic, monsoon, West Africa, model},
  year = 2017,
  month = mar,
  volume = 9,
  pages = {239-270},
  abstract = {{Vertical and horizontal distributions of diabatic heating in the West
African monsoon (WAM) region as simulated by four model families are
analyzed in order to assess the physical processes that affect the WAM
circulation. For each model family, atmosphere-only runs of their CMIP5
configurations are compared with more recent configurations which are on
the development path toward CMIP6. The various configurations of these
models exhibit significant differences in their heating/moistening
profiles, related to the different representation of physical processes
such as boundary layer mixing, convection, large-scale condensation and
radiative heating/cooling. There are also significant differences in the
models' simulation of WAM rainfall patterns and circulations. The weaker
the radiative cooling in the Saharan region, the larger the ascent in
the rainband and the more intense the monsoon flow, while the latitude
of the rainband is related to heating in the Gulf of Guinea region and
on the northern side of the Saharan heat low. Overall, this work
illustrates the difficulty experienced by current climate models in
representing the characteristics of monsoon systems, but also that we
can still use them to understand the interactions between local subgrid
physical processes and the WAM circulation. Moreover, our conclusions
regarding the relationship between errors in the large-scale circulation
of the WAM and the structure of the heating by small-scale processes
will motivate future studies and model development.
  doi = {10.1002/2016MS000697},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAMES...9..239M},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Holloway}, C.~E. and {Wing}, A.~A. and {Bony}, S. and {Muller}, C. and 
	{Masunaga}, H. and {L'Ecuyer}, T.~S. and {Turner}, D.~D. and 
	{Zuidema}, P.},
  title = {{Observing Convective Aggregation}},
  journal = {Surveys in Geophysics},
  keywords = {Self-aggregation, Tropical convection, Convective organization, Climate sensitivity, Cloud feedback},
  year = 2017,
  month = nov,
  volume = 38,
  pages = {1199-1236},
  abstract = {{Convective self-aggregation, the spontaneous organization of initially
scattered convection into isolated convective clusters despite spatially
homogeneous boundary conditions and forcing, was first recognized and
studied in idealized numerical simulations. While there is a rich
history of observational work on convective clustering and organization,
there have been only a few studies that have analyzed observations to
look specifically for processes related to self-aggregation in models.
Here we review observational work in both of these categories and
motivate the need for more of this work. We acknowledge that
self-aggregation may appear to be far-removed from observed convective
organization in terms of time scales, initial conditions, initiation
processes, and mean state extremes, but we argue that these differences
vary greatly across the diverse range of model simulations in the
literature and that these comparisons are already offering important
insights into real tropical phenomena. Some preliminary new findings are
presented, including results showing that a self-aggregation simulation
with square geometry has too broad distribution of humidity and is too
dry in the driest regions when compared with radiosonde records from
Nauru, while an elongated channel simulation has realistic
representations of atmospheric humidity and its variability. We discuss
recent work increasing our understanding of how organized convection and
climate change may interact, and how model discrepancies related to this
question are prompting interest in observational comparisons. We also
propose possible future directions for observational work related to
convective aggregation, including novel satellite approaches and a
ground-based observational network.
  doi = {10.1007/s10712-017-9419-1},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SGeo...38.1199H},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Wang}, F. and {Ducharne}, A. and {Cheruy}, F. and {Lo}, M.-H. and 
	{Grandpeix}, J.-Y.},
  title = {{Impact of a shallow groundwater table on the global water cycle in the IPSL land-atmosphere coupled model}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Groundwater table, Land-atmosphere, Near surface climate, IPSL-CM, West African Monsoon},
  year = 2017,
  month = jul,
  abstract = {{The main objective of the present work is to study the impacts of water
table depth on the near surface climate and the physical mechanisms
responsible for these impacts through the analysis of land-atmosphere
coupled numerical simulations. The analysis is performed with the LMDZ
(standard physics) and ORCHIDEE models, which are the atmosphere-land
components of the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) Climate Model.
The results of sensitivity experiments with groundwater tables (WT)
prescribed at depths of 1 m (WTD1) and 2 m (WTD2) are compared to the
results of a reference simulation with free drainage from an unsaturated
2 m soil (REF). The response of the atmosphere to the prescribed WT is
mostly concentrated over land, and the largest differences in
precipitation and evaporation are found between REF and WTD1. Saturating
the bottom half of the soil in WTD1 induces a systematic increase of
soil moisture across the continents. Evapotranspiration (ET) increases
over water-limited regimes due to increased soil moisture, but it
decreases over energy-limited regimes due to the decrease in downwelling
radiation and the increase in cloud cover. The tropical
(25{\deg}S-25{\deg}N) and mid-latitude areas (25{\deg}N-60{\deg}N and
25{\deg}S-60{\deg}S) are significantly impacted by the WT, showing a
decrease in air temperature (-0.5 K over mid-latitudes and -1 K over
tropics) and an increase in precipitation. The latter can be explained
by more vigorous updrafts due to an increased meridional temperature
gradient between the equator and higher latitudes, which transports more
water vapour upward, causing a positive precipitation change in the
ascending branch. Over the West African Monsoon and Australian Monsoon
regions, the precipitation changes in both intensity (increases) and
location (poleward). The more intense convection and the change of the
large-scale dynamics are responsible for this change. Transition zones,
such as the Mediterranean area and central North America, are also
impacted, with strengthened convection resulting from increased ET.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-017-3820-9},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy..tmp..364W},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Voigt}, A. and {Pincus}, R. and {Stevens}, B. and {Bony}, S. and 
	{Boucher}, O. and {Bellouin}, N. and {Lewinschal}, A. and {Medeiros}, B. and 
	{Wang}, Z. and {Zhang}, H.},
  title = {{Fast and slow shifts of the zonal-mean intertropical convergence zone in response to an idealized anthropogenic aerosol}},
  journal = {Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems},
  keywords = {tropical rain belt, ITCZ, aerosol, energy transport},
  year = 2017,
  month = jun,
  volume = 9,
  pages = {870-892},
  abstract = {{Previous modeling work showed that aerosol can affect the position of
the tropical rain belt, i.e., the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ).
Yet it remains unclear which aspects of the aerosol impact are robust
across models, and which are not. Here we present simulations with seven
comprehensive atmosphere models that study the fast and slow impacts of
an idealized anthropogenic aerosol on the zonal-mean ITCZ position. The
fast impact, which results from aerosol atmospheric heating and land
cooling before sea-surface temperature (SST) has time to respond, causes
a northward ITCZ shift. Yet the fast impact is compensated locally by
decreased evaporation over the ocean, and a clear northward shift is
only found for an unrealistically large aerosol forcing. The local
compensation implies that while models differ in atmospheric aerosol
heating, this does not contribute to model differences in the ITCZ
shift. The slow impact includes the aerosol impact on the ocean surface
energy balance and is mediated by SST changes. The slow impact is an
order of magnitude more effective than the fast impact and causes a
clear southward ITCZ shift for realistic aerosol forcing. Models agree
well on the slow ITCZ shift when perturbed with the same SST pattern.
However, an energetic analysis suggests that the slow ITCZ shifts would
be substantially more model-dependent in interactive-SST setups due to
model differences in clear-sky radiative transfer and clouds. We also
discuss implications for the representation of aerosol in climate models
and attributions of recent observed ITCZ shifts to aerosol.
  doi = {10.1002/2016MS000902},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAMES...9..870V},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Chadwick}, R. and {Martin}, G.~M. and {Copsey}, D. and {Bellon}, G. and 
	{Caian}, M. and {Codron}, F. and {Rio}, C. and {Roehrig}, R.
  title = {{Examining the West African Monsoon circulation response to atmospheric heating in a GCM dynamical core}},
  journal = {Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems},
  keywords = {West African Monsoon, dynamical core, diabatic heating},
  year = 2017,
  month = mar,
  volume = 9,
  pages = {149-167},
  abstract = {{Diabatic heating plays a crucial role in the formation and maintenance
of the West African Monsoon. A dynamical core configuration of a General
Circulation Model (GCM) is used to test the influence of diabatic
heating from different sources and regions on the strength and northward
penetration of the monsoon circulation. The dynamical core is able to
capture the main features of the monsoon flow, and when forced with
heating tendencies from various different GCMs it recreates many of the
differences seen between the full GCM monsoon circulations. Differences
in atmospheric short-wave absorption over the Sahara and Sahel regions
are a key driver of variation in the models' monsoon circulations, and
this is likely to be linked to how aerosols, clouds and surface albedo
are represented across the models. The magnitude of short-wave
absorption also appears to affect the strength and position of the
African easterly jet (AEJ), but not that of the tropical easterly jet
(TEJ). The dynamical core is also used here to understand circulation
changes that occur during the ongoing model development process that
occurs at each modeling centre, providing the potential to trace these
changes to specific alterations in model physics.
  doi = {10.1002/2016MS000728},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAMES...9..149C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Hourdin}, F. and {Mauritsen}, T. and {Gettelman}, A. and {Golaz}, J.-C. and 
	{Balaji}, V. and {Duan}, Q. and {Folini}, D. and {Ji}, D. and 
	{Klocke}, D. and {Qian}, Y. and {Rauser}, F. and {Rio}, C. and 
	{Tomassini}, L. and {Watanabe}, M. and {Williamson}, D.},
  title = {{The Art and Science of Climate Model Tuning}},
  journal = {Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society},
  year = 2017,
  month = mar,
  volume = 98,
  pages = {589-602},
  doi = {10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00135.1},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017BAMS...98..589H},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Gaetani}, M. and {Flamant}, C. and {Bastin}, S. and {Janicot}, S. and 
	{Lavaysse}, C. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Braconnot}, P. and {Bony}, S.
  title = {{West African monsoon dynamics and precipitation: the competition between global SST warming and CO$_{2}$ increase in CMIP5 idealized simulations}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 2017,
  month = feb,
  volume = 48,
  pages = {1353-1373},
  abstract = {{Climate variability associated with the West African monsoon (WAM) has
important environmental and socio-economic impacts in the region.
However, state-of-the-art climate models still struggle in producing
reliable climate predictions. An important cause of this low predictive
skill is the sensitivity of climate models to different forcings. In
this study, the mechanisms linking the WAM dynamics to the
CO$_{2}$ forcing are investigated, by comparing the effect of the
CO$_{2}$ direct radiative effect with its indirect effect mediated
by the global sea surface warming. The July-to-September WAM variability
is studied in climate simulations extracted from the Coupled Model
Intercomparison Project Phase 5 archive, driven by prescribed sea
surface temperature (SST). The individual roles of global SST warming
and CO$_{2}$ atmospheric concentration increase are investigated
through idealized experiments simulating a 4 K warmer SST and a
quadrupled CO$_{2}$ concentration, respectively. Results show
opposite and competing responses in the WAM dynamics and precipitation.
A dry response (-0.6 mm/day) to the SST warming is simulated in the
Sahel, with dryer conditions over western Sahel (-0.8 mm/day).
Conversely, the CO$_{2}$ increase produces wet conditions (+0.5
mm/day) in the Sahel, with the strongest response over central-eastern
Sahel (+0.7 mm/day). The associated responses in the atmospheric
dynamics are also analysed, showing that the SST warming affects the
Sahelian precipitation through modifications in the global tropical
atmospheric dynamics, reducing the importance of the regional drivers,
while the CO$_{2}$ increase reinforces the coupling between
precipitation and regional dynamics. A general agreement in model
responses demonstrates the robustness of the identified mechanisms
linking the WAM dynamics to the CO$_{2}$ direct and indirect
forcing, and indicates that these primary mechanisms are captured by
climate models. Results also suggest that the spread in future
projections may be caused by unbalanced model responses to the
CO$_{2}$ direct and indirect forcing.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-016-3146-z},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy...48.1353G},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Bony}, S. and {Stevens}, B. and {Ament}, F. and {Bigorre}, S. and 
	{Chazette}, P. and {Crewell}, S. and {Delanoë}, J. and {Emanuel}, K. and 
	{Farrell}, D. and {Flamant}, C. and {Gross}, S. and {Hirsch}, L. and 
	{Karstensen}, J. and {Mayer}, B. and {Nuijens}, L. and {Ruppert}, J.~H. and 
	{Sandu}, I. and {Siebesma}, P. and {Speich}, S. and {Szczap}, F. and 
	{Totems}, J. and {Vogel}, R. and {Wendisch}, M. and {Wirth}, M.
  title = {{EUREC$^{4}$A: A Field Campaign to Elucidate the Couplings Between Clouds, Convection and Circulation}},
  journal = {Surveys in Geophysics},
  keywords = {Trade-wind cumulus, Shallow convection, Cloud feedback, Atmospheric circulation, Field campaign},
  year = 2017,
  month = nov,
  volume = 38,
  pages = {1529-1568},
  abstract = {{Trade-wind cumuli constitute the cloud type with the highest frequency
of occurrence on Earth, and it has been shown that their sensitivity to
changing environmental conditions will critically influence the
magnitude and pace of future global warming. Research over the last
decade has pointed out the importance of the interplay between clouds,
convection and circulation in controling this sensitivity. Numerical
models represent this interplay in diverse ways, which translates into
different responses of trade-cumuli to climate perturbations. Climate
models predict that the area covered by shallow cumuli at cloud base is
very sensitive to changes in environmental conditions, while process
models suggest the opposite. To understand and resolve this
contradiction, we propose to organize a field campaign aimed at
quantifying the physical properties of trade-cumuli (e.g., cloud
fraction and water content) as a function of the large-scale
environment. Beyond a better understanding of clouds-circulation
coupling processes, the campaign will provide a reference data set that
may be used as a benchmark for advancing the modelling and the satellite
remote sensing of clouds and circulation. It will also be an opportunity
for complementary investigations such as evaluating model convective
parameterizations or studying the role of ocean mesoscale eddies in
air-sea interactions and convective organization.
  doi = {10.1007/s10712-017-9428-0},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SGeo...38.1529B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Vial}, J. and {Bony}, S. and {Stevens}, B. and {Vogel}, R.},
  title = {{Mechanisms and Model Diversity of Trade-Wind Shallow Cumulus Cloud Feedbacks: A Review}},
  journal = {Surveys in Geophysics},
  keywords = {Climate sensitivity, Global climate models, High-resolution models, Low-cloud feedbacks, Observations, Single-column models, Trade-wind shallow cumulus clouds},
  year = 2017,
  month = nov,
  volume = 38,
  pages = {1331-1353},
  abstract = {{Shallow cumulus clouds in the trade-wind regions are at the heart of the
long standing uncertainty in climate sensitivity estimates. In current
climate models, cloud feedbacks are strongly influenced by cloud-base
cloud amount in the trades. Therefore, understanding the key factors
controlling cloudiness near cloud-base in shallow convective regimes has
emerged as an important topic of investigation. We review physical
understanding of these key controlling factors and discuss the value of
the different approaches that have been developed so far, based on
global and high-resolution model experimentations and process-oriented
analyses across a range of models and for observations. The trade-wind
cloud feedbacks appear to depend on two important aspects: (1) how
cloudiness near cloud-base is controlled by the local interplay between
turbulent, convective and radiative processes; (2) how these processes
interact with their surrounding environment and are influenced by
mesoscale organization. Our synthesis of studies that have explored
these aspects suggests that the large diversity of model responses is
related to fundamental differences in how the processes controlling
trade cumulus operate in models, notably, whether they are parameterized
or resolved. In models with parameterized convection, cloudiness near
cloud-base is very sensitive to the vigor of convective mixing in
response to changes in environmental conditions. This is in contrast
with results from high-resolution models, which suggest that cloudiness
near cloud-base is nearly invariant with warming and independent of
large-scale environmental changes. Uncertainties are difficult to narrow
using current observations, as the trade cumulus variability and its
relation to large-scale environmental factors strongly depend on the
time and/or spatial scales at which the mechanisms are evaluated. New
opportunities for testing physical understanding of the factors
controlling shallow cumulus cloud responses using observations and
high-resolution modeling on large domains are discussed.
  doi = {10.1007/s10712-017-9418-2},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SGeo...38.1331V},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Zuidema}, P. and {Torri}, G. and {Muller}, C. and {Chandra}, A.
  title = {{A Survey of Precipitation-Induced Atmospheric Cold Pools over Oceans and Their Interactions with the Larger-Scale Environment}},
  journal = {Surveys in Geophysics},
  keywords = {Convective cold pools, Tropical convection, Shallow cumulus convection},
  year = 2017,
  month = nov,
  volume = 38,
  pages = {1283-1305},
  abstract = {{Pools of air cooled by partial rain evaporation span up to several
hundreds of kilometers in nature and typically last less than 1 day,
ultimately losing their identity to the large-scale flow. These
fundamentally differ in character from the radiatively-driven dry pools
defining convective aggregation. Advancement in remote sensing and in
computer capabilities has promoted exploration of how
precipitation-induced cold pool processes modify the convective spectrum
and life cycle. This contribution surveys current understanding of such
cold pools over the tropical and subtropical oceans. In shallow
convection with low rain rates, the cold pools moisten, preserving the
near-surface equivalent potential temperature or increasing it if the
surface moisture fluxes cannot ventilate beyond the new surface layer;
both conditions indicate downdraft origin air from within the boundary
layer. When rain rates exceed {\tilde} 2 mm h\^{}$\{$-1$\}$, convective-scale
downdrafts can bring down drier air of lower equivalent potential
temperature from above the boundary layer. The resulting density
currents facilitate the lifting of locally thermodynamically favorable
air and can impose an arc-shaped mesoscale cloud organization. This
organization allows clouds capable of reaching 4-5 km within otherwise
dry environments. These are more commonly observed in the northern
hemisphere trade wind regime, where the flow to the intertropical
convergence zone is unimpeded by the equator. Their near-surface air
properties share much with those shown from cold pools sampled in the
equatorial Indian Ocean. Cold pools are most effective at influencing
the mesoscale organization when the atmosphere is moist in the lower
free troposphere and dry above, suggesting an optimal range of water
vapor paths. Outstanding questions on the relationship between cold
pools, their accompanying moisture distribution and cloud cover are
detailed further. Near-surface water vapor rings are documented in one
model inside but near the cold pool edge; these are not consistent with
observations, but do improve with smaller horizontal grid spacings.
  doi = {10.1007/s10712-017-9447-x},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SGeo...38.1283Z},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Wing}, A.~A. and {Emanuel}, K. and {Holloway}, C.~E. and {Muller}, C.
  title = {{Convective Self-Aggregation in Numerical Simulations: A Review}},
  journal = {Surveys in Geophysics},
  keywords = {Self-aggregation, Convective organization, Radiative-convective equilibrium, Convective processes, Tropical convection, Idealized modeling},
  year = 2017,
  month = nov,
  volume = 38,
  pages = {1173-1197},
  abstract = {{Organized convection in the tropics occurs across a range of spatial and
temporal scales and strongly influences cloud cover and humidity. One
mode of organization found is ``self-aggregation,'' in which moist
convection spontaneously organizes into one or several isolated clusters
despite spatially homogeneous boundary conditions and forcing.
Self-aggregation is driven by interactions between clouds, moisture,
radiation, surface fluxes, and circulation, and occurs in a wide variety
of idealized simulations of radiative-convective equilibrium. Here we
provide a review of convective self-aggregation in numerical
simulations, including its character, causes, and effects. We describe
the evolution of self-aggregation including its time and length scales
and the physical mechanisms leading to its triggering and maintenance,
and we also discuss possible links to climate and climate change.
  doi = {10.1007/s10712-017-9408-4},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SGeo...38.1173W},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Pincus}, R. and {Winker}, D. and {Bony}, S. and {Stevens}, B.
  title = {{Preface to the Special Issue ``ISSI Workshop on Shallow Clouds and Water Vapor, Circulation and Climate Sensitivity''}},
  journal = {Surveys in Geophysics},
  year = 2017,
  month = nov,
  volume = 38,
  pages = {1171-1172},
  doi = {10.1007/s10712-017-9441-3},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SGeo...38.1171P},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Malavelle}, F.~F. and {Haywood}, J.~M. and {Jones}, A. and 
	{Gettelman}, A. and {Clarisse}, L. and {Bauduin}, S. and {Allan}, R.~P. and 
	{Karset}, I.~H.~H. and {Kristj{\'a}nsson}, J.~E. and {Oreopoulos}, L. and 
	{Cho}, N. and {Lee}, D. and {Bellouin}, N. and {Boucher}, O. and 
	{Grosvenor}, D.~P. and {Carslaw}, K.~S. and {Dhomse}, S. and 
	{Mann}, G.~W. and {Schmidt}, A. and {Coe}, H. and {Hartley}, M.~E. and 
	{Dalvi}, M. and {Hill}, A.~A. and {Johnson}, B.~T. and {Johnson}, C.~E. and 
	{Knight}, J.~R. and {O'Connor}, F.~M. and {Partridge}, D.~G. and 
	{Stier}, P. and {Myhre}, G. and {Platnick}, S. and {Stephens}, G.~L. and 
	{Takahashi}, H. and {Thordarson}, T.},
  title = {{Erratum: Strong constraints on aerosol-cloud interactions from volcanic eruptions}},
  journal = {\nat},
  year = 2017,
  month = nov,
  volume = 551,
  pages = {256},
  doi = {10.1038/nature24275},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Natur.551..256M},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Stjern}, C.~W. and {Samset}, B.~H. and {Myhre}, G. and {Forster}, P.~M. and 
	{Hodnebrog}, {\O}. and {Andrews}, T. and {Boucher}, O. and {Faluvegi}, G. and 
	{Iversen}, T. and {Kasoar}, M. and {Kharin}, V. and {Kirkev{\^a}g}, A. and 
	{Lamarque}, J.-F. and {Olivié}, D. and {Richardson}, T. and 
	{Shawki}, D. and {Shindell}, D. and {Smith}, C.~J. and {Takemura}, T. and 
	{Voulgarakis}, A.},
  title = {{Rapid Adjustments Cause Weak Surface Temperature Response to Increased Black Carbon Concentrations}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {black carbon, rapid adjustments, climate, semidirect},
  year = 2017,
  month = nov,
  volume = 122,
  number = d11,
  pages = {11},
  abstract = {{We investigate the climate response to increased concentrations of black
carbon (BC), as part of the Precipitation Driver Response Model
Intercomparison Project (PDRMIP). A tenfold increase in BC is simulated
by nine global coupled-climate models, producing a model median
effective radiative forcing of 0.82 (ranging from 0.41 to 2.91) W
m$^{-2}$, and a warming of 0.67 (0.16 to 1.66) K globally and 1.24
(0.26 to 4.31) K in the Arctic. A strong positive instantaneous
radiative forcing (median of 2.10 W m$^{-2}$ based on five of the
models) is countered by negative rapid adjustments (-0.64 W
m$^{-2}$ for the same five models), which dampen the total surface
temperature signal. Unlike other drivers of climate change, the response
of temperature and cloud profiles to the BC forcing is dominated by
rapid adjustments. Low-level cloud amounts increase for all models,
while higher-level clouds are diminished. The rapid temperature response
is particularly strong above 400 hPa, where increased atmospheric
stabilization and reduced cloud cover contrast the response pattern of
the other drivers. In conclusion, we find that this substantial increase
in BC concentrations does have considerable impacts on important aspects
of the climate system. However, some of these effects tend to offset one
another, leaving a relatively small median global warming of 0.47 K per
W m$^{-2}${\mdash}about 20\% lower than the response to a doubling
of CO$_{2}$. Translating the tenfold increase in BC to the
present-day impact of anthropogenic BC (given the emissions used in this
work) would leave a warming of merely 0.07 K.
  doi = {10.1002/2017JD027326},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..12211462S},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Boucher}, O. and {Kleinschmitt}, C. and {Myhre}, G.},
  title = {{Quasi-Additivity of the Radiative Effects of Marine Cloud Brightening and Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosol Injection}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {stratospheric aerosol injection, marine cloud brightening, effective radiative forcing, geoengineering},
  year = 2017,
  month = nov,
  volume = 44,
  pages = {11},
  abstract = {{Stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection (SAI) and marine cloud
brightening (MCB) are the two most studied solar radiation management
techniques. For the first time we combine them in a climate model to
investigate their complementarity in terms of both instantaneous and
effective radiative forcings. The effective radiative forcing induced by
SAI is significantly stronger than its instantaneous counterpart
evaluated at the top of atmosphere. Radiative kernel calculations
indicate that this occurs because of a significant stratospheric warming
and despite a large increase in stratospheric water vapor that
strengthens the greenhouse effect. There is also a large decrease in
high-level cloudiness induced by a stratification of the upper
tropopause. Our model experiments also show that the radiative effects
of SAI and MCB are quasi-additive and have fairly complementary patterns
in the Tropics. This results in less spatial and temporal variability in
the radiative forcing for combined SAI and MCB as compared to MCB alone.
  doi = {10.1002/2017GL074647},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..4411158B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Lavergne}, A. and {Gennaretti}, F. and {Risi}, C. and {Daux}, V. and 
	{Boucher}, E. and {Savard}, M.~M. and {Naulier}, M. and {Villalba}, R. and 
	{Bégin}, C. and {Guiot}, J.},
  title = {{Modelling tree ring cellulose {$\delta$}$^{18}$O variations in two temperature-sensitive tree species from North and South America}},
  journal = {Climate of the Past},
  year = 2017,
  month = nov,
  volume = 13,
  pages = {1515-1526},
  abstract = {{Oxygen isotopes in tree rings ({$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{TR}$) are
widely used to reconstruct past climates. However, the complexity of
climatic and biological processes controlling isotopic fractionation is
not yet fully understood. Here, we use the MAIDENiso model to decipher
the variability in {$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{TR}$ of two
temperature-sensitive species of relevant palaeoclimatological interest
(Picea mariana and Nothofagus pumilio) and growing at cold high
latitudes in North and South America. In this first modelling study on
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{TR}$ values in both northeastern Canada
(53.86{\deg} N) and western Argentina (41.10{\deg} S), we specifically aim
at (1) evaluating the predictive skill of MAIDENiso to simulate
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{TR}$ values, (2) identifying the physical
processes controlling {$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{TR}$ by mechanistic
modelling and (3) defining the origin of the temperature signal recorded
in the two species. Although the linear regression models used here to
predict daily {$\delta$}$^{18}$O of precipitation
({$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{P}$) may need to be improved in the
future, the resulting daily {$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{P}$ values
adequately reproduce observed (from weather stations) and simulated (by
global circulation model) {$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{P}$ series. The
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{TR}$ values of the two species are
correctly simulated using the {$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{P}$
estimation as MAIDENiso input, although some offset in mean
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{TR}$ levels is observed for the South
American site. For both species, the variability in
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{TR}$ series is primarily linked to the
effect of temperature on isotopic enrichment of the leaf water. We show
that MAIDENiso is a powerful tool for investigating isotopic
fractionation processes but that the lack of a denser isotope-enabled
monitoring network recording oxygen fractionation in the
soil-vegetation-atmosphere compartments limits our capacity to decipher
the processes at play. This study proves that the eco-physiological
modelling of {$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{TR}$ values is necessary to
interpret the recorded climate signal more reliably.
  doi = {10.5194/cp-13-1515-2017},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CliPa..13.1515L},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Grazioli}, J. and {Madeleine}, J.-B. and {Gallée}, H. and 
	{Forbes}, R.~M. and {Genthon}, C. and {Krinner}, G. and {Berne}, A.
  title = {{Katabatic winds diminish precipitation contribution to the Antarctic ice mass balance}},
  journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Science},
  keywords = {Antarctica, precipitation sublimation, katabatic wind},
  year = 2017,
  month = oct,
  volume = 114,
  pages = {10858-10863},
  abstract = {{Snowfall in Antarctica is a key term of the ice sheet mass budget that
influences the sea level at global scale. Over the continental margins,
persistent katabatic winds blow all year long and supply the lower
troposphere with unsaturated air. We show that this dry air leads to
significant low-level sublimation of snowfall. We found using
unprecedented data collected over 1 year on the coast of Adélie
Land and simulations from different atmospheric models that low-level
sublimation accounts for a 17\% reduction of total snowfall over the
continent and up to 35\% on the margins of East Antarctica, significantly
affecting satellite-based estimations close to the ground. Our findings
suggest that, as climate warming progresses, this process will be
enhanced and will limit expected precipitation increases at the ground
  doi = {10.1073/pnas.1707633114},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PNAS..11410858G},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Neggers}, R.~A.~J. and {Ackerman}, A.~S. and {Angevine}, W.~M. and 
	{Bazile}, E. and {Beau}, I. and {Blossey}, P.~N. and {Boutle}, I.~A. and 
	{de Bruijn}, C. and {Cheng}, A. and {van der Dussen}, J. and 
	{Fletcher}, J. and {Dal Gesso}, S. and {Jam}, A. and {Kawai}, H. and 
	{Cheedela}, S.~K. and {Larson}, V.~E. and {Lefebvre}, M.-P. and 
	{Lock}, A.~P. and {Meyer}, N.~R. and {de Roode}, S.~R. and {de Rooy}, W. and 
	{Sandu}, I. and {Xiao}, H. and {Xu}, K.-M.},
  title = {{Single-Column Model Simulations of Subtropical Marine Boundary-Layer Cloud Transitions Under Weakening Inversions}},
  journal = {Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems},
  keywords = {cloud transition, boundary layer, single column models, large eddy simulation, intercomparison, parameterization},
  year = 2017,
  month = oct,
  volume = 9,
  pages = {2385-2412},
  abstract = {{Results are presented of the GASS/EUCLIPSE single-column model
intercomparison study on the subtropical marine low-level cloud
transition. A central goal is to establish the performance of
state-of-the-art boundary-layer schemes for weather and climate models
for this cloud regime, using large-eddy simulations of the same scenes
as a reference. A novelty is that the comparison covers four different
cases instead of one, in order to broaden the covered parameter space.
Three cases are situated in the North-Eastern Pacific, while one
reflects conditions in the North-Eastern Atlantic. A set of variables is
considered that reflects key aspects of the transition process, making
use of simple metrics to establish the model performance. Using this
method, some longstanding problems in low-level cloud representation are
identified. Considerable spread exists among models concerning the cloud
amount, its vertical structure, and the associated impact on radiative
transfer. The sign and amplitude of these biases differ somewhat per
case, depending on how far the transition has progressed. After cloud
breakup the ensemble median exhibits the well-known ``too few too bright''
problem. The boundary-layer deepening rate and its state of decoupling
are both underestimated, while the representation of the thin capping
cloud layer appears complicated by a lack of vertical resolution.
Encouragingly, some models are successful in representing the full set
of variables, in particular, the vertical structure and diurnal cycle of
the cloud layer in transition. An intriguing result is that the median
of the model ensemble performs best, inspiring a new approach in subgrid
  doi = {10.1002/2017MS001064},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAMES...9.2385N},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Spiga}, A. and {Hinson}, D.~P. and {Madeleine}, J.-B. and {Navarro}, T. and 
	{Millour}, E. and {Forget}, F. and {Montmessin}, F.},
  title = {{Snow precipitation on Mars driven by cloud-induced night-time convection}},
  journal = {Nature Geoscience},
  year = 2017,
  month = sep,
  volume = 10,
  pages = {652-657},
  abstract = {{Although it contains less water vapour than Earth's atmosphere, the
Martian atmosphere hosts clouds. These clouds, composed of water-ice
particles, influence the global transport of water vapour and the
seasonal variations of ice deposits. However, the influence of water-ice
clouds on local weather is unclear: it is thought that Martian clouds
are devoid of moist convective motions, and snow precipitation occurs
only by the slow sedimentation of individual particles. Here we present
numerical simulations of the meteorology in Martian cloudy regions that
demonstrate that localized convective snowstorms can occur on Mars. We
show that such snowstorms--or ice microbursts--can explain deep
night-time mixing layers detected from orbit and precipitation
signatures detected below water-ice clouds by the Phoenix lander. In our
simulations, convective snowstorms occur only during the Martian night,
and result from atmospheric instability due to radiative cooling of
water-ice cloud particles. This triggers strong convective plumes within
and below clouds, with fast snow precipitation resulting from the
vigorous descending currents. Night-time convection in Martian water-ice
clouds and the associated snow precipitation lead to transport of water
both above and below the mixing layers, and thus would affect Mars'
water cycle past and present, especially under the high-obliquity
conditions associated with a more intense water cycle.
  doi = {10.1038/ngeo3008},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatGe..10..652S},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Guilpart}, E. and {Vimeux}, F. and {Evan}, S. and {Brioude}, J. and 
	{Metzger}, J.-M. and {Barthe}, C. and {Risi}, C. and {Cattani}, O.
  title = {{The isotopic composition of near-surface water vapor at the Ma{\"i}do observatory (Reunion Island, southwestern Indian Ocean) documents the controls of the humidity of the subtropical troposphere}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {water stable isotopes, water vapor, air masses mixing, atmospheric boundary layer, large-scale subsidence, Reunion Island},
  year = 2017,
  month = sep,
  volume = 122,
  pages = {9628-9650},
  abstract = {{We present a 1 year long record of the isotopic composition of
near-surface water vapor ({$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{v}$) at the
Ma{\"i}do atmospheric observatory (Reunion Island, Indian Ocean,
22{\deg}S, 55{\deg}E) from 1 November 2014 to 31 October 2015, using
wavelength-scanned cavity ring down spectroscopy. Except during cyclone
periods where {$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{v}$ is highly depleted
(-20.5{\permil}), a significant diurnal variability can be seen on both
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{v}$ and q$_{v}$ with enriched
(depleted) water vapor (mean {$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{v}$ is
-13.4{\permil} (-16.6{\permil})) and moist (dry) conditions (mean
q$_{v}$ is 9.7 g/kg (6.4 g/kg)) during daytime (nighttime). We
show that {$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{v}$ diurnal cycle arises from
mixing processes for 65\% of cases with two distinct sources of water
vapor. We suggest that {$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{v}$ diurnal cycle
is controlled by an interplay of thermally driven land-sea breezes and
upslope-downslope flows, bringing maritime air to the observatory during
daytime, whereas at night, the observatory is above the atmospheric
boundary layer and samples free tropospheric air. Interestingly,
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{v}$ record also shows that some nights
(15\%) are extremely depleted (mean {$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{v}$ is
-21.4{\permil}). They are among the driest of the record (mean
q$_{v}$ is 2.9 g/kg). Based on different modeling studies, we
suggest that extreme nocturnal isotopic depletions are caused by
large-scale atmospheric transport and subsidence of dry air masses from
the upper troposphere to the surface, induced by the subtropical
westerly jet.
  doi = {10.1002/2017JD026791},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122.9628G},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Kleinschmitt}, C. and {Boucher}, O. and {Bekki}, S. and {Lott}, F. and 
	{Platt}, U.},
  title = {{The Sectional Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosol module (S3A-v1) within the LMDZ general circulation model: description and evaluation against stratospheric aerosol observations}},
  journal = {Geoscientific Model Development},
  year = 2017,
  month = sep,
  volume = 10,
  pages = {3359-3378},
  abstract = {{Stratospheric aerosols play an important role in the climate system by
affecting the Earth's radiative budget as well as atmospheric chemistry,
and the capabilities to simulate them interactively within global models
are continuously improving. It is important to represent accurately both
aerosol microphysical and atmospheric dynamical processes because
together they affect the size distribution and the residence time of the
aerosol particles in the stratosphere. The newly developed LMDZ-S3A
model presented in this article uses a sectional approach for sulfate
particles in the stratosphere and includes the relevant microphysical
processes. It allows full interaction between aerosol radiative effects
(e.g. radiative heating) and atmospheric dynamics, including e.g. an
internally generated quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in the
stratosphere. Sulfur chemistry is semi-prescribed via climatological
lifetimes. LMDZ-S3A reasonably reproduces aerosol observations in
periods of low (background) and high (volcanic) stratospheric sulfate
loading, but tends to overestimate the number of small particles and to
underestimate the number of large particles. Thus, it may serve as a
tool to study the climate impacts of volcanic eruptions, as well as the
deliberate anthropogenic injection of aerosols into the stratosphere,
which has been proposed as a method of geoengineering to abate global
  doi = {10.5194/gmd-10-3359-2017},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GMD....10.3359K},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Rousseau}, D.-D. and {Svensson}, A. and {Bigler}, M. and {Sima}, A. and 
	{Steffensen}, J.~P. and {Boers}, N.},
  title = {{Eurasian contribution to the last glacial dust cycle: how are loess sequences built?}},
  journal = {Climate of the Past},
  year = 2017,
  month = sep,
  volume = 13,
  pages = {1181-1197},
  abstract = {{The last 130 000 years have been marked by pronounced millennial-scale
climate variability, which strongly impacted the terrestrial
environments of the Northern Hemisphere, especially at middle latitudes.
Identifying the trigger of these variations, which are most likely
associated with strong couplings between the ocean and the atmosphere,
still remains a key question. Here, we show that the analysis of
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O and dust in the Greenland ice cores, and a
critical study of their source variations, reconciles these records with
those observed on the Eurasian continent. We demonstrate the link
between European and Chinese loess sequences, dust records in Greenland,
and variations in the North Atlantic sea ice extent. The sources of the
emitted and transported dust material are variable and relate to
different environments corresponding to present desert areas, but also
hidden regions related to lower sea level stands, dry rivers, or zones
close to the frontal moraines of the main Northern Hemisphere ice
sheets. We anticipate our study to be at the origin of more
sophisticated and elaborated investigations of millennial and
sub-millennial continental climate variability in the Northern
  doi = {10.5194/cp-13-1181-2017},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CliPa..13.1181R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{May}, W. and {Rummukainen}, M. and {Chéruy}, F. and {Hagemann}, S. and 
	{Meier}, A.},
  title = {{Contributions of soil moisture interactions to future precipitation changes in the GLACE-CMIP5 experiment}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Climate change, Soil moisture, Soil moisture-precipitation coupling, Frequency of wet days, Intensity of daily precipitation, Wet spells, Dry spells},
  year = 2017,
  month = sep,
  volume = 49,
  pages = {1681-1704},
  abstract = {{Changes in soil moisture are likely to contribute to future changes in
latent heat flux and various characteristics of daily precipitation.
Such contributions during the second half of the twenty-first century
are assessed using the simulations from the GLACE-CMIP5 experiment,
applying a linear regression analysis to determine the magnitude of
these contributions. As characteristics of daily precipitation, mean
daily precipitation, the frequency of wet days and the intensity of
precipitation on wet days are considered. Also, the frequency and length
of extended wet and dry spells are studied. Particular focus is on the
regional (for nine selected regions) as well as seasonal variations in
the magnitude of the contributions of the projected differences in soil
moisture to the future changes in latent heat flux and in the
characteristics of daily precipitation. The results reveal the overall
tendency that the projected differences in soil moisture contribute to
the future changes in response to the anthropogenic climate forcing for
all the meteorological variables considered here. These contributions
are stronger and more robust (i.e., there are smaller deviations between
individual climate models) for the latent heat flux than for the
characteristics of daily precipitation. It is also found that the
contributions of the differences in soil moisture to the future changes
are generally stronger and more robust for the frequency of wet days
than for the intensity of daily precipitation. Consistent with the
contributions of the projected differences in soil moisture to the
future changes in the frequency of wet days, soil moisture generally
contributes to the future changes in the characteristics of wet and dry
spells. The magnitude of these contributions does not differ
systematically between the frequency and the length of such extended
spells, but the contributions are generally slightly stronger for dry
spells than for wet spells. Distinguishing between the nine selected
regions and between the different seasons, it is found that the strength
of the contributions of the differences in soil moisture to the future
changes in the various meteorological variables varies by region and, in
particular, by season. Similarly, the robustness of these contributions
varies between the regions and in the course of the year. The importance
of soil moisture changes for the future changes in various aspects of
daily precipitation and other aspects of the hydrological cycle
illustrates the need for a comprehensive and realistic representation of
land surface processes and of land surface conditions in climate models.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-016-3408-9},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy...49.1681M},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Grazioli}, J. and {Genthon}, C. and {Boudevillain}, B. and 
	{Duran-Alarcon}, C. and {Del Guasta}, M. and {Madeleine}, J.-B. and 
	{Berne}, A.},
  title = {{Measurements of precipitation in Dumont d'Urville, Adélie Land, East Antarctica}},
  journal = {The Cryosphere},
  year = 2017,
  month = aug,
  volume = 11,
  pages = {1797-1811},
  abstract = {{The first results of a campaign of intensive observation of
precipitation in Dumont d'Urville, Antarctica, are presented. Several
instruments collected data from November 2015 to February 2016 or
longer, including a polarimetric radar (MXPol), a Micro Rain Radar
(MRR), a weighing gauge (Pluvio$^{2}$), and a Multi-Angle
Snowflake Camera (MASC). These instruments collected the first
ground-based measurements of precipitation in the region of
Adélie Land (Terre Adélie), including precipitation
microphysics. Microphysical observations during the austral summer
2015/2016 showed that, close to the ground level, aggregates are the
dominant hydrometeor type, together with small ice particles (mostly
originating from blowing snow), and that riming is a recurring process.
Eleven percent of the measured particles were fully developed graupel,
and aggregates had a mean riming degree of about 30 \%. Spurious
precipitation in the Pluvio$^{2}$ measurements in windy
conditions, leading to phantom accumulations, is observed and partly
removed through synergistic use of MRR data. The yearly accumulated
precipitation of snow (300 m above ground), obtained by means of a local
conversion relation of MRR data, trained on the Pluvio$^{2}$
measurement of the summer period, is estimated to be 815 mm of water
equivalent, with a confidence interval ranging between 739.5 and 989 mm.
Data obtained in previous research from satellite-borne radars, and the
ERA-Interim reanalysis of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather
Forecasts (ECMWF) provide lower yearly totals: 655 mm for ERA-Interim
and 679 mm for the climatological data over DDU. ERA-Interim
overestimates the occurrence of low-intensity precipitation events
especially in summer, but it compensates for them by underestimating the
snowfall amounts carried by the most intense events. Overall, this paper
provides insightful examples of the added values of precipitation
monitoring in Antarctica with a synergistic use of in situ and remote
sensing measurements.
  doi = {10.5194/tc-11-1797-2017},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017TCry...11.1797G},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Sitzia}, L. and {Bertran}, P. and {Sima}, A. and {Chery}, P. and 
	{Queffelec}, A. and {Rousseau}, D.-D.},
  title = {{Dynamics and sources of last glacial aeolian deposition in southwest France derived from dune patterns, grain-size gradients and geochemistry, and reconstruction of efficient wind directions}},
  journal = {Quaternary Science Reviews},
  keywords = {Coversand, Loess, Last glacial, Dunes, Grain-size modelling, Geochemistry, Wind direction, Southwest France},
  year = 2017,
  month = aug,
  volume = 170,
  pages = {250-268},
  abstract = {{Dune pattern, grain-size gradients and geochemistry were used to
investigate the sources and dynamics of aeolian deposition during the
last glacial in southwest France. The coversands form widespread fields
of low-amplitude ridges (zibars), whereas Younger Dryas parabolic dunes
mainly concentrate in corridors and along rivers. Spatial modelling of
grain-size gradients combined with geochemical analysis points to a
genetic relationship between coversands and loess, the latter resulting
primarily from dust produced by aeolian abrasion of the coversands. The
alluvium of the Garonne river provided also significant amounts of dust
at a more local scale. The geochemical composition of loess shows much
lower scattering than that of coversands, due to stronger homogenisation
during transport in the atmosphere. Overall, sandy loess and loess
deposits decrease in thickness away from the coversands. Dune
orientation and grain-size gradients suggest that the efficient winds
blew respectively from the W to the NW during the glacial, and the W-SW
during the Younger Dryas. A comparison between the wind directions
derived from the proxy data and those provided by palaeoclimatic
simulations suggests a change of the main transport season. Ground
surface conditions and their evolution throughout the year, i.e. the
length of the season with snow and frozen or moist topsoil, and the
seasonal distribution of wind speeds able to cause deflation are thought
to have been the main factors that controlled the transport season in
the study area.
  doi = {10.1016/j.quascirev.2017.06.029},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017QSRv..170..250S},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Rousseau}, D.-D. and {Boers}, N. and {Sima}, A. and {Svensson}, A. and 
	{Bigler}, M. and {Lagroix}, F. and {Taylor}, S. and {Antoine}, P.
  title = {{(MIS3 {\amp} 2) millennial oscillations in Greenland dust and Eurasian aeolian records - A paleosol perspective}},
  journal = {Quaternary Science Reviews},
  year = 2017,
  month = aug,
  volume = 169,
  pages = {99-113},
  abstract = {{Since their discovery, the abrupt climate changes that punctuated the
last glacial period ({\sim}110.6-14.62 ka) have attracted considerable
attention. Originating in the North-Atlantic area, these abrupt changes
have been recorded in ice, marine and terrestrial records all over the
world, but especially in the Northern Hemisphere, with various
environmental implications. Ice-core records of unprecedented temporal
resolution from northern Greenland allow to specify the timing of these
abrupt changes, which are associated with sudden temperature increases
in Greenland over a few decades, very precisely. The continental records
have, so far, been mainly interpreted in terms of temperature,
precipitation or vegetation changes between the relatively warm
``Greenland Interstadials'' (GI) and the cooler ``Greenland Stadials'' (GS).
Here we compare records from Greenland ice and northwestern European
eolian deposits in order to establish a link between GI and the soil
development in European mid-latitudes, as recorded in loess sequences.
For the different types of observed paleosols, we use the correlation
with the Greenland records to propose estimates of the maximum time
lapses needed to achieve the different degrees of maturation and
development. To identify these time lapses more precisely, we compare
two independent ice-core records: {$\delta$}$^{18}$O and dust
concentration, indicating variations of atmospheric temperature and
dustiness in the Greenland area, respectively. Our method slightly
differs from the definition of a GI event duration applied in other
studies, where the sharp end of the {$\delta$}$^{18}$O decrease alone
defines the end of a GI. We apply the same methodology to both records
(i.e., the GIs are defined to last from the beginning of the abrupt
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O increase or dust concentration decrease until the
time when {$\delta$}$^{18}$O or dust recur to their initial value
before the GI onset), determined both visually and algorithmically, and
compare them to published estimates of GI timing and duration. The
duration of the GI and consequently the maximum time for paleosol
development varies between 200 and 4200 years when visually determined
and between 200 and 4800 years when estimated algorithmically for GI 17
to 2, i.e. an interval running from 60 ka to 23 ka b2k (age before 2000
AD). Furthermore, we investigate the abruptness of the transition from
stadial to interstadial conditions, which initiates the paleosol
development. The average transition duration is 55.4 {\plusmn} 16.1 (56.8
{\plusmn} 19.6) years when determined visually, and 36.4 {\plusmn} 13.4
(60.00 {\plusmn} 21.2) years when determined algorithmically for the
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O (dust concentration). The {$\delta$}$^{18}$O
increases correspond to a mean temperature difference of 11.8 {\deg}C on
the top of the Greenland ice sheet, associated with substantial
reorganizations of the ecosystems in mid-latitude Europe.
  doi = {10.1016/j.quascirev.2017.05.020},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017QSRv..169...99R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Thompson}, D.~W.~J. and {Bony}, S. and {Li}, Y.},
  title = {{Thermodynamic constraint on the depth of the global tropospheric circulation}},
  journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Science},
  keywords = {climate dynamics, climate change, cloud feedbacks, extratropical dynamics, general circulation},
  year = 2017,
  month = aug,
  volume = 114,
  pages = {8181-8186},
  abstract = {{The troposphere is the region of the atmosphere characterized by low
static stability, vigorous diabatic mixing, and widespread
condensational heating in clouds. Previous research has argued that in
the tropics, the upper bound on tropospheric mixing and clouds is
constrained by the rapid decrease with height of the saturation water
vapor pressure and hence radiative cooling by water vapor in clear-sky
regions. Here the authors contend that the same basic physics play a key
role in constraining the vertical structure of tropospheric mixing,
tropopause temperature, and cloud-top temperature throughout the globe.
It is argued that radiative cooling by water vapor plays an important
role in governing the depth and amplitude of large-scale dynamics at
extratropical latitudes.
  doi = {10.1073/pnas.1620493114},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PNAS..114.8181T},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Kretzschmar}, J. and {Salzmann}, M. and {M{\"u}lmenst{\"a}dt}, J. and 
	{Boucher}, O. and {Quaas}, J.},
  title = {{Comment on ``Rethinking the Lower Bound on Aerosol Radiative Forcing''}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2017,
  month = aug,
  volume = 30,
  pages = {6579-6584},
  doi = {10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0668.1},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JCli...30.6579K},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Lacour}, J.-L. and {Flamant}, C. and {Risi}, C. and {Clerbaux}, C. and 
	{Coheur}, P.-F.},
  title = {{Importance of the Saharan heat low in controlling the North Atlantic free tropospheric humidity budget deduced from IASI {$\delta$}D observations}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2017,
  month = aug,
  volume = 17,
  pages = {9645-9663},
  abstract = {{The isotopic composition of water vapour in the North Atlantic free
troposphere is investigated with Infrared Atmospheric Sounding
Interferometer (IASI) measurements of the D / H ratio ({$\delta$}D) above
the ocean. We show that in the vicinity of West Africa, the seasonality
of {$\delta$}D is particularly strong (130 {\permil}), which is related with
the influence of the Saharan heat low (SHL) during summertime. The SHL
indeed largely influences the dynamic in that region by producing deep
turbulent mixing layers, yielding a specific water vapour isotopic
footprint. The influence of the SHL on the isotopic budget is analysed
on various time and space scales and is shown to be large, highlighting
the importance of the SHL dynamics on the moistening and the HDO
enrichment of the free troposphere over the North Atlantic. The
potential influence of the SHL is also investigated on the inter-annual
scale as we also report important variations in {$\delta$}D above the
Canary archipelago region. We interpret the variability in the
enrichment, using backward trajectory analyses, in terms of the ratio of
air masses coming from the North Atlantic and air masses coming from the
African continent. Finally, the interest of IASI high sampling
capabilities is further illustrated by presenting spatial distributions
of {$\delta$}D and humidity above the North Atlantic from which we show
that the different sources and dehydration pathways controlling the
humidity can be disentangled thanks to the added value of {$\delta$}D
observations. More generally, our results demonstrate the utility of
{$\delta$}D observations obtained from the IASI sounder to gain insight
into the hydrological cycle processes in the West African region.
  doi = {10.5194/acp-17-9645-2017},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ACP....17.9645L},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Pottier}, A. and {Forget}, F. and {Montmessin}, F. and {Navarro}, T. and 
	{Spiga}, A. and {Millour}, E. and {Szantai}, A. and {Madeleine}, J.-B.
  title = {{Unraveling the martian water cycle with high-resolution global climate simulations}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  keywords = {Mars atmosphere, Atmospheres dynamics, Mars, Climate, Meteorology},
  year = 2017,
  month = jul,
  volume = 291,
  pages = {82-106},
  abstract = {{Global climate modeling of the Mars water cycle is usually performed at
relatively coarse resolution (200 - 300km), which may not be sufficient
to properly represent the impact of waves, fronts, topography effects on
the detailed structure of clouds and surface ice deposits. Here, we
present new numerical simulations of the annual water cycle performed at
a resolution of 1{\deg} {\times} 1{\deg} ({\sim} 60 km in latitude). The
model includes the radiative effects of clouds, whose influence on the
thermal structure and atmospheric dynamics is significant, thus we also
examine simulations with inactive clouds to distinguish the direct
impact of resolution on circulation and winds from the indirect impact
of resolution via water ice clouds. To first order, we find that the
high resolution does not dramatically change the behavior of the system,
and that simulations performed at {\sim} 200 km resolution capture well
the behavior of the simulated water cycle and Mars climate.
Nevertheless, a detailed comparison between high and low resolution
simulations, with reference to observations, reveal several significant
changes that impact our understanding of the water cycle active today on
Mars. The key northern cap edge dynamics are affected by an increase in
baroclinic wave strength, with a complication of northern summer
dynamics. South polar frost deposition is modified, with a westward
longitudinal shift, since southern dynamics are also influenced.
Baroclinic wave mode transitions are observed. New transient phenomena
appear, like spiral and streak clouds, already documented in the
observations. Atmospheric circulation cells in the polar region exhibit
a large variability and are fine structured, with slope winds. Most
modeled phenomena affected by high resolution give a picture of a more
turbulent planet, inducing further variability. This is challenging for
long-period climate studies.
  doi = {10.1016/j.icarus.2017.02.016},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Icar..291...82P},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Bréon}, F.-M. and {Boucher}, O. and {Brender}, P.},
  title = {{Inter-annual variability in fossil-fuel CO$_{2}$ emissions due to temperature anomalies}},
  journal = {Environmental Research Letters},
  year = 2017,
  month = jul,
  volume = 12,
  number = 7,
  eid = {074009},
  pages = {074009},
  abstract = {{It is well known that short-term (i.e. interannual) variations in
fossil-fuel CO$_{2}$ emissions are closely related to the
evolution of the national economies. Nevertheless, a fraction of the
CO$_{2}$ emissions are linked to domestic and business heating and
cooling, which can be expected to be related to the meteorology,
independently of the economy. Here, we analyse whether the signature of
the inter-annual temperature anomalies is discernible in the time series
of CO$_{2}$ emissions at the country scale. Our analysis shows
that, for many countries, there is a clear positive correlation between
a heating-degree-person index and the component of the CO$_{2}$
emissions that is not explained by the economy as quantified by the
gross domestic product (GDP). Similarly, several countries show a
positive correlation between a cooling-degree-person (CDP) index and
CO$_{2}$ emissions. The slope of the linear relationship for
heating is on the order of 0.5-1 kg CO$_{2}$
(degree-day-person)$^{-1}$ but with significant
country-to-country variations. A similar relationship for cooling shows
even greater diversity. We further show that the inter-annual climate
anomalies have a small but significant impact on the annual growth rate
of CO$_{2}$ emissions, both at the national and global scale. Such
a meteorological effect was a significant contribution to the rather
small and unexpected global emission growth rate in 2014 while its
contribution to the near zero emission growth in 2015 was insignificant.
  doi = {10.1088/1748-9326/aa693d},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ERL....12g4009B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Senghor}, H. and {Machu}, {\'E}. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Thierno Gaye}, A.
  title = {{Seasonal cycle of desert aerosols in western Africa: analysis of the coastal transition with passive and active sensors}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2017,
  month = jul,
  volume = 17,
  pages = {8395-8410},
  abstract = {{The impact of desert aerosols on climate, atmospheric processes, and the
environment is still debated in the scientific community. The extent of
their influence remains to be determined and particularly requires a
better understanding of the variability of their distribution. In this
work, we studied the variability of these aerosols in western Africa
using different types of satellite observations. SeaWiFS (Sea-Viewing
Wide Field-of-View Sensor) and OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) data
have been used to characterize the spatial distribution of mineral
aerosols from their optical and physical properties over the period
2005-2010. In particular, we focused on the variability of the
transition between continental western African and the eastern Atlantic
Ocean. Data provided by the lidar scrolling CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar
with Orthogonal Polarization) onboard the satellite CALIPSO (Cloud
Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) for the
period 2007-2013 were then used to assess the seasonal variability of
the vertical distribution of desert aerosols. We first obtained a good
representation of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single-scattering
albedo (SSA) from the satellites SeaWiFS and OMI, respectively, in
comparison with AERONET estimates, both above the continent and the
ocean. Dust occurrence frequency is higher in spring and boreal summer.
In spring, the highest occurrences are located between the surface and 3
km above sea level, while in summer the highest occurrences are between
2 and 5 km altitude. The vertical distribution given by CALIOP also
highlights an abrupt change at the coast from spring to fall with a
layer of desert aerosols confined in an atmospheric layer uplifted from
the surface of the ocean. This uplift of the aerosol layer above the
ocean contrasts with the winter season during which mineral aerosols are
confined in the atmospheric boundary layer. Radiosondes at Dakar Weather
Station (17.5{\deg} W, 14.74{\deg} N) provide basic thermodynamic
variables which partially give a causal relationship between the
layering of the atmospheric circulation over western Africa and their
aerosol contents throughout the year. A SSA increase is observed in
winter and spring at the transition between the continent and the ocean.
The analysis of mean NCEP (National Centers for Environmental
Prediction) winds at 925 hPa between 2000 and 2012 suggest a significant
contribution of coastal sand sources from Mauritania in winter which
would increase SSA over the ocean.
  doi = {10.5194/acp-17-8395-2017},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ACP....17.8395S},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Malavelle}, F.~F. and {Haywood}, J.~M. and {Jones}, A. and 
	{Gettelman}, A. and {Clarisse}, L. and {Bauduin}, S. and {Allan}, R.~P. and 
	{Karset}, I.~H.~H. and {Kristj{\'a}nsson}, J.~E. and {Oreopoulos}, L. and 
	{Cho}, N. and {Lee}, D. and {Bellouin}, N. and {Boucher}, O. and 
	{Grosvenor}, D.~P. and {Carslaw}, K.~S. and {Dhomse}, S. and 
	{Mann}, G.~W. and {Schmidt}, A. and {Coe}, H. and {Hartley}, M.~E. and 
	{Dalvi}, M. and {Hill}, A.~A. and {Johnson}, B.~T. and {Johnson}, C.~E. and 
	{Knight}, J.~R. and {O'Connor}, F.~M. and {Partridge}, D.~G. and 
	{Stier}, P. and {Myhre}, G. and {Platnick}, S. and {Stephens}, G.~L. and 
	{Takahashi}, H. and {Thordarson}, T.},
  title = {{Strong constraints on aerosol-cloud interactions from volcanic eruptions}},
  journal = {\nat},
  year = 2017,
  month = jun,
  volume = 546,
  pages = {485-491},
  abstract = {{Aerosols have a potentially large effect on climate, particularly
through their interactions with clouds, but the magnitude of this effect
is highly uncertain. Large volcanic eruptions produce sulfur dioxide,
which in turn produces aerosols; these eruptions thus represent a
natural experiment through which to quantify aerosol-cloud
interactions. Here we show that the massive 2014-2015 fissure
eruption in Holuhraun, Iceland, reduced the size of liquid cloud
droplets{\mdash}consistent with expectations{\mdash}but had no discernible
effect on other cloud properties. The reduction in droplet size led to
cloud brightening and global-mean radiative forcing of around -0.2
watts per square metre for September to October 2014. Changes in cloud
amount or cloud liquid water path, however, were undetectable,
indicating that these indirect effects, and cloud systems in general,
are well buffered against aerosol changes. This result will reduce
uncertainties in future climate projections, because we are now able to
reject results from climate models with an excessive liquid-water-path
  doi = {10.1038/nature22974},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Natur.546..485M},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Richet}, O. and {Muller}, C. and {Chomaz}, J.-M.},
  title = {{Impact of a Mean Current on the Internal Tide Energy Dissipation at the Critical Latitude}},
  journal = {Journal of Physical Oceanography},
  year = 2017,
  month = jun,
  volume = 47,
  pages = {1457-1472},
  doi = {10.1175/JPO-D-16-0197.1},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPO....47.1457R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Myhre}, G. and {Forster}, P.~M. and {Samset}, B.~H. and {Hodnebrog}, {\O}. and 
	{Sillmann}, J. and {Aalbergsj{\o}}, S.~G. and {Andrews}, T. and 
	{Boucher}, O. and {Faluvegi}, G. and {Fl{\"a}schner}, D. and 
	{Iversen}, T. and {Kasoar}, M. and {Kharin}, V. and {Kirkev{\aa}g}, A. and 
	{Lamarque}, J.-F. and {Olivié}, D. and {Richardson}, T.~B. and 
	{Shindell}, D. and {Shine}, K.~P. and {Stjern}, C.~W. and {Takemura}, T. and 
	{Voulgarakis}, A. and {Zwiers}, F.},
  title = {{PDRMIP: A Precipitation Driver and Response Model Intercomparison Project{\mdash}Protocol and Preliminary Results}},
  journal = {Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society},
  year = 2017,
  month = jun,
  volume = 98,
  pages = {1185-1198},
  doi = {10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0019.1},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017BAMS...98.1185M},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Membrive}, O. and {Crevoisier}, C. and {Sweeney}, C. and {Danis}, F. and 
	{Hertzog}, A. and {Engel}, A. and {B{\"o}nisch}, H. and {Picon}, L.
  title = {{AirCore-HR: a high-resolution column sampling to enhance the vertical description of CH$_{4}$ and CO$_{2}$}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Measurement Techniques},
  year = 2017,
  month = jun,
  volume = 10,
  pages = {2163-2181},
  abstract = {{An original and innovative sampling system called AirCore was presented
by NOAA in 2010 Karion et al.(2010). It consists of a long ( $\gt$ 100 m)
and narrow ( $\lt$ 1 cm) stainless steel tube that can retain a profile
of atmospheric air. The captured air sample has then to be analyzed with
a gas analyzer for trace mole fraction. In this study, we introduce a
new AirCore aiming to improve resolution along the vertical with the
objectives to (i) better capture the vertical distribution of
CO$_{2}$ and CH$_{4}$, (ii) provide a tool to compare
AirCores and validate the estimated vertical resolution achieved by
AirCores. This (high-resolution) AirCore-HR consists of a 300 m tube,
combining 200 m of 0.125 in. (3.175 mm) tube and a 100 m of 0.25 in.
(6.35 mm) tube. This new configuration allows us to achieve a vertical
resolution of 300 m up to 15 km and better than 500 m up to 22 km (if
analysis of the retained sample is performed within 3 h). The AirCore-HR
was flown for the first time during the annual StratoScience campaign
from CNES in August 2014 from Timmins (Ontario, Canada). High-resolution
vertical profiles of CO$_{2}$ and CH$_{4}$ up to 25 km were
successfully retrieved. These profiles revealed well-defined transport
structures in the troposphere (also seen in CAMS-ECMWF high-resolution
forecasts of CO$_{2}$ and CH$_{4}$ profiles) and captured
the decrease of CO$_{2}$ and CH$_{4}$ in the stratosphere.
The multi-instrument gondola also carried two other low-resolution
AirCore-GUF that allowed us to perform direct comparisons and study the
underlying processing method used to convert the sample of air to
greenhouse gases vertical profiles. In particular, degrading the
AirCore-HR derived profiles to the low resolution of AirCore-GUF yields
an excellent match between both sets of CH$_{4}$ profiles and
shows a good consistency in terms of vertical structures. This fully
validates the theoretical vertical resolution achievable by AirCores.
Concerning CO$_{2}$ although a good agreement is found in terms of
vertical structure, the comparison between the various AirCores yields a
large and variable bias (up to almost 3 ppm in some parts of the
profiles). The reasons of this bias, possibly related to the drying
agent used to dry the air, are still being investigated. Finally, the
uncertainties associated with the measurements are assessed, yielding an
average uncertainty below 3 ppb for CH$_{4}$ and 0.25 ppm for
CO$_{2}$ with the major source of uncertainty coming from the
potential loss of air sample on the ground and the choice of the
starting and ending point of the collected air sample inside the tube.
In an ideal case where the sample would be fully retained, it would be
possible to know precisely the pressure at which air was sampled last
and thus to improve the overall uncertainty to about 0.1 ppm for
CO$_{2}$ and 2 ppb for CH$_{4}$.
  doi = {10.5194/amt-10-2163-2017},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AMT....10.2163M},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Escribano}, J. and {Boucher}, O. and {Chevallier}, F. and {Huneeus}, N.
  title = {{Impact of the choice of the satellite aerosol optical depth product in a sub-regional dust emission inversion}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2017,
  month = jun,
  volume = 17,
  pages = {7111-7126},
  abstract = {{Mineral dust is the major continental contributor to the global
atmospheric aerosol burden with important effects on the climate system.
Regionally, a large fraction of the emitted dust is produced in northern
Africa; however, the total emission flux from there is still highly
uncertain. In order to reduce these uncertainties, emission estimates
through top-down approaches (i.e. usually models constrained by
observations) have been successfully developed and implemented. Such
studies usually rely on a single observational dataset and propagate the
possible observational errors of this dataset onto the emission
estimates. In this study, aerosol optical depth (AOD) products from five
different satellites are assimilated one by one in a source inversion
system to estimate dust emission fluxes over northern Africa and the
Arabian Peninsula. We estimate mineral dust emissions for the year 2006
and discuss the impact of the assimilated dataset on the analysis. We
find a relatively large dispersion in flux estimates among the five
experiments, which can likely be attributed to differences in the
assimilated observation datasets and their associated error statistics.
  doi = {10.5194/acp-17-7111-2017},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ACP....17.7111E},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Robert}, L. and {Rivière}, G. and {Codron}, F.},
  title = {{Positive and Negative Eddy Feedbacks Acting on Midlatitude Jet Variability in a Three-Level Quasigeostrophic Model}},
  journal = {Journal of Atmospheric Sciences},
  year = 2017,
  month = may,
  volume = 74,
  pages = {1635-1649},
  doi = {10.1175/JAS-D-16-0217.1},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAtS...74.1635R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Coppin}, D. and {Bony}, S.},
  title = {{Internal variability in a coupled general circulation model in radiative-convective equilibrium}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {convective aggregation, convection, internal climate variability, radiative-convective equilibrium, ocean-atmosphere coupling},
  year = 2017,
  month = may,
  volume = 44,
  pages = {5142-5149},
  abstract = {{Numerical models run in non-rotating radiative-convective equilibrium
(RCE) using prescribed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) show that
convection can spontaneously aggregate into dry and moist areas, and
that convective aggregation tends to increase with temperature. Using a
general circulation model coupled to an ocean mixed layer, we show that
in RCE the coupled ocean-atmosphere system exhibits some internal
variability. This variability arises from the interplay between mean
surface temperature, SST gradients and convective aggregation, and its
timescale is proportional to the depth of the ocean mixed layer. For an
ocean layer deeper than 10 m, the variability occurs at the interannual
timescale, and variations of convective aggregation are almost out of
phase with those of surface temperature. The coupled RCE framework might
be relevant to understand some internal modes of variability of the
tropical ocean-atmosphere system such as El Ni{\~n}o Southern
  doi = {10.1002/2017GL073658},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.5142C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Bellenger}, H. and {Wilson}, R. and {Davison}, J.~L. and {Duvel}, J.~P. and 
	{Xu}, W. and {Lott}, F. and {Katsumata}, M.},
  title = {{Tropospheric Turbulence over the Tropical Open Ocean: Role of Gravity Waves}},
  journal = {Journal of Atmospheric Sciences},
  year = 2017,
  month = apr,
  volume = 74,
  pages = {1249-1271},
  doi = {10.1175/JAS-D-16-0135.1},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAtS...74.1249B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Stein}, T.~H.~M. and {Holloway}, C.~E. and {Tobin}, I. and 
	{Bony}, S.},
  title = {{Observed Relationships between Cloud Vertical Structure and Convective Aggregation over Tropical Ocean}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2017,
  month = mar,
  volume = 30,
  pages = {2187-2207},
  abstract = {{Using the satellite-infrared-based Simple Convective Aggregation Index
(SCAI) to determine the degree of aggregation, 5 years of
CloudSat-CALIPSO cloud profiles are composited at a spatial scale of 10
degrees to study the relationship between cloud vertical structure and
aggregation. For a given large-scale vertical motion and domain-averaged
precipitation rate, there is a large decrease in anvil cloud (and in
cloudiness as a whole) and an increase in clear sky and low cloud as
aggregation increases. The changes in thick anvil cloud are proportional
to the changes in total areal cover of brightness temperatures below 240
K [cold cloud area (CCA)], which is negatively correlated with SCAI.
Optically thin anvil cover decreases significantly when aggregation
increases, even for a fixed CCA, supporting previous findings of a
higher precipitation efficiency for aggregated convection. Cirrus,
congestus, and midlevel clouds do not display a consistent relationship
with the degree of aggregation. Lidar-observed low-level cloud cover
(where the lidar is not attenuated) is presented herein as the best
estimate of the true low-level cloud cover, and it is shown that it
increases as aggregation increases. Qualitatively, the relationships
between cloud distribution and SCAI do not change with sea surface
temperature, while cirrus clouds are more abundant and low-level clouds
less at higher sea surface temperatures. For the observed regimes, the
vertical cloud profile varies more evidently with SCAI than with mean
precipitation rate. These results confirm that convective scenes with
similar vertical motion and rainfall can be associated with vastly
different cloudiness (both high and low cloud) and humidity depending on
the degree of convective aggregation.
  doi = {10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0125.1},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JCli...30.2187S},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Collins}, W.~J. and {Lamarque}, J.-F. and {Schulz}, M. and 
	{Boucher}, O. and {Eyring}, V. and {Hegglin}, M.~I. and {Maycock}, A. and 
	{Myhre}, G. and {Prather}, M. and {Shindell}, D. and {Smith}, S.~J.
  title = {{AerChemMIP: quantifying the effects of chemistry and aerosols in CMIP6}},
  journal = {Geoscientific Model Development},
  year = 2017,
  month = feb,
  volume = 10,
  pages = {585-607},
  abstract = {{The Aerosol Chemistry Model Intercomparison Project (AerChemMIP) is
endorsed by the Coupled-Model Intercomparison Project 6 (CMIP6) and is
designed to quantify the climate and air quality impacts of aerosols and
chemically reactive gases. These are specifically near-term climate
forcers (NTCFs: methane, tropospheric ozone and aerosols, and their
precursors), nitrous oxide and ozone-depleting halocarbons. The aim of
AerChemMIP is to answer four scientific questions. 

1. How have anthropogenic emissions contributed to global radiative forcing and affected regional climate over the historical period?

2. How might future policies (on climate, air quality and land use) affect the abundances of NTCFs and their climate impacts?

3.How do uncertainties in historical NTCF emissions affect radiative forcing estimates?

4. How important are climate feedbacks to natural NTCF emissions, atmospheric composition, and radiative effects?

These questions will be addressed through targeted simulations with CMIP6 climate models that include an interactive representation of tropospheric aerosols and atmospheric chemistry. These simulations build on the CMIP6 Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima (DECK) experiments, the CMIP6 historical simulations, and future projections performed elsewhere in CMIP6, allowing the contributions from aerosols and/or chemistry to be quantified. Specific diagnostics are requested as part of the CMIP6 data request to highlight the chemical composition of the atmosphere, to evaluate the performance of the models, and to understand differences in behaviour between them. }}, doi = {10.5194/gmd-10-585-2017}, adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GMD....10..585C}, adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System} }
  author = {{Vogel}, M.~M. and {Orth}, R. and {Cheruy}, F. and {Hagemann}, S. and 
	{Lorenz}, R. and {Hurk}, B.~J.~J.~M. and {Seneviratne}, S.~I.
  title = {{Regional amplification of projected changes in extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil moisture-temperature feedbacks}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {land-climate feedbacks, temperature extremes, soil moisture, GLACE-CMIP5},
  year = 2017,
  month = feb,
  volume = 44,
  pages = {1511-1519},
  abstract = {{Regional hot extremes are projected to increase more strongly than
global mean temperature, with substantially larger changes than 2{\deg}C
even if global warming is limited to this level. We investigate the role
of soil moisture-temperature feedbacks for this response based on
multimodel experiments for the 21st century with either interactive or
fixed (late 20th century mean seasonal cycle) soil moisture. We analyze
changes in the hottest days in each year in both sets of experiments,
relate them to the global mean temperature increase, and investigate
processes leading to these changes. We find that soil
moisture-temperature feedbacks significantly contribute to the amplified
warming of the hottest days compared to that of global mean temperature.
This contribution reaches more than 70\% in Central Europe and Central
North America. Soil moisture trends are more important for this response
than short-term soil moisture variability. These results are relevant
for reducing uncertainties in regional temperature projections.
  doi = {10.1002/2016GL071235},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.1511V},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Marotzke}, J. and {Jakob}, C. and {Bony}, S. and {Dirmeyer}, P.~A. and 
	{O'Gorman}, P.~A. and {Hawkins}, E. and {Perkins-Kirkpatrick}, S. and 
	{Quéré}, C.~L. and {Nowicki}, S. and {Paulavets}, K. and 
	{Seneviratne}, S.~I. and {Stevens}, B. and {Tuma}, M.},
  title = {{Climate research must sharpen its view}},
  journal = {Nature Climate Change},
  year = 2017,
  month = jan,
  volume = 7,
  pages = {89-91},
  abstract = {{Human activity is changing Earth's climate. Now that this has been
acknowledged and accepted in international negotiations, climate
research needs to define its next frontiers.
  doi = {10.1038/nclimate3206},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatCC...7...89M},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Jiang}, Z. and {Jiang}, S. and {Shi}, Y. and {Liu}, Z. and 
	{Li}, W. and {Li}, L.},
  title = {{Impact of moisture source variation on decadal-scale changes of precipitation in North China from 1951 to 2010}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Lagrangian trajectory, decadal-scale rainfall reduction, North China, moisture sources},
  year = 2017,
  month = jan,
  volume = 122,
  pages = {600-613},
  abstract = {{The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory platform is
employed in this study to simulate trajectories of air parcels in the
rainy season in North China during last six decades (1951-2010), with
the purpose of investigating moisture sources, their variation, and the
eventual relationship with precipitation in North China. Climatological
trajectories indicate that moisture in North China originates,
respectively, from Eurasia (14.4\%), eastern China (10.2\%), the Bay of
Bengal-South China Sea (33.8\%), the Indian Ocean (10.7\%), and the
Pacific (30.9\%). The spatiotemporal analysis of moisture trajectory
based on extended empirical orthogonal function indicates that a
decrease of precipitation in North China is caused mainly by a decrease
of water vapor sources from the south, the Indian Ocean, the Bay of
Bengal, and the South China Sea, which overwhelms an increase of water
vapor sources from the North, mainly Eurasia, eastern China, and
northern western North Pacific Ocean. In particular, the significant
decrease of precipitation in the late 1970s (by 11.6\%) is mainly caused
by a 10.6\% decrease of moisture from all sources. The Bay of Bengal, the
South China Sea, and the Indian Ocean are dominant moisture source areas
affecting the decadal-scale variation of precipitation in North China.
  doi = {10.1002/2016JD025795},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122..600J},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Steen-Larsen}, H.~C. and {Risi}, C. and {Werner}, M. and {Yoshimura}, K. and 
	{Masson-Delmotte}, V.},
  title = {{Evaluating the skills of isotope-enabled general circulation models against in situ atmospheric water vapor isotope observations}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {water vapor, isotopes, general circulation models, ice core, climate},
  year = 2017,
  month = jan,
  volume = 122,
  pages = {246-263},
  abstract = {{The skills of isotope-enabled general circulation models are evaluated
against atmospheric water vapor isotopes. We have combined in situ
observations of surface water vapor isotopes spanning multiple field
seasons (2010, 2011, and 2012) from the top of the Greenland Ice Sheet
(NEEM site: 77.45{\deg}N, 51.05{\deg}W, 2484 m above sea level) with
observations from the marine boundary layer of the North Atlantic and
Arctic Ocean (Bermuda Islands 32.26{\deg}N, 64.88{\deg}W, year: 2012;
south coast of Iceland 63.83{\deg}N, 21.47{\deg}W, year: 2012; South
Greenland 61.21{\deg}N, 47.17{\deg}W, year: 2012; Svalbard 78.92{\deg}N,
11.92{\deg}E, year: 2014). This allows us to benchmark the ability to
simulate the daily water vapor isotope variations from five different
simulations using isotope-enabled general circulation models. Our
model-data comparison documents clear isotope biases both on top of the
Greenland Ice Sheet (1-11{\permil} for {$\delta$}$^{18}$O and
4-19{\permil} for d-excess depending on model and season) and in the
marine boundary layer (maximum differences for the following: Bermuda
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O =  1{\permil}, d-excess =  3{\permil}; South coast
of Iceland {$\delta$}$^{18}$O =  2{\permil}, d-excess =   5{\permil};
South Greenland {$\delta$}$^{18}$O =  4{\permil}, d-excess =
7{\permil}; Svalbard {$\delta$}$^{18}$O =  2{\permil}, d-excess =
7{\permil}). We find that the simulated isotope biases are not just
explained by simulated biases in temperature and humidity. Instead, we
argue that these isotope biases are related to a poor simulation of the
spatial structure of the marine boundary layer water vapor isotopic
composition. Furthermore, we specifically show that the marine boundary
layer water vapor isotopes of the Baffin Bay region show strong
influence on the water vapor isotopes at the NEEM deep ice core-drilling
site in northwest Greenland. Our evaluation of the simulations using
isotope-enabled general circulation models also documents wide
intermodel spatial variability in the Arctic. This stresses the
importance of a coordinated water vapor isotope-monitoring network in
order to discriminate amongst these model behaviors.
  doi = {10.1002/2016JD025443},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122..246S},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Bellenger}, H. and {Drushka}, K. and {Asher}, W. and {Reverdin}, G. and 
	{Katsumata}, M. and {Watanabe}, M.},
  title = {{Extension of the prognostic model of sea surface temperature to rain-induced cool and fresh lenses}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Oceans)},
  keywords = {rain-induced fresh lenses, parameterization, air-sea interaction, skin temperature, skin salinity},
  year = 2017,
  month = jan,
  volume = 122,
  pages = {484-507},
  abstract = {{The Zeng and Beljaars (2005) sea surface temperature prognostic scheme,
developed to represent diurnal warming, is extended to represent
rain-induced freshening and cooling. Effects of rain on salinity and
temperature in the molecular skin layer (first few hundred micrometers)
and the near-surface turbulent layer (first few meters) are separately
parameterized by taking into account rain-induced fluxes of sensible
heat and freshwater, surface stress, and mixing induced by droplets
penetrating the water surface. Numerical results from this scheme are
compared to observational data from two field studies of near-surface
ocean stratifications caused by rain, to surface drifter observations
and to previous computations with an idealized ocean mixed layer model,
demonstrating that the scheme produces temperature variations consistent
with in situ observations and model results. It reproduces the
dependency of salinity on wind and rainfall rate and the lifetime of
fresh lenses. In addition, the scheme reproduces the observed lag
between temperature and salinity minimum at low wind speed and is
sensitive to the peak rain rate for a given amount of rain. Finally, a
first assessment of the impact of these fresh lenses on ocean surface
variability is given for the near-equatorial western Pacific. In
particular, the variability due to the mean rain-induced cooling is
comparable to the variability due to the diurnal warming so that they
both impact large-scale horizontal surface temperature gradients. The
present parameterization can be used in a variety of models to study the
impact of rain-induced fresh and cool lenses at different spatial and
temporal scales.
  doi = {10.1002/2016JC012429},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRC..122..484B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Webb}, M.~J. and {Andrews}, T. and {Bodas-Salcedo}, A. and 
	{Bony}, S. and {Bretherton}, C.~S. and {Chadwick}, R. and {Chepfer}, H. and 
	{Douville}, H. and {Good}, P. and {Kay}, J.~E. and {Klein}, S.~A. and 
	{Marchand}, R. and {Medeiros}, B. and {Pier Siebesma}, A. and 
	{Skinner}, C.~B. and {Stevens}, B. and {Tselioudis}, G. and 
	{Tsushima}, Y. and {Watanabe}, M.},
  title = {{The Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP) contribution to CMIP6}},
  journal = {Geoscientific Model Development},
  year = 2017,
  month = jan,
  volume = 10,
  pages = {359-384},
  abstract = {{The primary objective of CFMIP is to inform future assessments of cloud
feedbacks through improved understanding of cloud-climate feedback
mechanisms and better evaluation of cloud processes and cloud feedbacks
in climate models. However, the CFMIP approach is also increasingly
being used to understand other aspects of climate change, and so a
second objective has now been introduced, to improve understanding of
circulation, regional-scale precipitation, and non-linear changes. CFMIP
is supporting ongoing model inter-comparison activities by coordinating
a hierarchy of targeted experiments for CMIP6, along with a set of
cloud-related output diagnostics. CFMIP contributes primarily to
addressing the CMIP6 questions $\lt$q$\gt$How does the Earth system
respond to forcing?$\lt$/q$\gt$ and $\lt$q$\gt$What are the origins and
consequences of systematic model biases?$\lt$/q$\gt$ and supports the
activities of the WCRP Grand Challenge on Clouds, Circulation and
Climate Sensitivity.

A compact set of Tier 1 experiments is proposed for CMIP6 to address this question: (1) what are the physical mechanisms underlying the range of cloud feedbacks and cloud adjustments predicted by climate models, and which models have the most credible cloud feedbacks? Additional Tier 2 experiments are proposed to address the following questions. (2) Are cloud feedbacks consistent for climate cooling and warming, and if not, why? (3) How do cloud-radiative effects impact the structure, the strength and the variability of the general atmospheric circulation in present and future climates? (4) How do responses in the climate system due to changes in solar forcing differ from changes due to CO$_{2}$, and is the response sensitive to the sign of the forcing? (5) To what extent is regional climate change per CO$_{2}$ doubling state-dependent (non-linear), and why? (6) Are climate feedbacks during the 20th century different to those acting on long-term climate change and climate sensitivity? (7) How do regional climate responses (e.g. in precipitation) and their uncertainties in coupled models arise from the combination of different aspects of CO$_{2}$ forcing and sea surface warming?

CFMIP also proposes a number of additional model outputs in the CMIP DECK, CMIP6 Historical and CMIP6 CFMIP experiments, including COSP simulator outputs and process diagnostics to address the following questions. $\lt$ol class=``enumerate''$\gt$$\lt$li class=``item''$\gt$$\lt$div class=``para''$\gt$$\lt$p class=``p''$\gt$How well do clouds and other relevant variables simulated by models agree with observations?$\lt$/div$\gt$$\lt$/li$\gt$$\lt$li class=``item''$\gt$$\lt$div class=``para''$\gt$$\lt$p class=``p''$\gt$What physical processes and mechanisms are important for a credible simulation of clouds, cloud feedbacks and cloud adjustments in climate models?$\lt$/div$\gt$$\lt$/li$\gt$$\lt$li class=``item''$\gt$$\lt$div class=``para''$\gt$$\lt$p class=``p''$\gt$Which models have the most credible representations of processes relevant to the simulation of clouds?$\lt$/div$\gt$$\lt$/li$\gt$$\lt$li class=``item''$\gt$$\lt$div class=``para''$\gt$$\lt$p class=``p''$\gt$How do clouds and their changes interact with other elements of the climate system?$\lt$/div$\gt$$\lt$/li$\gt$$\lt$/ol$\gt$ }}, doi = {10.5194/gmd-10-359-2017}, adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GMD....10..359W}, adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System} }
  author = {{Gasser}, T. and {Ciais}, P. and {Boucher}, O. and {Quilcaille}, Y. and 
	{Tortora}, M. and {Bopp}, L. and {Hauglustaine}, D.},
  title = {{The compact Earth system model OSCAR v2.2: description and first results}},
  journal = {Geoscientific Model Development},
  year = 2017,
  month = jan,
  volume = 10,
  pages = {271-319},
  abstract = {{This paper provides a comprehensive description of OSCAR v2.2, a simple
Earth system model. The general philosophy of development is first
explained, followed by a complete description of the model's drivers and
various modules. All components of the Earth system necessary to
simulate future climate change are represented in the model: the oceanic
and terrestrial carbon cycles - including a book-keeping module to
endogenously estimate land-use change emissions - so as to simulate the
change in atmospheric carbon dioxide; the tropospheric chemistry and the
natural wetlands, to simulate that of methane; the stratospheric
chemistry, for nitrous oxide; 37 halogenated compounds; changing
tropospheric and stratospheric ozone; the direct and indirect effects of
aerosols; changes in surface albedo caused by black carbon deposition on
snow and land-cover change; and the global and regional response of
climate - in terms of temperature and precipitation - to all these
climate forcers. Following the probabilistic framework of the model, an
ensemble of simulations is made over the historical period (1750-2010).
We show that the model performs well in reproducing observed past
changes in the Earth system such as increased atmospheric concentration
of greenhouse gases or increased global mean surface temperature.
  doi = {10.5194/gmd-10-271-2017},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GMD....10..271G},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Lora}, J.~M. and {Mitchell}, J.~L. and {Risi}, C. and {Tripati}, A.~E.
  title = {{North Pacific atmospheric rivers and their influence on western North America at the Last Glacial Maximum}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {atmospheric rivers, atmospheric moisture transport, Last Glacial Maximum, extratropical climate, southwestern North America, Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP), paleoclimatology and paleoceanography, atmospheric transport and circulation, global climate models, climate dynamics, regional climate change},
  year = 2017,
  month = jan,
  volume = 44,
  pages = {1051-1059},
  abstract = {{Southwestern North America was wetter than present during the Last
Glacial Maximum. The causes of increased water availability have been
recently debated, and quantitative precipitation reconstructions have
been underutilized in model-data comparisons. We investigate the
climatological response of North Pacific atmospheric rivers to the
glacial climate using model simulations and paleoclimate
reconstructions. Atmospheric moisture transport due to these features
shifted toward the southeast relative to modern. Enhanced southwesterly
moisture delivery between Hawaii and California increased precipitation
in the southwest while decreasing it in the Pacific Northwest, in
agreement with reconstructions. Coupled climate models that are best
able to reproduce reconstructed precipitation changes simulate decreases
in sea level pressure across the eastern North Pacific and show the
strongest southeastward shifts of moisture transport relative to a
modern climate. Precipitation increases of {\tilde}1 mm d$^{-1}$,
due largely to atmospheric rivers, are of the right magnitude to account
for reconstructed pluvial conditions in parts of southwestern North
America during the Last Glacial Maximum.
  doi = {10.1002/2016GL071541},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.1051L},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Stouffer}, R.~J. and {Eyring}, V. and {Meehl}, G.~A. and {Bony}, S. and 
	{Senior}, C. and {Stevens}, B. and {Taylor}, K.~E.},
  title = {{CMIP5 Scientific Gaps and Recommendations for CMIP6}},
  journal = {Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society},
  year = 2017,
  month = jan,
  volume = 98,
  pages = {95-105},
  doi = {10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00013.1},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017BAMS...98...95S},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Genthon}, C. and {Piard}, L. and {Vignon}, E. and {Madeleine}, J.-B. and 
	{Casado}, M. and {Gallée}, H.},
  title = {{Atmospheric moisture supersaturation in the near-surface atmosphere at Dome C, Antarctic Plateau}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2017,
  month = jan,
  volume = 17,
  pages = {691-704},
  abstract = {{Supersaturation often occurs at the top of the troposphere where cirrus
clouds form, but is comparatively unusual near the surface where the air
is generally warmer and laden with liquid and/or ice condensation
nuclei. One exception is the surface of the high Antarctic Plateau. One
year of atmospheric moisture measurement at the surface of Dome C on the
East Antarctic Plateau is presented. The measurements are obtained using
commercial hygrometry sensors modified to allow air sampling without
affecting the moisture content, even in the case of supersaturation.
Supersaturation is found to be very frequent. Common unadapted
hygrometry sensors generally fail to report supersaturation, and most
reports of atmospheric moisture on the Antarctic Plateau are thus likely
biased low. The measurements are compared with results from two models
implementing cold microphysics parameterizations: the European Center
for Medium-range Weather Forecasts through its operational analyses, and
the Model Atmosphérique Régional. As in the observations,
supersaturation is frequent in the models but the statistical
distribution differs both between models and observations and between
the two models, leaving much room for model improvement. This is
unlikely to strongly affect estimations of surface sublimation because
supersaturation is more frequent as temperature is lower, and moisture
quantities and thus water fluxes are small anyway. Ignoring
supersaturation may be a more serious issue when considering water
isotopes, a tracer of phase change and temperature, largely used to
reconstruct past climates and environments from ice cores. Because
observations are easier in the surface atmosphere, longer and more
continuous in situ observation series of atmospheric supersaturation can
be obtained than higher in the atmosphere to test parameterizations of
cold microphysics, such as those used in the formation of high-altitude
cirrus clouds in meteorological and climate models.
  doi = {10.5194/acp-17-691-2017},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ACP....17..691G},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}