A. Cauquoin, C. Risi, and É. Vignon. Importance of the advection scheme for the simulation of water isotopes over Antarctica by atmospheric general circulation models: A case study for present-day and Last Glacial Maximum with LMDZ-iso. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 524:115731, October 2019. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]
Atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) are known to have a warm and isotopically enriched bias over Antarctica. We test here the hypothesis that these biases are partly consequences of a too diffusive advection. Exploiting the LMDZ-iso model, we show that a less diffusive representation of the advection, especially on the horizontal, is very important to reduce the bias in the isotopic contents of precipitation above this area. The choice of an appropriate representation of the advection is thus essential when using GCMs for paleoclimate applications based on polar water isotopes. Too much diffusive mixing along the poleward transport leads to overestimated isotopic contents in water vapor because dehydration by mixing follows a more enriched path than dehydration by Rayleigh distillation. The near-air surface temperature is also influenced, to a lesser extent, by the diffusive properties of the advection scheme directly via the advection of the air and indirectly via the radiative effects of changes in high cloud fraction and water vapor. A too diffusive horizontal advection increases the temperature and so also contributes to enrich the isotopic contents of water vapor over Antarctica through a reduction of the distillation. The temporal relationship, from Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to present-day conditions, between the mean annual near-air surface temperature and the water isotopic contents of precipitation for a specific location can also be impacted, with significant consequences on the paleo-temperature reconstruction from observed changes in water isotopes.
W. J. M. Seviour, F. Codron, E. W. Doddridge, D. Ferreira, A. Gnanadesikan, M. Kelley, Y. Kostov, J. Marshall, L. M. Polvani, J. L. Thomas, and D. W. Waugh. The Southern Ocean Sea Surface Temperature Response to Ozone Depletion: A Multimodel Comparison. Journal of Climate, 32:5107-5121, August 2019. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]
The effect of the Antarctic ozone hole extends downward from the stratosphere, with clear signatures in surface weather patterns including a positive trend in the southern annular mode (SAM). Several recent studies have used coupled climate models to investigate the impact of these changes on Southern Ocean sea surface temperature (SST), notably motivated by the observed cooling from the late 1970s. Here we examine the robustness of these model results through comparison of both previously published and new simulations. We focus on the calculation of climate response functions (CRFs), transient responses to an instantaneous step change in ozone concentrations. The CRF for most models consists of a rapid cooling of SST followed by a slower warming trend. However, intermodel comparison reveals large uncertainties, such that even the sign of the impact of ozone depletion on historical SST, when reconstructed from the CRF, remains unconstrained. Comparison of these CRFs with SST responses to a hypothetical step change in the SAM, inferred through lagged linear regression, shows broadly similar results. Causes of uncertainty are explored by examining relationships between model climatologies and their CRFs. The intermodel spread in CRFs can be reproduced by varying a single subgrid-scale mixing parameter within a single model. Antarctic sea ice CRFs are also calculated: these do not generally exhibit the two-time-scale behavior of SST, suggesting a complex relationship between the two. Finally, by constraining model climatology-response relationships with observational values, we conclude that ozone depletion is unlikely to have been the primary driver of the observed SST cooling trend.
S. Darmaraki, S. Somot, F. Sevault, P. Nabat, W. D. Cabos Narvaez, L. Cavicchia, V. Djurdjevic, L. Li, G. Sannino, and D. V. Sein. Future evolution of Marine Heatwaves in the Mediterranean Sea. Climate Dynamics, 53:1371-1392, August 2019. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]
Extreme ocean warming events, known as marine heatwaves (MHWs), have been observed to perturb significantly marine ecosystems and fisheries around the world. Here, we propose a detection method for long-lasting and large-scale summer MHWs, using a local, climatological 99th percentile threshold, based on present-climate (1976-2005) daily SST. To assess their future evolution in the Mediterranean Sea we use, for the first time, a dedicated ensemble of fully-coupled Regional Climate System Models from the Med-CORDEX initiative and a multi-scenario approach. The models appear to simulate well MHW properties during historical period, despite biases in mean and extreme SST. In response to increasing greenhouse gas forcing, the events become stronger and more intense under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 than RCP2.6. By 2100 and under RCP8.5, simulations project at least one long-lasting MHW every year, up to three months longer, about 4 times more intense and 42 times more severe than present-day events. They are expected to occur from June-October and to affect at peak the entire basin. Their evolution is found to occur mainly due to an increase in the mean SST, but increased daily SST variability also plays a noticeable role. Until the mid-21st century, MHW characteristics rise independently of the choice of the emission scenario, the influence of which becomes more evident by the end of the period. Further analysis reveals different climate change responses in certain configurations, more likely linked to their driving global climate model rather than to the individual model biases.
C. Muller, T. Allanche, P. Paillet, O. Duhamel, V. Goiffon, S. Rizzolo, T. Lépine, J. Rousson, J.-P. Baudu, J.-R. Macé, H. Desjonqueres, C. Monsanglant Louvet, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and S. Girard. Investigations of the MGy dose level radiation effects on the photometric budget of a radiation-hardened CMOS-based camera. Applied Optics, 58:6165, August 2019. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]
O. Torres, P. Braconnot, F. Hourdin, R. Roehrig, O. Marti, S. Belamari, and M.-P. Lefebvre. Competition Between Atmospheric and Surface Parameterizations for the Control of Air-Sea Latent Heat Fluxes in Two Single-Column Models. Geophysical Research Letters, 46:7780-7789, July 2019. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]
A single-column model approach conducted in the context of the Madden-Julian Oscillation through the CINDY2011/Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation field campaign is used to disentangle the respective role of the parameterizations of surface turbulent fluxes and of model atmospheric physics in controlling the surface latent heat flux. The major differences between the models used in this study occur during the suppressed phases of deep convection. They are attributed to differences in model atmospheric physics which is shown to control the near-surface relative humidity and thereby the surface latent heat flux. In contrast, during active phases of deep convection, turbulent air-sea flux parameterizations impact the latent heat flux through the drag coefficient and can represent two thirds of the divergence caused by the different atmospheric physics. The combined effects need to be accounted for to improve both the representation of latent heat flux and the atmospheric variables used to compute it.
H. Pang, S. Hou, A. Landais, V. Masson-Delmotte, J. Jouzel, H. C. Steen-Larsen, C. Risi, W. Zhang, S. Wu, Y. Li, C. An, Y. Wang, F. Prie, B. Minster, S. Falourd, B. Stenni, C. Scarchilli, K. Fujita, and P. Grigioni. Influence of Summer Sublimation on δD, δ18O, and δ17O in Precipitation, East Antarctica, and Implications for Climate Reconstruction From Ice Cores. Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres), 124:7339-7358, July 2019. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]
In central Antarctica, where accumulation rates are very low, summer sublimation of surface snow is a key element of the surface mass balance, but its fingerprint in isotopic composition of water (δD, δ18O, and δ17O) remains unclear. In this study, we examined the influence of summer sublimation on δD, δ18O, and δ17O in precipitation using data sets of isotopic composition of precipitation at various sites on the inland East Antarctica. We found unexpectedly low δ18O values in the summer precipitation, decoupled from surface air temperatures. This feature can be explained by the combined effects of weak or nonexistent temperature inversion and moisture recycling associated with sublimation-condensation processes in summer. Isotopic fractionation during the moisture-recycling process also explains the observed high values of d-excess and 17O-excess in summer precipitation. Our results suggest that the local cycle of sublimation-condensation in summer is an important process for the isotopic composition of surface snow, water vapor, and consequently precipitation on inland East Antarctica.
C. W. Stjern, M. T. Lund, B. H. Samset, G. Myhre, P. M. Forster, T. Andrews, O. Boucher, G. Faluvegi, D. Fläschner, T. Iversen, M. Kasoar, V. Kharin, A. Kirkevâg, J.-F. Lamarque, D. Olivié, T. Richardson, M. Sand, D. Shawki, D. Shindell, C. J. Smith, T. Takemura, and A. Voulgarakis. Arctic Amplification Response to Individual Climate Drivers. Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres), 124:6698-6717, July 2019. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]
The Arctic is experiencing rapid climate change in response to changes in greenhouse gases, aerosols, and other climate drivers. Emission changes in general, as well as geographical shifts in emissions and transport pathways of short-lived climate forcers, make it necessary to understand the influence of each climate driver on the Arctic. In the Precipitation Driver Response Model Intercomparison Project, 10 global climate models perturbed five different climate drivers separately (CO2, CH4, the solar constant, black carbon, and SO4). We show that the annual mean Arctic amplification (defined as the ratio between Arctic and the global mean temperature change) at the surface is similar between climate drivers, ranging from 1.9 ( an intermodel standard deviation of 0.4) for the solar to 2.3 (0.6) for the SO4 perturbations, with minimum amplification in the summer for all drivers. The vertical and seasonal temperature response patterns indicate that the Arctic is warmed through similar mechanisms for all climate drivers except black carbon. For all drivers, the precipitation change per degree global temperature change is positive in the Arctic, with a seasonality following that of the Arctic amplification. We find indications that SO4 perturbations produce a slightly stronger precipitation response than the other drivers, particularly compared to CO2.
A. ten Doeschate, G. Sutherland, H. Bellenger, S. Landwehr, L. Esters, and B. Ward. Upper Ocean Response to Rain Observed From a Vertical Profiler. Journal of Geophysical Research (Oceans), 124:3664-3681, June 2019. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]
Rainfall induces a vertical salinity gradient directly below the ocean surface, the strength and lifetime of which depend on the size of the rain event, the availability of mixing, and the air-sea heat fluxes. The presence of rain in turn influences the near-surface turbulent mixing and air-sea exchange processes. During a campaign in the midlatitude North Atlantic, the Air-Sea Interaction Profiler (ASIP) was used to investigate changes in the vertical distribution of salinity (S), temperature (T), and turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate (ε) caused by four rain events. During one of the rain events a strong shallow stratification was formed. The buoyancy effect of this freshwater lens changes the dominant wind-driven turbulent mixing. The surface momentum flux was limited to a shallow layer, and below it ε is reduced by 2 orders of magnitude. For a different rain event of higher-peak rain rate, the salinity anomaly is smaller and is dispersed deeper into the water column. The difference in ocean response shows that the upper ocean is sensitive to changes in the atmospheric forcing associated with the rain events. The observed salinity anomalies as a function of rain rate and wind speed are compared to relationships from studies with the 1-D turbulence model GOTM and satellite validation. The observations suggest that the vertical salinity anomaly is best described as a function of total rain. A higher-resolution prognostic model for sea surface salinity and temperature is shown to perform well in predicting the observed S and T anomalies.
N. Wen, Z. Liu, and L. Li. Direct ENSO impact on East Asian summer precipitation in the developing summer. Climate Dynamics, 52:6799-6815, June 2019. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]
In the developing stage of ENSO, the East Asia summer precipitation (EASP) shows a large variability that is significantly different from that in the decaying summer. In this study, we will focus on understanding the direct El Niño impact on the precipitation over East Asia in the developing summer in the observation. It is found that in its developing summer, the El Niño sea surface temperature anomaly affects the EASP directly from the eastern-central tropical Pacific, with little interference from the rest of the global ocean. The corresponding precipitation anomaly exhibits a tri-pole pattern, with two positive nodes in northeast and southeast China, sandwiched by a negative node in northern/central China. The tri-pole precipitation response is mainly attributed to the El Niño-induced cyclonic anomaly in Northeast Asia and the anticyclonic anomaly in the western North Pacific, which are part of the circulation anomalies of a circumglobal wave teleconnection in the subtropical jet in the Northern Hemisphere and a low level meridional wave train along East Asia coast. These circulation anomalies are generated by the summer El Niño in three pathways: (1) the vertical motion-induced perturbation over the central-eastern tropical Pacific entering into the subtropical jet excites a circumglobal wave train propagation eastward along the jet; (2) the El Niño-induced dipole heating across the equatorial Maritime Continent is mainly responsible for the meridional wave propagation along East Asia coast; (3) the El Niño-induced indirect heating over Northwest India triggers another perturbation in the jet waveguide, all contributing to the precipitation variation in East Asia. Further demonstration indicates the atmospheric response to the El Niño direct heating and perturbation over the tropical Pacific has the major contribution to the El Niño-induced circulation anomaly. As to the El Niño indirect heating over Northwset India, a zonal wave train response in the upper midlatitude which is mainly confined in the Eurasia sector makes a competing contribution to the circulation anomaly over East Asia.
B. Stevens, F. Ament, S. Bony, S. Crewell, F. Ewald, S. Gross, A. Hansen, L. Hirsch, M. Jacob, T. Kölling, H. Konow, B. Mayer, M. Wendisch, M. Wirth, K. Wolf, S. Bakan, M. Bauer-Pfundstein, M. Brueck, J. Delanoë, A. Ehrlich, D. Farrell, M. Forde, F. Gödde, H. Grob, M. Hagen, E. Jäkel, F. Jansen, C. Klepp, M. Klingebiel, M. Mech, G. Peters, M. Rapp, A. A. Wing, and T. Zinner. A High-Altitude Long-Range Aircraft Configured as a Cloud Observatory: The NARVAL Expeditions. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 100:1061-1077, June 2019. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]
A configuration of the High-Altitude Long-Range Research Aircraft (HALO) as a remote sensing cloud observatory is described, and its use is illustrated with results from the first and second Next-Generation Aircraft Remote Sensing for Validation (NARVAL) field studies. Measurements from the second NARVAL (NARVAL2) are used to highlight the ability of HALO, when configured in this fashion, to characterize not only the distribution of water condensate in the atmosphere, but also its impact on radiant energy transfer and the covarying large-scale meteorological conditionsincluding the large-scale velocity field and its vertical component. The NARVAL campaigns with HALO demonstrate the potential of airborne cloud observatories to address long-standing riddles in studies of the coupling between clouds and circulation and are helping to motivate a new generation of field studies.
T. Tang, D. Shindell, G. Faluvegi, G. Myhre, D. Olivié, A. Voulgarakis, M. Kasoar, T. Andrews, O. Boucher, P. M. Forster, Ø. Hodnebrog, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevâg, J.-F. Lamarque, T. Richardson, B. H. Samset, C. W. Stjern, T. Takemura, and C. Smith. Comparison of Effective Radiative Forcing Calculations Using Multiple Methods, Drivers, and Models. Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres), 124:4382-4394, April 2019. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]
We compare six methods of estimating effective radiative forcing (ERF) using a set of atmosphere-ocean general circulation models. This is the first multiforcing agent, multimodel evaluation of ERF values calculated using different methods. We demonstrate that previously reported apparent consistency between the ERF values derived from fixed sea surface temperature simulations and linear regression holds for most climate forcings, excluding black carbon (BC). When land adjustment is accounted for, however, the fixed sea surface temperature ERF values are generally 10-30% larger than ERFs derived using linear regression across all forcing agents, with a much larger ( 70-100%) discrepancy for BC. Except for BC, this difference can be largely reduced by either using radiative kernel techniques or by exponential regression. Responses of clouds and their effects on shortwave radiation show the strongest variability in all experiments, limiting the application of regression-based ERF in small forcing simulations.
T. Wu, Y. Lu, Y. Fang, X. Xin, L. Li, W. Li, W. Jie, J. Zhang, Y. Liu, L. Zhang, F. Zhang, Y. Zhang, F. Wu, J. Li, M. Chu, Z. Wang, X. Shi, X. Liu, M. Wei, A. Huang, Y. Zhang, and X. Liu. The Beijing Climate Center Climate System Model (BCC-CSM): the main progress from CMIP5 to CMIP6. Geoscientific Model Development, 12:1573-1600, April 2019. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]
The main advancements of the Beijing Climate Center (BCC) climate system model from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) to phase 6 (CMIP6) are presented, in terms of physical parameterizations and model performance. BCC-CSM1.1 and BCC-CSM1.1m are the two models involved in CMIP5, whereas BCC-CSM2-MR, BCC-CSM2-HR, and BCC-ESM1.0 are the three models configured for CMIP6. Historical simulations from 1851 to 2014 from BCC-CSM2-MR (CMIP6) and from 1851 to 2005 from BCC-CSM1.1m (CMIP5) are used for models assessment. The evaluation matrices include the following: (a) the energy budget at top-of-atmosphere; (b) surface air temperature, precipitation, and atmospheric circulation for the global and East Asia regions; (c) the sea surface temperature (SST) in the tropical Pacific; (d) sea-ice extent and thickness and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC); and (e) climate variations at different timescales, such as the global warming trend in the 20th century, the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), and the diurnal cycle of precipitation. Compared with BCC-CSM1.1m, BCC-CSM2-MR shows significant improvements in many aspects including the tropospheric air temperature and circulation at global and regional scales in East Asia and climate variability at different timescales, such as the QBO, the MJO, the diurnal cycle of precipitation, interannual variations of SST in the equatorial Pacific, and the long-term trend of surface air temperature.
F. Lemonnier, J.-B. Madeleine, C. Claud, C. Genthon, C. Durán-Alarcón, C. Palerme, A. Berne, N. Souverijns, N. van Lipzig, I. V. Gorodetskaya, T. L'Ecuyer, and N. Wood. Evaluation of CloudSat snowfall rate profiles by a comparison with in situ micro-rain radar observations in East Antarctica. The Cryosphere, 13:943-954, March 2019. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]
The Antarctic continent is a vast desert and is the coldest and the most unknown area on Earth. It contains the Antarctic ice sheet, the largest continental water reservoir on Earth that could be affected by the current global warming, leading to sea level rise. The only significant supply of ice is through precipitation, which can be observed from the surface and from space. Remote-sensing observations of the coastal regions and the inner continent using CloudSat radar give an estimated rate of snowfall but with uncertainties twice as large as each single measured value, whereas climate models give a range from half to twice the space-time-averaged observations. The aim of this study is the evaluation of the vertical precipitation rate profiles of CloudSat radar by comparison with two surface-based micro-rain radars (MRRs), located at the coastal French Dumont d'Urville station and at the Belgian Princess Elisabeth station located in the Dronning Maud Land escarpment zone. This in turn leads to a better understanding and reassessment of CloudSat uncertainties. We compared a total of four precipitation events, two per station, when CloudSat overpassed within 10 km of the station and we compared these two different datasets at each vertical level. The correlation between both datasets is near-perfect, even though climatic and geographic conditions are different for the two stations. Using different CloudSat and MRR vertical levels, we obtain 10 km space-scale and short-timescale (a few seconds) CloudSat uncertainties from -13 % up to +22 %. This confirms the robustness of the CloudSat retrievals of snowfall over Antarctica above the blind zone and justifies further analyses of this dataset.
M. Colin, S. Sherwood, O. Geoffroy, S. Bony, and D. Fuchs. Identifying the Sources of Convective Memory in Cloud-Resolving Simulations. Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 76:947-962, March 2019. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]
Convection is often assumed to be controlled by the simultaneous environmental fields. But to what extent does it also remember its past behavior? This study proposes a new framework in which the memory of previous convective-scale behavior, “microstate memory,” is distinguished from macrostate memory, and conducts numerical experiments to reveal these memory types. A suite of idealized, cloud-resolving radiative-convective equilibrium simulations in a 200-km square domain is performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. Three deep convective cases are analyzed: unorganized, organized by low-level wind shear, and self-aggregated. The systematic responses to sudden horizontal homogenization of various fields, in various atmospheric layers, designed to eliminate their specific microstructure, are compared in terms of precipitation change and time of recovery to equilibrium. Results imply a substantial role for microstate memory. Across organization types, microstructure in water vapor and temperature has a larger and longer-lasting effect on convection than in winds or hydrometeors. Microstructure in the subcloud layer or the shallow cloud layer has more impact than in the free troposphere. The recovery time scale dramatically increases from unorganized (2-3 h) to organized cases (24 h or more). Longer-time-scale adjustments also occur and appear to involve both small-scale structures and domain-mean fields. These results indicate that most convective microstate memory is stored in low-level thermodynamic structures, potentially involving cold pools and hot thermals. This memory appears strongly enhanced by convective organization. Implications of these results for parameterizing convection are discussed.
S. Bony and B. Stevens. Measuring Area-Averaged Vertical Motions with Dropsondes. Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 76:767-783, March 2019. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]
Measurements of vertical profiles of areal-mean mass divergence, vorticity, and vertical velocity, based on dropsondes distributed over an area of 25 000 km2, are presented. The dropsondes were released with high frequency along circular flight patterns during an airborne field campaign taking place over the tropical Atlantic near Barbados. Vertical profiles of the area-averaged mass divergence and vorticity were computed from the horizontal wind profiles, and the area-averaged vertical velocity was then inferred from the divergence. The consistency of measurements over pairs of circles flown within the same air mass demonstrated the reproducibility of the measurements, and showed that they characterize the environmental conditions on the scale of the measurement, rather than being dominated by measurement error or small-scale wind variability. The estimates from dropsondes were found to be consistent with the observed cloud field, with Lagrangian estimates of the mean vertical velocity inferred from the free-tropospheric humidity field, and with the mean vertical velocity derived from simulations using an atmospheric model representing kilometer-scale motions and initialized with meteorological analyses. In trade wind-like conditions, the divergence and vorticity profiles exhibit a rich vertical structure and a significant variability in space and time. Yet a few features appear to be robust, such as the presence of layers of mass convergence at the top of moist layers, extrema of the area-averaged vertical velocity at the top of the subcloud layer and in the midtroposphere, and minima around the trade inversion near 2 km. The analysis of spatial and temporal autocorrelation scales suggests that the divergent mass field measured from dropsondes is representative of the environment of shallow clouds.
L. Guo, Z. Jiang, M. Ding, W. Chen, and L. Li. Downscaling and projection of summer rainfall in Eastern China using a nonhomogeneous hidden Markov model. International Journal of Climatology, 39:1319-1330, March 2019. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]
F. Brient, F. Couvreux, N. Villefranque, C. Rio, and R. Honnert. Object-Oriented Identification of Coherent Structures in Large Eddy Simulations: Importance of Downdrafts in Stratocumulus. Geophysical Research Letters, 46:2854-2864, March 2019. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]
A novel methodology is proposed to characterize coherent structures in large eddy simulations. Based on two passive tracers emitted respectively at the surface and at cloud top, the object-oriented framework allows individual characterization of coherent tridimensional plumes within the flow. Applying this method in a simulation of the diurnal cycle of a marine stratocumulus-topped boundary layer shows that coherent updraft and downdraft structures contribute to most of the total transport of heat and moisture, although covering a small part of the domain volume. On average, downdrafts contribute equally compared to updrafts for moisture fluxes and more than updrafts for heat fluxes. The relative contribution of updraft and downdraft objects to heat transport exhibits a large diurnal cycle, which suggests cloud-turbulence-radiation interaction. Our results suggest that subgrid downdraft properties within stratocumulus-topped boundary layers should be represented through nonlocal mass-flux parameterization in climate models.
N. Philippon, G. Cornu, L. Monteil, V. Gond, V. Moron, J. Pergaud, G. Sèze, S. Bigot, P. Camberlin, C. Doumenge, A. Fayolle, and A. Ngomanda. The light-deficient climates of western Central African evergreen forests. Environmental Research Letters, 14(3):034007, March 2019. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]
Rainfall thresholds under which forests grow in Central Africa are lower than those of Amazonia and southeast Asia. Attention is thus regularly paid to rainfall whose seasonality and interannual variability has been shown to control Central African forests water balance and photosynthetic activity. Nonetheless, light availability is also recognized as a key factor to tropical forests. Therefore this study aims to explore the light conditions prevailing across Central Africa, and their potential impact on forests traits. Using satellite estimates of hourly irradiance, we find first that the four main types of diurnal cycles of irradiance extracted translate into different levels of rainfall, evapotranspiration, direct and diffuse light. Then accounting for scale interactions between the diurnal and annual cycles, we show that the daily quantity and quality of light considerably vary across Central African forests during the annual cycle: the uniqueness of western Central Africa and Gabon in particular, with strongly light-deficient climates especially during the main dry season, points out. Lastly, using an original map of terra firme forests, we also show that most of the evergreen forests are located in western Central Africa and Gabon. We postulate that despite mean annual precipitation below 2000 mm yr-1, the light-deficient climates of western Central Africa can harbour evergreen forests because of an extensive low-level cloudiness developing during the JuneSeptember main dry season, which strongly reduces the water demand and enhances the quality of light available for tree photosynthesis. These findings pave the way for further analyses of the past and future changes in the light-deficient climates of western Central Africa and the vulnerability of evergreen forests to these changes.
Y. Li, D. W. J. Thompson, S. Bony, and T. M. Merlis. Thermodynamic Control on the Poleward Shift of the Extratropical Jet in Climate Change Simulations: The Role of Rising High Clouds and Their Radiative Effects. Journal of Climate, 32:917-934, February 2019. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]
J. Escribano, A. Bozzo, P. Dubuisson, J. Flemming, R. J. Hogan, L. C. -Labonnote, and O. Boucher. A benchmark for testing the accuracy and computational cost of shortwave top-of-atmosphere reflectance calculations in clear-sky aerosol-laden atmospheres. Geoscientific Model Development, 12:805-827, February 2019. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]
Accurate calculations of shortwave reflectances in clear-sky aerosol-laden atmospheres are necessary for various applications in atmospheric sciences. However, computational cost becomes increasingly important for some applications such as data assimilation of top-of-atmosphere reflectances in models of atmospheric composition. This study aims to provide a benchmark that can help in assessing these two requirements in combination. We describe a protocol and input data for 44 080 cases involving various solar and viewing geometries, four different surfaces (one oceanic bidirectional reflectance function and three albedo values for a Lambertian surface), eight aerosol optical depths, five wavelengths, and four aerosol types. We first consider two models relying on the discrete ordinate method: VLIDORT (in vector and scalar configurations) and DISORT (scalar configuration only). We use VLIDORT in its vector configuration as a reference model and quantify the loss of accuracy due to (i) neglecting the effect of polarization in DISORT and VLIDORT (scalar) models and (ii) decreasing the number of streams in DISORT. We further test two other models: the 6SV2 model, relying on the successive orders of scattering method, and Forward-Lobe Two-Stream Radiance Model (FLOTSAM), a new model under development by two of the authors. Typical mean fractional errors of 2.8 % and 2.4 % for 6SV2 and FLOTSAM are found, respectively. Computational cost depends on the input parameters but also on the code implementation and application as some models solve the radiative transfer equations for a range of geometries while others do not. All necessary input and output data are provided as a Supplement as a potential resource for interested developers and users of radiative transfer models.
J. M. de Moor, J. Stix, G. Avard, C. Muller, E. Corrales, J. A. Diaz, A. Alan, J. Brenes, J. Pacheco, A. Aiuppa, and T. P. Fischer. Insights on Hydrothermal-Magmatic Interactions and Eruptive Processes at Poás Volcano (Costa Rica) From High-Frequency Gas Monitoring and Drone Measurements. Geophysical Research Letters, 46:1293-1302, February 2019. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]
Identification of unambiguous signals of volcanic unrest is crucial in hazard assessment. Processes leading to phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions remain poorly understood, inhibiting effective eruption forecasting. Our 5-year gas record from Poás volcano, combined with geophysical data, reveals systematic behavior associated with hydrothermal-magmatic eruptions. Three eruptive episodes are covered, each with distinct geochemical and geophysical characteristics. Periods with larger eruptions tend to be associated with stronger excursions in monitoring data, particularly in SO2/CO2 and SO2 flux. The explosive 2017 phreatomagmatic eruption was the largest eruption at Poás since 1953 and was preceded by dramatic changes in gas and geophysical parameters. The use of drones played a crucial role in gas monitoring during this eruptive period. Hydrothermal sealing and volatile accumulation, followed by top-down reactivation of a shallow previously emplaced magma body upon seal failure, are proposed as important processes leading to and contributing to the explosivity of the 2017 eruption.
C. G. Menéndez, J. Giles, R. Ruscica, P. Zaninelli, T. Coronato, M. Falco, A. Sörensson, L. Fita, A. Carril, and L. Li. Temperature variability and soil-atmosphere interaction in South America simulated by two regional climate models. Climate Dynamics, February 2019. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]
Interannual variability of surface air temperature over South America is investigated and, based on previous studies, thought to be partly the consequence of soil-atmosphere interaction. Annual and monthly averages of surface air temperature, evapotranspiration, heat fluxes, surface radiation and cloud cover, simulated by two regional climate models, RCA4 and LMDZ, were analyzed. To fully reveal the role of soil as a driver of temperature variability, simulations were performed with and without soil moisture-atmosphere coupling (Control and Uncoupled). Zones of large variance in air temperature and strong soil moisture-atmosphere coupling are found in parts of La Plata Basin and in eastern Brazil. The two models show different behaviors in terms of coupling magnitude and its geographical distribution, being the coupling strength higher in RCA4 and weaker in LMDZ. RCA4 also shows greater amplitude of the annual cycle of the monthly surface air temperature compared to LMDZ. In both regions and for both models, the Uncoupled experiment tends to be colder and exhibits smaller amplitude of the interannual variability and larger evaporative fraction than the Control does. It is evidenced that variability of the land surface affects, and is affected by, variability of the surface energy balance and that interannual temperature variability is partly driven by land-atmosphere interaction.
S. Santra, S. Verma, K. Fujita, I. Chakraborty, O. Boucher, T. Takemura, J. F. Burkhart, F. Matt, and M. Sharma. Simulations of black carbon (BC) aerosol impact over Hindu Kush Himalayan sites: validation, sources, and implications on glacier runoff. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, 19:2441-2460, February 2019. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]
We estimated the black carbon (BC) concentration over the Hindu Kush Himalayan region (HKH), its impact on snow albedo reduction, and sensitivity on annual glacier runoff over the identified glaciers. These estimates were based on free-running aerosol simulations (freesimu) and constrained aerosol simulations (constrsimu) from an atmospheric general circulation model, combined with numerical simulations of a glacial mass balance model. BC concentration estimated from freesimu performed better over higher altitude (HA) HKH stations than that over lower altitude (LA) stations. The estimates from constrsimu mirrored the measurements well when implemented for LA stations. Estimates of the spatial distribution of BC concentration in the snowpack (BCc) over the HKH region led to identifying a hot-spot zone located around Manora Peak. Among glaciers over this zone, BCc (60 g kg-1) and BC-induced snow albedo reduction (5 %) were estimated explicitly being high during the pre-monsoon for Pindari, Poting, Chorabari, and Gangotri glaciers (which are major sources of fresh water for the Indian subcontinent). The rate of increase of BCc in recent years (i.e., over the period 1961-2010) was, however, estimated to be the highest for the Zemu Glacier. Sensitivity analysis with a glacial mass balance model indicated the increase in annual runoff from debris-free glacier areas due to BC-induced snow albedo reduction (SAR) corresponding to the BCc estimated for the HKH glaciers was 4 %-18 %, with the highest being for the Milam and Pindari glaciers. The rate of increase in annual glacier runoff per unit BC-induced percentage SAR was specifically high for Milam, Pindari, and Sankalpa glaciers. The source-specific contribution to atmospheric BC aerosols by emission sources led to identifying the potential emission source being primarily from the biofuel combustion in the Indo-Gangetic Plain south of 30o N, but also from open burning in a more remote region north of 30o N.
S. Bastin, P. Drobinski, M. Chiriaco, O. Bock, R. Roehrig, C. Gallardo, D. Conte, M. Domínguez Alonso, L. Li, P. Lionello, and A. C. Parracho. Impact of humidity biases on light precipitation occurrence: observations versus simulations. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, 19:1471-1490, February 2019. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]
This work uses a network of GPS stations over Europe from which a homogenized integrated water vapor (IWV) dataset has been retrieved, completed with colocated temperature and precipitation measurements over specific stations to (i) estimate the biases of six regional climate models over Europe in terms of humidity; (ii) understand their origins; and (iii) finally assess the impact of these biases on the frequency of occurrence of precipitation. The evaluated simulations have been performed in the framework of HYMEX/Med-CORDEX programs and cover the Mediterranean area and part of Europe at horizontal resolutions of 50 to 12 km.
The analysis shows that models tend to overestimate the low values of IWV and the use of the nudging technique reduces the differences between GPS and simulated IWV. Results suggest that physics of models mostly explain the mean biases, while dynamics affects the variability. The land surface-atmosphere exchanges affect the estimation of IWV over most part of Europe, especially in summer. The limitations of the models to represent these processes explain part of their biases in IWV. However, models correctly simulate the dependance between IWV and temperature, and specifically the deviation that this relationship experiences regarding the Clausius-Clapeyron law after a critical value of temperature (Tbreak). The high spatial variability of Tbreak indicates that it has a strong dependence on local processes which drive the local humidity sources. This explains why the maximum values of IWV are not necessarily observed over warmer areas, which are often dry areas.
Finally, it is shown over the SIRTA observatory (near Paris) that the frequency of occurrence of light precipitation is strongly conditioned by the biases in IWV and by the precision of the models to reproduce the distribution of IWV as a function of the temperature. The results of the models indicate that a similar dependence occurs in other areas of Europe, especially where precipitation has a predominantly convective character. According to the observations, for each range of temperature, there is a critical value of IWV from which precipitation starts to increase. The critical values and the probability of exceeding them are simulated with a bias that depends on the model. Those models, which generally present light precipitation too often, show lower critical values and higher probability of exceeding them.
L. Robert, G. Rivière, and F. Codron. Effect of Upper- and Lower-Level Baroclinicity on the Persistence of the Leading Mode of Midlatitude Jet Variability. Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 76:155-169, January 2019. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]
J. Beaumet, G. Krinner, M. Déqué, R. Haarsma, and L. Li. Assessing bias corrections of oceanic surface conditions for atmospheric models. Geoscientific Model Development, 12:321-342, January 2019. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]
Future sea surface temperature and sea-ice concentration from coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models such as those from the CMIP5 experiment are often used as boundary forcings for the downscaling of future climate experiments. Yet, these models show some considerable biases when compared to the observations over present climate. In this paper, existing methods such as an absolute anomaly method and a quantile-quantile method for sea surface temperature (SST) as well as a look-up table and a relative anomaly method for sea-ice concentration (SIC) are presented. For SIC, we also propose a new analogue method. Each method is objectively evaluated with a perfect model test using CMIP5 model experiments and some real-case applications using observations. We find that with respect to other previously existing methods, the analogue method is a substantial improvement for the bias correction of future SIC. Consistency between the constructed SST and SIC fields is an important constraint to consider, as is consistency between the prescribed sea-ice concentration and thickness; we show that the latter can be ensured by using a simple parameterisation of sea-ice thickness as a function of instantaneous and annual minimum SIC.
R. Huang, H. Zhu, E. Liang, J. Grießinger, J. Wernicke, W. Yu, P. Hochreuther, C. Risi, Y. Zeng, A. Fremme, H. Sodemann, and A. Bräuning. Temperature signals in tree-ring oxygen isotope series from the northern slope of the Himalaya. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 506:455-465, January 2019. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]
Oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) are the most commonly used parameters recorded in paleoclimate archives since they link different natural archives via the water cycle. Tree-ring δ18O (δ18OTR) has been widely used for hydroclimate reconstructions in the Himalaya. However, few of them record temperature signals, which are dominant in Himalaya ice-core δ18O. We hypothesize that the “precipitation amount effect” due to the South Asian Summer Monsoon (SASM) may overprint temperature signals in δ18OTR series. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether temperature signals could be found in the δ18OTR in locations where the influence of SASM is weak. We developed a 105-yr δ18OTR chronology from the northern slope of the western Himalaya which greatly blocks the SASM. Our δ18OTR clearly shows stronger correlations with temperature (dominant winter and weak summer) than summer precipitation signals. It also agrees well with summer soil moisture δ18O simulated by the global isotope model LMDZ4 (r = 0.72, 1979-2010). In LMDZ4, low winter temperature was found to increase winter snowfall and subsequent snow melt, and thus to increase the contribution of winter snowfall to soil moisture in summer at the expense of summer precipitation. Since winter snowfall is more depleted than summer precipitation, this leads to lower summer soil moisture δ18O. The temperature signals found in our δ18OTR series are consistent with those found in the Dasuopu ice-core δ18O. This implies that δ18OTR series from the southwest Tibetan Plateau (TP), with a weak monsoon, hold great potential to capture temperature signals. Climate interpretations of δ18O proxies in the Himalaya largely depend on the influence of seasonal water from the dominant atmosphere circulation systems of the westerlies or monsoon. The δ18O proxies from the monsoon-affected region have a higher potential for the reconstruction of boreal summer hydroclimate, whereas δ18O proxies from westerly-affected sites have a higher potential for temperature reconstructions.