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@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c year=2019 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_EMC32019.txt -ob lmd_EMC32019.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/Publis_LMDEMC3.link.bib}}
  author = {{Torres}, O. and {Braconnot}, P. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Roehrig}, R. and 
	{Marti}, O. and {Belamari}, S. and {Lefebvre}, M.-P.},
  title = {{Competition Between Atmospheric and Surface Parameterizations for the Control of Air-Sea Latent Heat Fluxes in Two Single-Column Models}},
  journal = {\grl},
  year = 2019,
  month = jul,
  volume = 46,
  pages = {7780-7789},
  abstract = {{A single-column model approach conducted in the context of the
Madden-Julian Oscillation through the CINDY2011/Dynamics of the
Madden-Julian Oscillation field campaign is used to disentangle the
respective role of the parameterizations of surface turbulent fluxes and
of model atmospheric physics in controlling the surface latent heat
flux. The major differences between the models used in this study occur
during the suppressed phases of deep convection. They are attributed to
differences in model atmospheric physics which is shown to control the
near-surface relative humidity and thereby the surface latent heat flux.
In contrast, during active phases of deep convection, turbulent air-sea
flux parameterizations impact the latent heat flux through the drag
coefficient and can represent two thirds of the divergence caused by the
different atmospheric physics. The combined effects need to be accounted
for to improve both the representation of latent heat flux and the
atmospheric variables used to compute it.
  doi = {10.1029/2019GL082720},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2019GeoRL..46.7780T},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Cauquoin}, A. and {Risi}, C. and {Vignon}, {\'E}.},
  title = {{Importance of the advection scheme for the simulation of water isotopes over Antarctica by atmospheric general circulation models: A case study for present-day and Last Glacial Maximum with LMDZ-iso}},
  journal = {Earth and Planetary Science Letters},
  keywords = {water stable isotopes, Antarctica, AGCM, advection, isotope-temperature gradient},
  year = 2019,
  month = oct,
  volume = 524,
  eid = {115731},
  pages = {115731},
  abstract = {{Atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) are known to have a warm
and isotopically enriched bias over Antarctica. We test here the
hypothesis that these biases are partly consequences of a too diffusive
advection. Exploiting the LMDZ-iso model, we show that a less diffusive
representation of the advection, especially on the horizontal, is very
important to reduce the bias in the isotopic contents of precipitation
above this area. The choice of an appropriate representation of the
advection is thus essential when using GCMs for paleoclimate
applications based on polar water isotopes. Too much diffusive mixing
along the poleward transport leads to overestimated isotopic contents in
water vapor because dehydration by mixing follows a more enriched path
than dehydration by Rayleigh distillation. The near-air surface
temperature is also influenced, to a lesser extent, by the diffusive
properties of the advection scheme directly via the advection of the air
and indirectly via the radiative effects of changes in high cloud
fraction and water vapor. A too diffusive horizontal advection increases
the temperature and so also contributes to enrich the isotopic contents
of water vapor over Antarctica through a reduction of the distillation.
The temporal relationship, from Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to
present-day conditions, between the mean annual near-air surface
temperature and the water isotopic contents of precipitation for a
specific location can also be impacted, with significant consequences on
the paleo-temperature reconstruction from observed changes in water
  doi = {10.1016/j.epsl.2019.115731},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2019E%26PSL.52415731C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Seviour}, W.~J.~M. and {Codron}, F. and {Doddridge}, E.~W. and 
	{Ferreira}, D. and {Gnanadesikan}, A. and {Kelley}, M. and {Kostov}, Y. and 
	{Marshall}, J. and {Polvani}, L.~M. and {Thomas}, J.~L. and 
	{Waugh}, D.~W.},
  title = {{The Southern Ocean Sea Surface Temperature Response to Ozone Depletion: A Multimodel Comparison}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2019,
  month = aug,
  volume = 32,
  pages = {5107-5121},
  abstract = {{The effect of the Antarctic ozone hole extends downward from the
stratosphere, with clear signatures in surface weather patterns
including a positive trend in the southern annular mode (SAM). Several
recent studies have used coupled climate models to investigate the
impact of these changes on Southern Ocean sea surface temperature (SST),
notably motivated by the observed cooling from the late 1970s. Here we
examine the robustness of these model results through comparison of both
previously published and new simulations. We focus on the calculation of
climate response functions (CRFs), transient responses to an
instantaneous step change in ozone concentrations. The CRF for most
models consists of a rapid cooling of SST followed by a slower warming
trend. However, intermodel comparison reveals large uncertainties, such
that even the sign of the impact of ozone depletion on historical SST,
when reconstructed from the CRF, remains unconstrained. Comparison of
these CRFs with SST responses to a hypothetical step change in the SAM,
inferred through lagged linear regression, shows broadly similar
results. Causes of uncertainty are explored by examining relationships
between model climatologies and their CRFs. The intermodel spread in
CRFs can be reproduced by varying a single subgrid-scale mixing
parameter within a single model. Antarctic sea ice CRFs are also
calculated: these do not generally exhibit the two-time-scale behavior
of SST, suggesting a complex relationship between the two. Finally, by
constraining model climatology-response relationships with observational
values, we conclude that ozone depletion is unlikely to have been the
primary driver of the observed SST cooling trend.
  doi = {10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0109.1},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2019JCli...32.5107S},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Darmaraki}, S. and {Somot}, S. and {Sevault}, F. and {Nabat}, P. and 
	{Cabos Narvaez}, W.~D. and {Cavicchia}, L. and {Djurdjevic}, V. and 
	{Li}, L. and {Sannino}, G. and {Sein}, D.~V.},
  title = {{Future evolution of Marine Heatwaves in the Mediterranean Sea}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Marine Heatwaves, Mediterranean Sea, Coupled regional climate models, Future scenario, Extreme ocean temperatures, Med-CORDEX, Climate change, Climate simulations},
  year = 2019,
  month = aug,
  volume = 53,
  pages = {1371-1392},
  abstract = {{Extreme ocean warming events, known as marine heatwaves (MHWs), have
been observed to perturb significantly marine ecosystems and fisheries
around the world. Here, we propose a detection method for long-lasting
and large-scale summer MHWs, using a local, climatological 99th
percentile threshold, based on present-climate (1976-2005) daily SST. To
assess their future evolution in the Mediterranean Sea we use, for the
first time, a dedicated ensemble of fully-coupled Regional Climate
System Models from the Med-CORDEX initiative and a multi-scenario
approach. The models appear to simulate well MHW properties during
historical period, despite biases in mean and extreme SST. In response
to increasing greenhouse gas forcing, the events become stronger and
more intense under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 than RCP2.6. By 2100 and under
RCP8.5, simulations project at least one long-lasting MHW every year, up
to three months longer, about 4 times more intense and 42 times more
severe than present-day events. They are expected to occur from
June-October and to affect at peak the entire basin. Their evolution is
found to occur mainly due to an increase in the mean SST, but increased
daily SST variability also plays a noticeable role. Until the mid-21st
century, MHW characteristics rise independently of the choice of the
emission scenario, the influence of which becomes more evident by the
end of the period. Further analysis reveals different climate change
responses in certain configurations, more likely linked to their driving
global climate model rather than to the individual model biases.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-019-04661-z},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2019ClDy...53.1371D},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Muller}, C. and {Allanche}, T. and {Paillet}, P. and {Duhamel}, O. and 
	{Goiffon}, V. and {Rizzolo}, S. and {Lépine}, T. and {Rousson}, J. and 
	{Baudu}, J.-P. and {Macé}, J.-R. and {Desjonqueres}, H. and 
	{Monsanglant Louvet}, C. and {Ouerdane}, Y. and {Boukenter}, A. and 
	{Girard}, S.},
  title = {{Investigations of the MGy dose level radiation effects on the photometric budget of a radiation-hardened CMOS-based camera}},
  journal = {\ao},
  year = 2019,
  month = aug,
  volume = 58,
  pages = {6165},
  doi = {10.1364/AO.58.006165},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2019ApOpt..58.6165M},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Pang}, H. and {Hou}, S. and {Landais}, A. and {Masson-Delmotte}, V. and 
	{Jouzel}, J. and {Steen-Larsen}, H.~C. and {Risi}, C. and {Zhang}, W. and 
	{Wu}, S. and {Li}, Y. and {An}, C. and {Wang}, Y. and {Prie}, F. and 
	{Minster}, B. and {Falourd}, S. and {Stenni}, B. and {Scarchilli}, C. and 
	{Fujita}, K. and {Grigioni}, P.},
  title = {{Influence of Summer Sublimation on {$\delta$}D, {$\delta$}$^{18}$O, and {$\delta$}$^{17}$O in Precipitation, East Antarctica, and Implications for Climate Reconstruction From Ice Cores}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Antarctica, ice core, water stable isotopes, climate},
  year = 2019,
  month = jul,
  volume = 124,
  pages = {7339-7358},
  abstract = {{In central Antarctica, where accumulation rates are very low, summer
sublimation of surface snow is a key element of the surface mass
balance, but its fingerprint in isotopic composition of water ({$\delta$}D,
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O, and {$\delta$}$^{17}$O) remains unclear. In
this study, we examined the influence of summer sublimation on {$\delta$}D,
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O, and {$\delta$}$^{17}$O in precipitation using
data sets of isotopic composition of precipitation at various sites on
the inland East Antarctica. We found unexpectedly low
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O values in the summer precipitation, decoupled from
surface air temperatures. This feature can be explained by the combined
effects of weak or nonexistent temperature inversion and moisture
recycling associated with sublimation-condensation processes in summer.
Isotopic fractionation during the moisture-recycling process also
explains the observed high values of d-excess and $^{17}$O-excess
in summer precipitation. Our results suggest that the local cycle of
sublimation-condensation in summer is an important process for the
isotopic composition of surface snow, water vapor, and consequently
precipitation on inland East Antarctica.
  doi = {10.1029/2018JD030218},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2019JGRD..124.7339P},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Stjern}, C.~W. and {Lund}, M.~T. and {Samset}, B.~H. and {Myhre}, G. and 
	{Forster}, P.~M. and {Andrews}, T. and {Boucher}, O. and {Faluvegi}, G. and 
	{Fl{\"a}schner}, D. and {Iversen}, T. and {Kasoar}, M. and {Kharin}, V. and 
	{Kirkev{\^a}g}, A. and {Lamarque}, J.-F. and {Olivié}, D. and 
	{Richardson}, T. and {Sand}, M. and {Shawki}, D. and {Shindell}, D. and 
	{Smith}, C.~J. and {Takemura}, T. and {Voulgarakis}, A.},
  title = {{Arctic Amplification Response to Individual Climate Drivers}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {Arctic amplification, greenhouse gases, aerosols, climate drivers, climate change},
  year = 2019,
  month = jul,
  volume = 124,
  pages = {6698-6717},
  abstract = {{The Arctic is experiencing rapid climate change in response to changes
in greenhouse gases, aerosols, and other climate drivers. Emission
changes in general, as well as geographical shifts in emissions and
transport pathways of short-lived climate forcers, make it necessary to
understand the influence of each climate driver on the Arctic. In the
Precipitation Driver Response Model Intercomparison Project, 10 global
climate models perturbed five different climate drivers separately
(CO$_{2}$, CH$_{4}$, the solar constant, black carbon, and
SO$_{4}$). We show that the annual mean Arctic amplification
(defined as the ratio between Arctic and the global mean temperature
change) at the surface is similar between climate drivers, ranging from
1.9 ({\plusmn} an intermodel standard deviation of 0.4) for the solar to
2.3 ({\plusmn}0.6) for the SO$_{4}$ perturbations, with minimum
amplification in the summer for all drivers. The vertical and seasonal
temperature response patterns indicate that the Arctic is warmed through
similar mechanisms for all climate drivers except black carbon. For all
drivers, the precipitation change per degree global temperature change
is positive in the Arctic, with a seasonality following that of the
Arctic amplification. We find indications that SO$_{4}$
perturbations produce a slightly stronger precipitation response than
the other drivers, particularly compared to CO$_{2}$.
  doi = {10.1029/2018JD029726},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2019JGRD..124.6698S},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{ten Doeschate}, A. and {Sutherland}, G. and {Bellenger}, H. and 
	{Landwehr}, S. and {Esters}, L. and {Ward}, B.},
  title = {{Upper Ocean Response to Rain Observed From a Vertical Profiler}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Oceans)},
  year = 2019,
  month = jun,
  volume = 124,
  pages = {3664-3681},
  abstract = {{Rainfall induces a vertical salinity gradient directly below the ocean
surface, the strength and lifetime of which depend on the size of the
rain event, the availability of mixing, and the air-sea heat fluxes. The
presence of rain in turn influences the near-surface turbulent mixing
and air-sea exchange processes. During a campaign in the midlatitude
North Atlantic, the Air-Sea Interaction Profiler (ASIP) was used to
investigate changes in the vertical distribution of salinity (S),
temperature (T), and turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate
({$\epsilon$}) caused by four rain events. During one of the rain events a
strong shallow stratification was formed. The buoyancy effect of this
freshwater lens changes the dominant wind-driven turbulent mixing. The
surface momentum flux was limited to a shallow layer, and below it
{$\epsilon$} is reduced by 2 orders of magnitude. For a different rain
event of higher-peak rain rate, the salinity anomaly is smaller and is
dispersed deeper into the water column. The difference in ocean response
shows that the upper ocean is sensitive to changes in the atmospheric
forcing associated with the rain events. The observed salinity anomalies
as a function of rain rate and wind speed are compared to relationships
from studies with the 1-D turbulence model GOTM and satellite
validation. The observations suggest that the vertical salinity anomaly
is best described as a function of total rain. A higher-resolution
prognostic model for sea surface salinity and temperature is shown to
perform well in predicting the observed S and T anomalies.
  doi = {10.1029/2018JC014060},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2019JGRC..124.3664T},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Wen}, N. and {Liu}, Z. and {Li}, L.},
  title = {{Direct ENSO impact on East Asian summer precipitation in the developing summer}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Direct impact of El Ni{\~n}o, East Asian summer precipitation, Developing stage summer, Physical mechanism of El Ni{\~n}o impact},
  year = 2019,
  month = jun,
  volume = 52,
  pages = {6799-6815},
  abstract = {{In the developing stage of ENSO, the East Asia summer precipitation
(EASP) shows a large variability that is significantly different from
that in the decaying summer. In this study, we will focus on
understanding the direct El Ni{\~n}o impact on the precipitation over
East Asia in the developing summer in the observation. It is found that
in its developing summer, the El Ni{\~n}o sea surface temperature
anomaly affects the EASP directly from the eastern-central tropical
Pacific, with little interference from the rest of the global ocean. The
corresponding precipitation anomaly exhibits a tri-pole pattern, with
two positive nodes in northeast and southeast China, sandwiched by a
negative node in northern/central China. The tri-pole precipitation
response is mainly attributed to the El Ni{\~n}o-induced cyclonic
anomaly in Northeast Asia and the anticyclonic anomaly in the western
North Pacific, which are part of the circulation anomalies of a
circumglobal wave teleconnection in the subtropical jet in the Northern
Hemisphere and a low level meridional wave train along East Asia coast.
These circulation anomalies are generated by the summer El Ni{\~n}o
in three pathways: (1) the vertical motion-induced perturbation over the
central-eastern tropical Pacific entering into the subtropical jet
excites a circumglobal wave train propagation eastward along the jet;
(2) the El Ni{\~n}o-induced dipole heating across the equatorial
Maritime Continent is mainly responsible for the meridional wave
propagation along East Asia coast; (3) the El Ni{\~n}o-induced
indirect heating over Northwest India triggers another perturbation in
the jet waveguide, all contributing to the precipitation variation in
East Asia. Further demonstration indicates the atmospheric response to
the El Ni{\~n}o direct heating and perturbation over the tropical
Pacific has the major contribution to the El Ni{\~n}o-induced
circulation anomaly. As to the El Ni{\~n}o indirect heating over
Northwset India, a zonal wave train response in the upper midlatitude
which is mainly confined in the Eurasia sector makes a competing
contribution to the circulation anomaly over East Asia.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-018-4545-0},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2019ClDy...52.6799W},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Stevens}, B. and {Ament}, F. and {Bony}, S. and {Crewell}, S. and 
	{Ewald}, F. and {Gross}, S. and {Hansen}, A. and {Hirsch}, L. and 
	{Jacob}, M. and {K{\"o}lling}, T. and {Konow}, H. and {Mayer}, B. and 
	{Wendisch}, M. and {Wirth}, M. and {Wolf}, K. and {Bakan}, S. and 
	{Bauer-Pfundstein}, M. and {Brueck}, M. and {Delanoë}, J. and 
	{Ehrlich}, A. and {Farrell}, D. and {Forde}, M. and {G{\"o}dde}, F. and 
	{Grob}, H. and {Hagen}, M. and {J{\"a}kel}, E. and {Jansen}, F. and 
	{Klepp}, C. and {Klingebiel}, M. and {Mech}, M. and {Peters}, G. and 
	{Rapp}, M. and {Wing}, A.~A. and {Zinner}, T.},
  title = {{A High-Altitude Long-Range Aircraft Configured as a Cloud Observatory: The NARVAL Expeditions}},
  journal = {Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society},
  year = 2019,
  month = jun,
  volume = 100,
  pages = {1061-1077},
  abstract = {{A configuration of the High-Altitude Long-Range Research Aircraft (HALO)
as a remote sensing cloud observatory is described, and its use is
illustrated with results from the first and second Next-Generation
Aircraft Remote Sensing for Validation (NARVAL) field studies.
Measurements from the second NARVAL (NARVAL2) are used to highlight the
ability of HALO, when configured in this fashion, to characterize not
only the distribution of water condensate in the atmosphere, but also
its impact on radiant energy transfer and the covarying large-scale
meteorological conditions{\mdash}including the large-scale velocity field
and its vertical component. The NARVAL campaigns with HALO demonstrate
the potential of airborne cloud observatories to address long-standing
riddles in studies of the coupling between clouds and circulation and
are helping to motivate a new generation of field studies.
  doi = {10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0198.1},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2019BAMS..100.1061S},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Tang}, T. and {Shindell}, D. and {Faluvegi}, G. and {Myhre}, G. and 
	{Olivié}, D. and {Voulgarakis}, A. and {Kasoar}, M. and 
	{Andrews}, T. and {Boucher}, O. and {Forster}, P.~M. and {Hodnebrog}, {\O}. and 
	{Iversen}, T. and {Kirkev{\^a}g}, A. and {Lamarque}, J.-F. and 
	{Richardson}, T. and {Samset}, B.~H. and {Stjern}, C.~W. and 
	{Takemura}, T. and {Smith}, C.},
  title = {{Comparison of Effective Radiative Forcing Calculations Using Multiple Methods, Drivers, and Models}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres)},
  keywords = {PDRMIP, effective radiative forcing, aerosol, regression},
  year = 2019,
  month = apr,
  volume = 124,
  pages = {4382-4394},
  abstract = {{We compare six methods of estimating effective radiative forcing (ERF)
using a set of atmosphere-ocean general circulation models. This is the
first multiforcing agent, multimodel evaluation of ERF values calculated
using different methods. We demonstrate that previously reported
apparent consistency between the ERF values derived from fixed sea
surface temperature simulations and linear regression holds for most
climate forcings, excluding black carbon (BC). When land adjustment is
accounted for, however, the fixed sea surface temperature ERF values are
generally 10-30\% larger than ERFs derived using linear regression across
all forcing agents, with a much larger ( 70-100\%) discrepancy for BC.
Except for BC, this difference can be largely reduced by either using
radiative kernel techniques or by exponential regression. Responses of
clouds and their effects on shortwave radiation show the strongest
variability in all experiments, limiting the application of
regression-based ERF in small forcing simulations.
  doi = {10.1029/2018JD030188},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2019JGRD..124.4382T},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Wu}, T. and {Lu}, Y. and {Fang}, Y. and {Xin}, X. and {Li}, L. and 
	{Li}, W. and {Jie}, W. and {Zhang}, J. and {Liu}, Y. and {Zhang}, L. and 
	{Zhang}, F. and {Zhang}, Y. and {Wu}, F. and {Li}, J. and {Chu}, M. and 
	{Wang}, Z. and {Shi}, X. and {Liu}, X. and {Wei}, M. and {Huang}, A. and 
	{Zhang}, Y. and {Liu}, X.},
  title = {{The Beijing Climate Center Climate System Model (BCC-CSM): the main progress from CMIP5 to CMIP6}},
  journal = {Geoscientific Model Development},
  year = 2019,
  month = apr,
  volume = 12,
  pages = {1573-1600},
  abstract = {{The main advancements of the Beijing Climate Center (BCC) climate system
model from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5)
to phase 6 (CMIP6) are presented, in terms of physical parameterizations
and model performance. BCC-CSM1.1 and BCC-CSM1.1m are the two models
involved in CMIP5, whereas BCC-CSM2-MR, BCC-CSM2-HR, and BCC-ESM1.0 are
the three models configured for CMIP6. Historical simulations from 1851
to 2014 from BCC-CSM2-MR (CMIP6) and from 1851 to 2005 from BCC-CSM1.1m
(CMIP5) are used for models assessment. The evaluation matrices include
the following: (a) the energy budget at top-of-atmosphere; (b) surface
air temperature, precipitation, and atmospheric circulation for the
global and East Asia regions; (c) the sea surface temperature (SST) in
the tropical Pacific; (d) sea-ice extent and thickness and Atlantic
Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC); and (e) climate variations at
different timescales, such as the global warming trend in the 20th
century, the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), the
Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), and the diurnal cycle of precipitation.
Compared with BCC-CSM1.1m, BCC-CSM2-MR shows significant improvements in
many aspects including the tropospheric air temperature and circulation
at global and regional scales in East Asia and climate variability at
different timescales, such as the QBO, the MJO, the diurnal cycle of
precipitation, interannual variations of SST in the equatorial Pacific,
and the long-term trend of surface air temperature.
  doi = {10.5194/gmd-12-1573-2019},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2019GMD....12.1573W},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Lemonnier}, F. and {Madeleine}, J.-B. and {Claud}, C. and {Genthon}, C. and 
	{Dur{\'a}n-Alarc{\'o}n}, C. and {Palerme}, C. and {Berne}, A. and 
	{Souverijns}, N. and {van Lipzig}, N. and {Gorodetskaya}, I.~V. and 
	{L'Ecuyer}, T. and {Wood}, N.},
  title = {{Evaluation of CloudSat snowfall rate profiles by a comparison with in situ micro-rain radar observations in East Antarctica}},
  journal = {The Cryosphere},
  year = 2019,
  month = mar,
  volume = 13,
  pages = {943-954},
  abstract = {{The Antarctic continent is a vast desert and is the coldest and the most
unknown area on Earth. It contains the Antarctic ice sheet, the largest
continental water reservoir on Earth that could be affected by the
current global warming, leading to sea level rise. The only significant
supply of ice is through precipitation, which can be observed from the
surface and from space. Remote-sensing observations of the coastal
regions and the inner continent using CloudSat radar give an estimated
rate of snowfall but with uncertainties twice as large as each single
measured value, whereas climate models give a range from half to twice
the space-time-averaged observations. The aim of this study is the
evaluation of the vertical precipitation rate profiles of CloudSat radar
by comparison with two surface-based micro-rain radars (MRRs), located
at the coastal French Dumont d'Urville station and at the Belgian
Princess Elisabeth station located in the Dronning Maud Land escarpment
zone. This in turn leads to a better understanding and reassessment of
CloudSat uncertainties. We compared a total of four precipitation
events, two per station, when CloudSat overpassed within 10 km of the
station and we compared these two different datasets at each vertical
level. The correlation between both datasets is near-perfect, even
though climatic and geographic conditions are different for the two
stations. Using different CloudSat and MRR vertical levels, we obtain 10
km space-scale and short-timescale (a few seconds) CloudSat
uncertainties from -13 \% up to +22 \%. This confirms the robustness of
the CloudSat retrievals of snowfall over Antarctica above the blind zone
and justifies further analyses of this dataset.
  doi = {10.5194/tc-13-943-2019},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2019TCry...13..943L},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Colin}, M. and {Sherwood}, S. and {Geoffroy}, O. and {Bony}, S. and 
	{Fuchs}, D.},
  title = {{Identifying the Sources of Convective Memory in Cloud-Resolving Simulations}},
  journal = {Journal of Atmospheric Sciences},
  year = 2019,
  month = mar,
  volume = 76,
  pages = {947-962},
  abstract = {{Convection is often assumed to be controlled by the simultaneous
environmental fields. But to what extent does it also remember its past
behavior? This study proposes a new framework in which the memory of
previous convective-scale behavior, ``microstate memory,'' is
distinguished from macrostate memory, and conducts numerical experiments
to reveal these memory types. A suite of idealized, cloud-resolving
radiative-convective equilibrium simulations in a 200-km square domain
is performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model.
Three deep convective cases are analyzed: unorganized, organized by
low-level wind shear, and self-aggregated. The systematic responses to
sudden horizontal homogenization of various fields, in various
atmospheric layers, designed to eliminate their specific microstructure,
are compared in terms of precipitation change and time of recovery to
equilibrium. Results imply a substantial role for microstate memory.
Across organization types, microstructure in water vapor and temperature
has a larger and longer-lasting effect on convection than in winds or
hydrometeors. Microstructure in the subcloud layer or the shallow cloud
layer has more impact than in the free troposphere. The recovery time
scale dramatically increases from unorganized (2-3 h) to organized cases
(24 h or more). Longer-time-scale adjustments also occur and appear to
involve both small-scale structures and domain-mean fields. These
results indicate that most convective microstate memory is stored in
low-level thermodynamic structures, potentially involving cold pools and
hot thermals. This memory appears strongly enhanced by convective
organization. Implications of these results for parameterizing
convection are discussed.
  doi = {10.1175/JAS-D-18-0036.1},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2019JAtS...76..947C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Bony}, S. and {Stevens}, B.},
  title = {{Measuring Area-Averaged Vertical Motions with Dropsondes}},
  journal = {Journal of Atmospheric Sciences},
  year = 2019,
  month = mar,
  volume = 76,
  pages = {767-783},
  abstract = {{Measurements of vertical profiles of areal-mean mass divergence,
vorticity, and vertical velocity, based on dropsondes distributed over
an area of 25 000 km$^{2}$, are presented. The dropsondes were
released with high frequency along circular flight patterns during an
airborne field campaign taking place over the tropical Atlantic near
Barbados. Vertical profiles of the area-averaged mass divergence and
vorticity were computed from the horizontal wind profiles, and the
area-averaged vertical velocity was then inferred from the divergence.
The consistency of measurements over pairs of circles flown within the
same air mass demonstrated the reproducibility of the measurements, and
showed that they characterize the environmental conditions on the scale
of the measurement, rather than being dominated by measurement error or
small-scale wind variability. The estimates from dropsondes were found
to be consistent with the observed cloud field, with Lagrangian
estimates of the mean vertical velocity inferred from the
free-tropospheric humidity field, and with the mean vertical velocity
derived from simulations using an atmospheric model representing
kilometer-scale motions and initialized with meteorological analyses. In
trade wind-like conditions, the divergence and vorticity profiles
exhibit a rich vertical structure and a significant variability in space
and time. Yet a few features appear to be robust, such as the presence
of layers of mass convergence at the top of moist layers, extrema of the
area-averaged vertical velocity at the top of the subcloud layer and in
the midtroposphere, and minima around the trade inversion near 2 km. The
analysis of spatial and temporal autocorrelation scales suggests that
the divergent mass field measured from dropsondes is representative of
the environment of shallow clouds.
  doi = {10.1175/JAS-D-18-0141.1},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2019JAtS...76..767B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Guo}, L. and {Jiang}, Z. and {Ding}, M. and {Chen}, W. and 
	{Li}, L.},
  title = {{Downscaling and projection of summer rainfall in Eastern China using a nonhomogeneous hidden Markov model}},
  journal = {International Journal of Climatology},
  year = 2019,
  month = mar,
  volume = 39,
  pages = {1319-1330},
  doi = {10.1002/joc.5882},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2019IJCli..39.1319G},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Brient}, F. and {Couvreux}, F. and {Villefranque}, N. and {Rio}, C. and 
	{Honnert}, R.},
  title = {{Object-Oriented Identification of Coherent Structures in Large Eddy Simulations: Importance of Downdrafts in Stratocumulus}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {coherent structures, stratocumulus, large eddy simulation, parameterization, downdraft, updraft},
  year = 2019,
  month = mar,
  volume = 46,
  pages = {2854-2864},
  abstract = {{A novel methodology is proposed to characterize coherent structures in
large eddy simulations. Based on two passive tracers emitted
respectively at the surface and at cloud top, the object-oriented
framework allows individual characterization of coherent tridimensional
plumes within the flow. Applying this method in a simulation of the
diurnal cycle of a marine stratocumulus-topped boundary layer shows that
coherent updraft and downdraft structures contribute to most of the
total transport of heat and moisture, although covering a small part of
the domain volume. On average, downdrafts contribute equally compared to
updrafts for moisture fluxes and more than updrafts for heat fluxes. The
relative contribution of updraft and downdraft objects to heat transport
exhibits a large diurnal cycle, which suggests
cloud-turbulence-radiation interaction. Our results suggest that subgrid
downdraft properties within stratocumulus-topped boundary layers should
be represented through nonlocal mass-flux parameterization in climate
  doi = {10.1029/2018GL081499},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2019GeoRL..46.2854B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Philippon}, N. and {Cornu}, G. and {Monteil}, L. and {Gond}, V. and 
	{Moron}, V. and {Pergaud}, J. and {Sèze}, G. and {Bigot}, S. and 
	{Camberlin}, P. and {Doumenge}, C. and {Fayolle}, A. and {Ngomanda}, A.
  title = {{The light-deficient climates of western Central African evergreen forests}},
  journal = {Environmental Research Letters},
  year = 2019,
  month = mar,
  volume = 14,
  number = 3,
  eid = {034007},
  pages = {034007},
  abstract = {{Rainfall thresholds under which forests grow in Central Africa are lower
than those of Amazonia and southeast Asia. Attention is thus regularly
paid to rainfall whose seasonality and interannual variability has been
shown to control Central African forests{\rsquo} water balance and
photosynthetic activity. Nonetheless, light availability is also
recognized as a key factor to tropical forests. Therefore this study
aims to explore the light conditions prevailing across Central Africa,
and their potential impact on forests{\rsquo} traits. Using satellite
estimates of hourly irradiance, we find first that the four main types
of diurnal cycles of irradiance extracted translate into different
levels of rainfall, evapotranspiration, direct and diffuse light. Then
accounting for scale interactions between the diurnal and annual cycles,
we show that the daily quantity and quality of light considerably vary
across Central African forests during the annual cycle: the uniqueness
of western Central Africa and Gabon in particular, with strongly
light-deficient climates especially during the main dry season, points
out. Lastly, using an original map of terra firme forests, we also show
that most of the evergreen forests are located in western Central Africa
and Gabon. We postulate that despite mean annual precipitation below
2000 mm yr$^{-1}$, the light-deficient climates of western
Central Africa can harbour evergreen forests because of an extensive
low-level cloudiness developing during the June{\ndash}September main dry
season, which strongly reduces the water demand and enhances the quality
of light available for tree photosynthesis. These findings pave the way
for further analyses of the past and future changes in the
light-deficient climates of western Central Africa and the vulnerability
of evergreen forests to these changes.
  doi = {10.1088/1748-9326/aaf5d8},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2019ERL....14c4007P},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Li}, Y. and {Thompson}, D.~W.~J. and {Bony}, S. and {Merlis}, T.~M.
  title = {{Thermodynamic Control on the Poleward Shift of the Extratropical Jet in Climate Change Simulations: The Role of Rising High Clouds and Their Radiative Effects}},
  journal = {Journal of Climate},
  year = 2019,
  month = feb,
  volume = 32,
  pages = {917-934},
  doi = {10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0417.1},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2019JCli...32..917L},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Escribano}, J. and {Bozzo}, A. and {Dubuisson}, P. and {Flemming}, J. and 
	{Hogan}, R.~J. and {-Labonnote}, L.~C. and {Boucher}, O.},
  title = {{A benchmark for testing the accuracy and computational cost of shortwave top-of-atmosphere reflectance calculations in clear-sky aerosol-laden atmospheres}},
  journal = {Geoscientific Model Development},
  year = 2019,
  month = feb,
  volume = 12,
  pages = {805-827},
  abstract = {{Accurate calculations of shortwave reflectances in clear-sky
aerosol-laden atmospheres are necessary for various applications in
atmospheric sciences. However, computational cost becomes increasingly
important for some applications such as data assimilation of
top-of-atmosphere reflectances in models of atmospheric composition.
This study aims to provide a benchmark that can help in assessing these
two requirements in combination. We describe a protocol and input data
for 44 080 cases involving various solar and viewing geometries, four
different surfaces (one oceanic bidirectional reflectance function and
three albedo values for a Lambertian surface), eight aerosol optical
depths, five wavelengths, and four aerosol types. We first consider two
models relying on the discrete ordinate method: VLIDORT (in vector and
scalar configurations) and DISORT (scalar configuration only). We use
VLIDORT in its vector configuration as a reference model and quantify
the loss of accuracy due to (i) neglecting the effect of polarization in
DISORT and VLIDORT (scalar) models and (ii) decreasing the number of
streams in DISORT. We further test two other models: the 6SV2 model,
relying on the successive orders of scattering method, and Forward-Lobe
Two-Stream Radiance Model (FLOTSAM), a new model under development by
two of the authors. Typical mean fractional errors of 2.8 \% and 2.4 \%
for 6SV2 and FLOTSAM are found, respectively. Computational cost depends
on the input parameters but also on the code implementation and
application as some models solve the radiative transfer equations for a
range of geometries while others do not. All necessary input and output
data are provided as a Supplement as a potential resource for interested
developers and users of radiative transfer models.
  doi = {10.5194/gmd-12-805-2019},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2019GMD....12..805E},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{de Moor}, J.~M. and {Stix}, J. and {Avard}, G. and {Muller}, C. and 
	{Corrales}, E. and {Diaz}, J.~A. and {Alan}, A. and {Brenes}, J. and 
	{Pacheco}, J. and {Aiuppa}, A. and {Fischer}, T.~P.},
  title = {{Insights on Hydrothermal-Magmatic Interactions and Eruptive Processes at Po{\'a}s Volcano (Costa Rica) From High-Frequency Gas Monitoring and Drone Measurements}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {phreatic eruptions, gas monitoring, geophysics, phreatomagmatic eruptions, crater lake, eruption triggering},
  year = 2019,
  month = feb,
  volume = 46,
  pages = {1293-1302},
  abstract = {{Identification of unambiguous signals of volcanic unrest is crucial in
hazard assessment. Processes leading to phreatic and phreatomagmatic
eruptions remain poorly understood, inhibiting effective eruption
forecasting. Our 5-year gas record from Po{\'a}s volcano, combined
with geophysical data, reveals systematic behavior associated with
hydrothermal-magmatic eruptions. Three eruptive episodes are covered,
each with distinct geochemical and geophysical characteristics. Periods
with larger eruptions tend to be associated with stronger excursions in
monitoring data, particularly in SO$_{2}$/CO$_{2}$ and
SO$_{2}$ flux. The explosive 2017 phreatomagmatic eruption was the
largest eruption at Po{\'a}s since 1953 and was preceded by dramatic
changes in gas and geophysical parameters. The use of drones played a
crucial role in gas monitoring during this eruptive period. Hydrothermal
sealing and volatile accumulation, followed by top-down reactivation of
a shallow previously emplaced magma body upon seal failure, are proposed
as important processes leading to and contributing to the explosivity of
the 2017 eruption.
  doi = {10.1029/2018GL080301},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2019GeoRL..46.1293D},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Menéndez}, C.~G. and {Giles}, J. and {Ruscica}, R. and 
	{Zaninelli}, P. and {Coronato}, T. and {Falco}, M. and {S{\"o}rensson}, A. and 
	{Fita}, L. and {Carril}, A. and {Li}, L.},
  title = {{Temperature variability and soil-atmosphere interaction in South America simulated by two regional climate models}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  keywords = {Interannual climate variability, Surface air temperature, Regional climate modeling, South America, Land-atmosphere interaction},
  year = 2019,
  month = feb,
  abstract = {{Interannual variability of surface air temperature over South America is
investigated and, based on previous studies, thought to be partly the
consequence of soil-atmosphere interaction. Annual and monthly averages
of surface air temperature, evapotranspiration, heat fluxes, surface
radiation and cloud cover, simulated by two regional climate models,
RCA4 and LMDZ, were analyzed. To fully reveal the role of soil as a
driver of temperature variability, simulations were performed with and
without soil moisture-atmosphere coupling (Control and Uncoupled). Zones
of large variance in air temperature and strong soil moisture-atmosphere
coupling are found in parts of La Plata Basin and in eastern Brazil. The
two models show different behaviors in terms of coupling magnitude and
its geographical distribution, being the coupling strength higher in
RCA4 and weaker in LMDZ. RCA4 also shows greater amplitude of the annual
cycle of the monthly surface air temperature compared to LMDZ. In both
regions and for both models, the Uncoupled experiment tends to be colder
and exhibits smaller amplitude of the interannual variability and larger
evaporative fraction than the Control does. It is evidenced that
variability of the land surface affects, and is affected by, variability
of the surface energy balance and that interannual temperature
variability is partly driven by land-atmosphere interaction.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-019-04668-6},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2019ClDy..tmp..124M},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Santra}, S. and {Verma}, S. and {Fujita}, K. and {Chakraborty}, I. and 
	{Boucher}, O. and {Takemura}, T. and {Burkhart}, J.~F. and {Matt}, F. and 
	{Sharma}, M.},
  title = {{Simulations of black carbon (BC) aerosol impact over Hindu Kush Himalayan sites: validation, sources, and implications on glacier runoff}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2019,
  month = feb,
  volume = 19,
  pages = {2441-2460},
  abstract = {{We estimated the black carbon (BC) concentration over the Hindu Kush
Himalayan region (HKH), its impact on snow albedo reduction, and
sensitivity on annual glacier runoff over the identified glaciers. These
estimates were based on free-running aerosol simulations (freesimu) and
constrained aerosol simulations (constrsimu) from an atmospheric general
circulation model, combined with numerical simulations of a glacial mass
balance model. BC concentration estimated from freesimu performed better
over higher altitude (HA) HKH stations than that over lower altitude
(LA) stations. The estimates from constrsimu mirrored the measurements
well when implemented for LA stations. Estimates of the spatial
distribution of BC concentration in the snowpack (BC$_{c}$) over
the HKH region led to identifying a hot-spot zone located around Manora
Peak. Among glaciers over this zone, BC$_{c}$ ($\gt$60 {\micro}g
kg$^{-1}$) and BC-induced snow albedo reduction ({\ap}5 \%) were
estimated explicitly being high during the pre-monsoon for Pindari,
Poting, Chorabari, and Gangotri glaciers (which are major sources of
fresh water for the Indian subcontinent). The rate of increase of
BC$_{c}$ in recent years (i.e., over the period 1961-2010) was,
however, estimated to be the highest for the Zemu Glacier. Sensitivity
analysis with a glacial mass balance model indicated the increase in
annual runoff from debris-free glacier areas due to BC-induced snow
albedo reduction (SAR) corresponding to the BC$_{c}$ estimated for
the HKH glaciers was 4 \%-18 \%, with the highest being for the Milam and
Pindari glaciers. The rate of increase in annual glacier runoff per unit
BC-induced percentage SAR was specifically high for Milam, Pindari, and
Sankalpa glaciers. The source-specific contribution to atmospheric BC
aerosols by emission sources led to identifying the potential emission
source being primarily from the biofuel combustion in the Indo-Gangetic
Plain south of 30$^{o}$ N, but also from open burning in a
more remote region north of 30$^{o}$ N.
  doi = {10.5194/acp-19-2441-2019},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2019ACP....19.2441S},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Bastin}, S. and {Drobinski}, P. and {Chiriaco}, M. and {Bock}, O. and 
	{Roehrig}, R. and {Gallardo}, C. and {Conte}, D. and {Dom{\'{\i}}nguez Alonso}, M. and 
	{Li}, L. and {Lionello}, P. and {Parracho}, A.~C.},
  title = {{Impact of humidity biases on light precipitation occurrence: observations versus simulations}},
  journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry \& Physics},
  year = 2019,
  month = feb,
  volume = 19,
  pages = {1471-1490},
  abstract = {{This work uses a network of GPS stations over Europe from which a
homogenized integrated water vapor (IWV) dataset has been retrieved,
completed with colocated temperature and precipitation measurements over
specific stations to (i) estimate the biases of six regional climate
models over Europe in terms of humidity; (ii) understand their origins;
and (iii) finally assess the impact of these biases on the frequency of
occurrence of precipitation. The evaluated simulations have been
performed in the framework of HYMEX/Med-CORDEX programs and cover the
Mediterranean area and part of Europe at horizontal resolutions of 50 to
12 km.

The analysis shows that models tend to overestimate the low values of
IWV and the use of the nudging technique reduces the differences between
GPS and simulated IWV. Results suggest that physics of models mostly
explain the mean biases, while dynamics affects the variability. The
land surface-atmosphere exchanges affect the estimation of IWV over most
part of Europe, especially in summer. The limitations of the models to
represent these processes explain part of their biases in IWV. However,
models correctly simulate the dependance between IWV and temperature,
and specifically the deviation that this relationship experiences
regarding the Clausius-Clapeyron law after a critical value of
temperature (T$_{break}$). The high spatial variability of
T$_{break}$ indicates that it has a strong dependence on local
processes which drive the local humidity sources. This explains why the
maximum values of IWV are not necessarily observed over warmer areas,
which are often dry areas.

Finally, it is shown over the SIRTA observatory (near Paris) that the
frequency of occurrence of light precipitation is strongly conditioned
by the biases in IWV and by the precision of the models to reproduce the
distribution of IWV as a function of the temperature. The results of the
models indicate that a similar dependence occurs in other areas of
Europe, especially where precipitation has a predominantly convective
character. According to the observations, for each range of temperature,
there is a critical value of IWV from which precipitation starts to
increase. The critical values and the probability of exceeding them are
simulated with a bias that depends on the model. Those models, which
generally present light precipitation too often, show lower critical
values and higher probability of exceeding them.
  doi = {10.5194/acp-19-1471-2019},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2019ACP....19.1471B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Robert}, L. and {Rivière}, G. and {Codron}, F.},
  title = {{Effect of Upper- and Lower-Level Baroclinicity on the Persistence of the Leading Mode of Midlatitude Jet Variability}},
  journal = {Journal of Atmospheric Sciences},
  year = 2019,
  month = jan,
  volume = 76,
  pages = {155-169},
  doi = {10.1175/JAS-D-18-0010.1},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2019JAtS...76..155R},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Beaumet}, J. and {Krinner}, G. and {Déqué}, M. and 
	{Haarsma}, R. and {Li}, L.},
  title = {{Assessing bias corrections of oceanic surface conditions for atmospheric models}},
  journal = {Geoscientific Model Development},
  year = 2019,
  month = jan,
  volume = 12,
  pages = {321-342},
  abstract = {{Future sea surface temperature and sea-ice concentration from coupled
ocean-atmosphere general circulation models such as those from the CMIP5
experiment are often used as boundary forcings for the downscaling of
future climate experiments. Yet, these models show some considerable
biases when compared to the observations over present climate. In this
paper, existing methods such as an absolute anomaly method and a
quantile-quantile method for sea surface temperature (SST) as well as a
look-up table and a relative anomaly method for sea-ice concentration
(SIC) are presented. For SIC, we also propose a new analogue method.
Each method is objectively evaluated with a perfect model test using
CMIP5 model experiments and some real-case applications using
observations. We find that with respect to other previously existing
methods, the analogue method is a substantial improvement for the bias
correction of future SIC. Consistency between the constructed SST and
SIC fields is an important constraint to consider, as is consistency
between the prescribed sea-ice concentration and thickness; we show that
the latter can be ensured by using a simple parameterisation of sea-ice
thickness as a function of instantaneous and annual minimum SIC.
  doi = {10.5194/gmd-12-321-2019},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2019GMD....12..321B},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Huang}, R. and {Zhu}, H. and {Liang}, E. and {Grie{\ss}inger}, J. and 
	{Wernicke}, J. and {Yu}, W. and {Hochreuther}, P. and {Risi}, C. and 
	{Zeng}, Y. and {Fremme}, A. and {Sodemann}, H. and {Br{\"a}uning}, A.
  title = {{Temperature signals in tree-ring oxygen isotope series from the northern slope of the Himalaya}},
  journal = {Earth and Planetary Science Letters},
  keywords = {tree ring, oxygen isotope, Himalaya, ice core, South Asian Summer Monsoon, westerlies},
  year = 2019,
  month = jan,
  volume = 506,
  pages = {455-465},
  abstract = {{Oxygen isotope ratios ({$\delta$}$^{18}$O) are the most commonly used
parameters recorded in paleoclimate archives since they link different
natural archives via the water cycle. Tree-ring {$\delta$}$^{18}$O
({$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{TR}$) has been widely used for
hydroclimate reconstructions in the Himalaya. However, few of them
record temperature signals, which are dominant in Himalaya ice-core
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O. We hypothesize that the ``precipitation amount
effect'' due to the South Asian Summer Monsoon (SASM) may overprint
temperature signals in {$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{TR}$ series. The
purpose of this study is to investigate whether temperature signals
could be found in the {$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{TR}$ in locations
where the influence of SASM is weak. We developed a 105-yr
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{TR}$ chronology from the northern slope of
the western Himalaya which greatly blocks the SASM. Our
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{TR}$ clearly shows stronger correlations
with temperature (dominant winter and weak summer) than summer
precipitation signals. It also agrees well with summer soil moisture
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O simulated by the global isotope model LMDZ4 (r =
0.72, 1979-2010). In LMDZ4, low winter temperature was found to increase
winter snowfall and subsequent snow melt, and thus to increase the
contribution of winter snowfall to soil moisture in summer at the
expense of summer precipitation. Since winter snowfall is more depleted
than summer precipitation, this leads to lower summer soil moisture
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O. The temperature signals found in our
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{TR}$ series are consistent with those
found in the Dasuopu ice-core {$\delta$}$^{18}$O. This implies that
{$\delta$}$^{18}$O$_{TR}$ series from the southwest Tibetan
Plateau (TP), with a weak monsoon, hold great potential to capture
temperature signals. Climate interpretations of {$\delta$}$^{18}$O
proxies in the Himalaya largely depend on the influence of seasonal
water from the dominant atmosphere circulation systems of the westerlies
or monsoon. The {$\delta$}$^{18}$O proxies from the monsoon-affected
region have a higher potential for the reconstruction of boreal summer
hydroclimate, whereas {$\delta$}$^{18}$O proxies from
westerly-affected sites have a higher potential for temperature
  doi = {10.1016/j.epsl.2018.11.002},
  adsurl = {https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2019E%26PSL.506..455H},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}