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  author = {{Friedlingstein}, P. and {Bopp}, L. and {Ciais}, P. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and 
	{Fairhead}, L. and {LeTreut}, H. and {Monfray}, P. and {Orr}, J.
  title = {{Positive feedback between future climate change and the carbon cycle}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Biosphere/atmosphere interactions, Global Change, Oceanography: Biological and Chemical: Carbon cycling},
  year = 2001,
  volume = 28,
  pages = {1543-1546},
  abstract = {{Future climate change due to increased atmospheric CO$_{2}$ may
affect land and ocean efficiency to absorb atmospheric CO$_{2}$.
Here, using climate and carbon three-dimensional models forced by a 1\%
per year increase in atmospheric CO$_{2}$, we show that there is a
positive feedback between the climate system and the carbon cycle.
Climate change reduces land and ocean uptake of CO$_{2}$,
respectively by 54\% and 35\% at 4 {\times} CO$_{2}$. This negative
impact implies that for prescribed anthropogenic CO$_{2}$
emissions, the atmospheric CO$_{2}$ would be higher than the level
reached if climate change does not affect the carbon cycle. We estimate
the gain of this climate-carbon cycle feedback to be 10\% at 2 {\times}
CO$_{2}$ and 20\% at 4 {\times} CO$_{2}$. This translates into
a 15\% higher mean temperature increase.
  doi = {10.1029/2000GL012015},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001GeoRL..28.1543F},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Latif}, M. and {Sperber}, K. and {Arblaster}, J. and {Braconnot}, P. and 
	{Chen}, D. and {Colman}, A. and {Cubasch}, U. and {Cooper}, C. and 
	{Delecluse}, P. and {Dewitt}, D. and {Fairhead}, L. and {Flato}, G. and 
	{Hogan}, T. and {Ji}, M. and {Kimoto}, M. and {Kitoh}, A. and 
	{Knutson}, T. and {Le Treut}, H. and {Li}, T. and {Manabe}, S. and 
	{Marti}, O. and {Mechoso}, C. and {Meehl}, G. and {Power}, S. and 
	{Roeckner}, E. and {Sirven}, J. and {Terray}, L. and {Vintzileos}, A. and 
	{Vo{\ss}}, R. and {Wang}, B. and {Washington}, W. and {Yoshikawa}, I. and 
	{Yu}, J. and {Zebiak}, S.},
  title = {{ENSIP: the El Ni{\~n}o simulation intercomparison project}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 2001,
  volume = 18,
  pages = {255-276},
  abstract = {{An ensemble of twenty four coupled ocean-atmosphere models has been
compared with respect to their performance in the tropical Pacific. The
coupled models span a large portion of the parameter space and differ in
many respects. The intercomparison includes TOGA (Tropical Ocean Global
Atmosphere)-type models consisting of high-resolution tropical ocean
models and coarse-resolution global atmosphere models, coarse-resolution
global coupled models, and a few global coupled models with high
resolution in the equatorial region in their ocean components. The
performance of the annual mean state, the seasonal cycle and the
interannual variability are investigated. The primary quantity analysed
is sea surface temperature (SST). Additionally, the evolution of
interannual heat content variations in the tropical Pacific and the
relationship between the interannual SST variations in the equatorial
Pacific to fluctuations in the strength of the Indian summer monsoon are
investigated. The results can be summarised as follows: almost all
models (even those employing flux corrections) still have problems in
simulating the SST climatology, although some improvements are found
relative to earlier intercomparison studies. Only a few of the coupled
models simulate the El Ni{\~n}o/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in terms
of gross equatorial SST anomalies realistically. In particular, many
models overestimate the variability in the western equatorial Pacific
and underestimate the SST variability in the east. The evolution of
interannual heat content variations is similar to that observed in
almost all models. Finally, the majority of the models show a strong
connection between ENSO and the strength of the Indian summer monsoon.
  doi = {10.1007/s003820100174},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001ClDy...18..255L},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}