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  author = {{Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Fairhead}, L. and {Le Treut}, H. and 
	{Berthelot}, M. and {Bopp}, L. and {Ciais}, P. and {Friedlingstein}, P. and 
	{Monfray}, P.},
  title = {{On the magnitude of positive feedback between future climate change and the carbon cycle}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Global Change: Biogeochemical processes (4805), Global Change: Climate dynamics (3309), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Biosphere/atmosphere interactions, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Evolution of the atmosphere,},
  year = 2002,
  month = may,
  volume = 29,
  eid = {1405},
  pages = {43-1},
  abstract = {{We use an ocean-atmosphere general circulation model coupled to land and
ocean carbon models to simulate the evolution of climate and atmospheric
CO$_{2}$ from 1860 to 2100. Our model reproduces the observed
global mean temperature changes and the growth rate of atmospheric
CO$_{2}$ for the period 1860-2000. For the future, we simulate
that the climate change due to CO$_{2}$ increase will reduce the
land carbon uptake, leaving a larger fraction of anthropogenic
CO$_{2}$ in the atmosphere. By 2100, we estimate that atmospheric
CO$_{2}$ will be 18\% higher due to the climate change impact on
the carbon cycle. Such a positive feedback has also been found by Cox et
al. [2000]. However, the amplitude of our feedback is three times
smaller than the one they simulated. We show that the partitioning
between carbon stored in the living biomass or in the soil, and their
respective sensitivity to increased CO$_{2}$ and climate change
largely explain this discrepancy.
  doi = {10.1029/2001GL013777},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002GeoRL..29.1405D},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Davey}, M.~K. and {Huddleston}, M. and {Sperber}, K.~R. and 
	{Braconnot}, P. and {Bryan}, F. and {Chen}, D. and {Colman}, R.~A. and 
	{Cooper}, C. and {Cubasch}, U. and {Delecluse}, P. and {DeWitt}, D. and 
	{Fairhead}, L. and {Flato}, G. and {Gordon}, C. and {Hogan}, T. and 
	{Ji}, M. and {Kimoto}, M. and {Kitoh}, A. and {Knutson}, T.~R. and 
	{Latif}, M. and {Le Treut}, H. and {Li}, T. and {Manabe}, S. and 
	{Mechoso}, C.~R. and {Meehl}, G.~A. and {Power}, S.~B. and {Roeckner}, E. and 
	{Terray}, L. and {Vintzileos}, A. and {Voss}, R. and {Wang}, B. and 
	{Washington}, W.~M. and {Yoshikawa}, I. and {Yu}, J.-Y. and 
	{Yukimoto}, S. and {Zebiak}, S.~E.},
  title = {{STOIC: a study of coupled model climatology and variability in tropical ocean regions}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 2002,
  volume = 18,
  pages = {403-420},
  abstract = {{We describe the behaviour of 23 dynamical ocean-atmosphere models, in
the context of comparison with observations in a common framework.
Fields of tropical sea surface temperature (SST), surface wind stress
and upper ocean vertically averaged temperature (VAT) are assessed with
regard to annual mean, seasonal cycle, and interannual variability
characteristics. Of the participating models, 21 are coupled GCMs, of
which 13 use no form of flux adjustment in the tropics. The models vary
widely in design, components and purpose: nevertheless several common
features are apparent. In most models without flux adjustment, the
annual mean equatorial SST in the central Pacific is too cool and the
Atlantic zonal SST gradient has the wrong sign. Annual mean wind stress
is often too weak in the central Pacific and in the Atlantic, but too
strong in the west Pacific. Few models have an upper ocean VAT seasonal
cycle like that observed in the equatorial Pacific. Interannual
variability is commonly too weak in the models: in particular, wind
stress variability is low in the equatorial Pacific. Most models have
difficulty in reproducing the observed Pacific 'horseshoe' pattern of
negative SST correlations with interannual Ni{\~n}o3 SST anomalies,
or the observed Indian-Pacific lag correlations. The results for the
fields examined indicate that several substantial model improvements are
needed, particularly with regard to surface wind stress.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-001-0188-6},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ClDy...18..403D},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}