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@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c 'not journal:"Polymer Science"' -c '  author:"Fairhead"  ' -c year=2005 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc lmd_Fairhead2005.txt -ob lmd_Fairhead2005.bib /home/WWW/LMD/public/Publis_LMDEMC3.link.bib}}
  author = {{Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Quaas}, J. and {Boucher}, O. and {Denvil}, S. and 
	{Fairhead}, L.},
  title = {{Contrasts in the effects on climate of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols between the 20th and the 21st century}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325), Global Change: Climate variability (1635, 3305, 3309, 4215, 4513), Global Change: Global climate models (3337, 4928), Atmospheric Processes: Clouds and aerosols, Atmospheric Processes: Radiative processes},
  year = 2005,
  month = nov,
  volume = 32,
  eid = {L21703},
  pages = {L21703},
  abstract = {{In this study, we examine the time evolution of the relative
contribution of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases to anthropogenic
climate change. We use the new IPSL-CM4 coupled climate model for which
the first indirect effect of sulfate aerosols has been calibrated using
POLDER satellite data. For the recent historical period the sulfate
aerosols play a key role on the temperature increase with a cooling
effect of 0.5 K, to be compared to the 1.4 K warming due to greenhouse
gas increase. In contrast, the projected temperature change for the 21st
century is remarkably independent of the effects of anthropogenic
sulfate aerosols for the SRES-A2 scenario. Those results are interpreted
comparing the different radiative forcings, and can be extended to other
scenarios. We also highlight that the first indirect effect of aerosol
strongly depends on the land surface model by changing the cloud cover.
  doi = {10.1029/2005GL023619},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeoRL..3221703D},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Lott}, F. and {Fairhead}, L. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Levan}, P.
  title = {{The stratospheric version of LMDz: dynamical climatologies, arctic oscillation, and impact on the surface climate}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 2005,
  month = dec,
  volume = 25,
  pages = {851-868},
  abstract = {{A climatology of the stratosphere is determined from a 20-year
integration with the stratospheric version of the Atmospheric General
Circulation Model LMDz. The model has an upper boundary at near 65 km,
uses a Doppler spread non-orographic gravity waves drag parameterization
and a subgrid-scale orography parameterization. It also has a Rayleigh
damping layer for resolved waves only (not the zonal mean flow) over the
top 5 km. This paper describes the basic features of the model and some
aspects of its radiative-dynamical climatology. Standard first order
diagnostics are presented but some emphasis is given to the
model{\rsquo}s ability to reproduce the low frequency variability of the
stratosphere in the winter northern hemisphere. In this model, the
stratospheric variability is dominated at each altitudes by patterns
which have some similarities with the arctic oscillation (AO). For those
patterns, the signal sometimes descends from the stratosphere to the
troposphere. In an experiment where the parameterized orographic gravity
waves that reach the stratosphere are exaggerated, the model
stratosphere in the NH presents much less variability. Although the
stratospheric variability is still dominated by patterns that resemble
to the AO, the downward influence of the stratosphere along these
patterns is near entirely lost. In the same time, the persistence of the
surface AO decreases, which is consistent with the picture that this
persistence is linked to the descent of the AO signal from the
stratosphere to the troposphere. A comparison between the stratospheric
version of the model, and its routinely used tropospheric version is
also done. It shows that the introduction of the stratosphere in a model
that already has a realistic AO persistence can lead to overestimate the
actual influence of the stratospheric dynamics onto the surface AO.
Although this result is certainly model dependent, it suggests that the
introduction of the stratosphere in a GCM also call for a new adjustment
of the model parameters that affect the tropospheric variability.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-005-0064-x},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ClDy...25..851L},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}