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  author = {{Hourdin}, F. and {Musat}, I. and {Bony}, S. and {Braconnot}, P. and 
	{Codron}, F. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Fairhead}, L. and {Filiberti}, M.-A. and 
	{Friedlingstein}, P. and {Grandpeix}, J.-Y. and {Krinner}, G. and 
	{Levan}, P. and {Li}, Z.-X. and {Lott}, F.},
  title = {{The LMDZ4 general circulation model: climate performance and sensitivity to parametrized physics with emphasis on tropical convection}},
  journal = {Climate Dynamics},
  year = 2006,
  month = dec,
  volume = 27,
  pages = {787-813},
  abstract = {{The LMDZ4 general circulation model is the atmospheric component of the
IPSL CM4 coupled model which has been used to perform climate change
simulations for the 4th IPCC assessment report. The main aspects of the
model climatology (forced by observed sea surface temperature) are
documented here, as well as the major improvements with respect to the
previous versions, which mainly come form the parametrization of
tropical convection. A methodology is proposed to help analyse the
sensitivity of the tropical Hadley Walker circulation to the
parametrization of cumulus convection and clouds. The tropical
circulation is characterized using scalar potentials associated with the
horizontal wind and horizontal transport of geopotential (the Laplacian
of which is proportional to the total vertical momentum in the
atmospheric column). The effect of parametrized physics is analysed in a
regime sorted framework using the vertical velocity at 500 hPa as a
proxy for large scale vertical motion. Compared to Tiedtke{\rsquo}s
convection scheme, used in previous versions, the Emanuel{\rsquo}s scheme
improves the representation of the Hadley Walker circulation, with a
relatively stronger and deeper large scale vertical ascent over tropical
continents, and suppresses the marked patterns of concentrated rainfall
over oceans. Thanks to the regime sorted analyses, these differences are
attributed to intrinsic differences in the vertical distribution of
convective heating, and to the lack of self-inhibition by precipitating
downdraughts in Tiedtke{\rsquo}s parametrization. Both the convection and
cloud schemes are shown to control the relative importance of large
scale convection over land and ocean, an important point for the
behaviour of the coupled model.
  doi = {10.1007/s00382-006-0158-0},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ClDy...27..787H},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}